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Valley of the Shadow

Valley Spirit: November 5, 1862

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The Invasion of Pennsylvania--The Rebel Official Reports of the Raid of Stuart's Cavalry
(Column 3)
Summary: A reprint of correspondence between Robert E. Lee and J.E.B. Stuart from mid-October, 1862 concerning Stuart's cavalry raids into Pennsylvania, including the action in Greencastle, Mercersburg and Chambersburg.
Full Text of Article:

The Rebel Official Reports of the Raid of Stuart's Cavalry, &c., &c., &c.

Gen. Lee to the Rebel War Department.

Headquarters, Department of Noth'n. Va.
October 18th, 1862

Gen. S. Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector General:--

General--In forwarding the report of Major General Stuart of his expedition into Pennsylvania. I take occasion to express to the department my sense of the boldness, judgment and prudence he displayed in its execution, and cordially join with him in his commendations of the conduct and endurance of the brave men he commanded. To his skill and their fortitude, under the guidance of an overruling Providence, is their success due. I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant.

R. E. LEE, General.

Gen. Lee's Instructions.


Maj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, Commanding Cavalry:

General--An expedition into Maryland with a detachment of cavalry, if it can be successfully executed, is at this time desirable. You will, therefore, for a detachment of from twelve to fifteen hundred well mounted men, suitable for such an expedition, and should the information from your scouts lead you to suppose that your movement can be concealed from bodies of the enemy that would be able to resist it, you are desired to cross the Potomac above Williamsport, leave Hagerstown and Greencastle on your right, and proceed to the rear of Chambersburg, and endeavor to destroy the railroad bridge over the branch of the Conococheagne.

Any other damage that you can inflict upon the enemy or his means of transportation you will also execute. You are desired to gain all information of the position, force and probable intent of the enemy which you can, and in your progress into Pennsylvania you will take measures to inform yourself of the various routes that you may take on your return to Virginia.

To keep your movement secret it will be necessary for you to arrest all citizens that may give information to the enemy; and should you meet with citizens of Pennsylvania holding State or government offices, it will be desirable, if convenient, to bring them with you, that they may be used as hostages, or the means of exchange for our own citizens that have been carried off by the enemy. Such persons will, of course, be treated with all the respect and consideration that circumstances will admit.

Should it be in your power to supply yourself with horses, or other necessary articles on the list of legal capture, you are authorised to do so.

Having accomplished your errand you will rejoin this army as soon as practicable. Reliance is placed upon your skill and judgment in the successful execution of this plan, and it is not intended or desired that you should jeopardize the safety of your command, or go farther than your good judgment and prudence may dictate.

Colonel Imboden has been desired to attract the attention of the enemy towards Cumberland, so that the river between that point and where you may recross may be less guarded. You will, of course, keep out your scouts to give you information, and take every other precaution to secure the success and safety of the expedition.

Should you be led so far east as to make it better in your opinion, to continue around to the Potomac, you will have to cross the river in the vicinity of Leesburg.

I am, with great respect, your ob't serv't.

R. E. Lee, General.
Official: R. H. Chilton, A. A. General.

Stuart's Appeal to His Soldiers.

Headquarters. Cavalry Division,
October 9th, 1862.

Soldiers--You are about to engage in an enterprise which, to insure success, imperatively [sic] demands at your hands coolness, decision and bravery--implicit obedience to orders, without question or cavil, and the strictest order and sobriety on the march and in bivouac.

The destination and extent of this expedition had better be kept to myself than known to you. Suffice it to say that, with the hearty co-operation of officers and men, I have not a doubt of its success which will reflect credit in the highest degree upon your arms.

The orders which are hereby published for your government are absolutely necessary and must be rigidly enforced.

J. E. B. Stuart,
Major-General Commanding.

Stuart's Report of the Affair.

Order--No. 13.

Headquarters, Cavalry Division,
October 9th, 1862.

During the expedition into the enemy's country, on which this command about to engage brigade commanders will make arrangements for seizing horses, the property of citizens of the United States, and all other property subject to legal capture, provided that in no case will any species of property be taken except by authority given in person or in writing of the commander of brigade, regiment, or captain of a company, in the absence of his superior officers. In all cases a simple receipt will be given, to the effect that the article is seized for the use of the Confederate States, giving place, date and name of owners, in order to enable the individual to have recourse upon his government for damage.

Individual plunder for private use is positively forbidden, and every instance must be punished in the severest manner, for an army of plunderers consummates its own destruction. The capture of anything will not give the captor any individual claim, and all horses and equipments will be kept to be apportioned upon the return of the expedition through the entire division. Brigade commanders will arrange to to [sic] have one-third of their respective commands engaged in leading horses, provided enough can be procured, each man linking so as to led three horses: the led horses being habitually in the centre of the brigade, and the remaining two-thirds will keep, at all times, prepared for action.

The attack, when made, must be vigorous and overwhelming, giving the enemy no time to reconnoiter or consider anything, except his best means of flight. All persons found in transit must be detained, subject to the orders of the Division Provost Marshal, to prevent information reaching the enemy. As a measure of justice to our many good citizens who, without crime, have been taken from their homes and kept by the enemy in prison, all public functionaries--such as magistrates, postmasters sheriffs, &c.--will be seized as prisoners. They will be kindly treated and kept as hostages for our own. No straggling from the route of march or bivouac for the purpose of obtaining provisions, &c., will be permitted in any case, the commissaries and quartermasters being required to obtain and furnish all such supplies in bulk as may be necessary.

So much of this order as authorizes the seizures of persons and property will not take effect until the command crosses the Pennsylvania line.

The utmost activity is enjoined upon the detachments procuring horses, and unceasing vigilance upon the entire command.

Major J. P. W. Hairston is hereby appointed Division Provost Marshal. By command of

Major General J. E. B. Stuart
R. C. Price, First Lieutenant and A. D. C.

Headquarters Cavalry Division,
October 14th, 1862.
Col. R. H. Chilton, A. A. Gen. Army North'n Va:

Colonel--I have the honor to report that on the 9th inst., in compliance with instructions from the Commanding General Army Northern Virginia, I proceeded on an expedition into Pennsylvania with a cavalry force of 1,800 and four pieces of horse artillery, under command of Brigadier General Hampton and Colonels W. H. F. Lee and Jones. This force rendezvoused at Darksville at twelve M. and marched thence to the vicinity of Hedgesville, where it encamped for the night. At daylight next morning (October 10) I crossed the Potomac at McCoy's, between Williamsport and Hancock, with some little opposition, capturing two or three horses of the enemy's pickets. We were told here by the citizens that a large force had camped the night before at Clear Spring, and were supposed to be en route to Cumberland. We proceeded northward until we reached the turnpike leading from Hagerstown to Hancock, known as the National road. Here was a signal station on the mountain, and most of the party, with their flags and apparatus, were supprised [sic] and captured, and also eight or ten prisoners of war from whom, as well as from the citizens, I found that a large force alluded to had crossed but an hour ahead of me, towards Cumberland and consisted of six regiments of Ohio troops and two batteries, under Gen. Cox, and were en route, via Cumberland, for the Kanawha. I sent back this intelligence at once to the Commanding General. Striking directly across the Nation road, I proceeded in the direction of Mercersburg, Pa., which point was reached about noon. I was extremely anxious to reach Hagerstown, where large supplies were stored, but was satisfied, from reliable information, that the notice the enemy had of my approach, and the proximity of his forces, would enable him to prevent my capturing it. I therefore turned towards Chambersburg. I did not reach this point till after dark, in a rain. I did not deem it safe to defer the attack till morning, nor was it proper to attack a place full of women and children without summoning it first to surrender. I accordingly sent in a flag of truce, and found no military or civil authority in the place; but some prominent citizens who met the officer were notified that the place would be occupied, and if any resistance were made the place would be shelled in three minutes. Brigadier Wade Hampton's command being in the advance, took possession of the place, and I appointed him Military Governor of the city. No incidents occurred during the night, during which it rained continuously.--The officials all fled the town on our approach, and no one could be found who would admit that he held office in the place. About 275 sick and wounded in the hospitals were paroled. During the day a large number of horses of citizens were seized and brought along. The wires were cut, and railroads obstructed. Next morning it was ascertained that a large number of small arms and munitions of war were stored about the railroad buildings, of which that could not be easily brought away were destroyed, consisting of about five thousand new muskets, pistols, sabres, amunition [sic]; also, a large assortment of army clothing. The extensive machine shops and depot buildings of the railroad, and several trains of loaded cars, were entirely destroyed. From Chambersburg I decided, after mature consideration, to strike for the vicinity of Leesburg, as the best route of return, particularly as Cox's command would have rendered the direction of Cumberland, full of mountain gorges, particularly hazardous. The route selected was through an open country. Of course I left nothing undone to prevent the inhabitants from detecting my real route and object. I started directly towards Gettysburg, but having passed the Blue Ridge, turned back towards Hagerstown for six or eight miles, and then crossed to Maryland by Emmettsburg, where, as we passed, we were hailed by the inhabitants with the most enthusiastic demonstrations of joy. A scouting party of 150 lancers had just passed towards Gettysburg, and I regret exceeding that my march did not admit of the delay necessary to catch them. Taking the road towards Frederick, we intercepted dispatches from Colonel Rush (lancers) to the commander of the scout which satisfied me that our whereabouts was still a problem to the enemy.

Before reaching Frederick, I crossed the Monocacy, continued the march through the night, via Liberty, New Market, Monrovia on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, where we cut the telegraph wires and obstructed the railroad. We reached, at daylight Hayattstown on McClellan's line of wagon communication with Washington, but we found only a few wagons to capture, and pushed on to Barnesville, which we found just vacated by a company of the enemy's cavalry. We had here corroborated what we had heard before, that Stoneman had between 4,000 and 5,000 troops about Poolesville and guarding the river fords. I started directly for Poolesville, but instead of marching through the woods, leaving it two or three miles to my left, and getting into the road from Poolesville to the month of the Monocacy. Guarding well my flanks and rear, I pushed boldly forward, meeting the head of the enemy's column going towards Poolesville. I ordered the charge, which was responded to in handsome style by the advance squadron (Irving's) of Lee's brigade, which drove back the enemy's cavalry upon the column of infantry advancing to occupy the crest from which the cavalry were driven. Quick as thought Lee's sharpshooters sprang to the ground, and, engaging the infantry skirmishers, held them in check till the artillery advance came up, which, under the gallant Pelham, drove back the enemy's cavalry upon the column of infantry advancing to occupy the crest from which the cavalry were driven. Quick as thought Lee's sharpshooters sprang to the ground, and, engaging the infantry skirmishers, held them in check till the artillery advance came up, which, under the gallant Pelham, drove back the enemy's force to his batteries beyond the Monocacy, between which and our solitary gun quite a spirited fire continued for some time. This answered, in connection with the high crest occupied by our piece, to screen entirely my real movement quickly to the left making a bold and rapid stride for White's Ford, to make my way across before the enemy at Poolesville and Monocacy could be aware of my design. Although delayed somewhat by about two hundred infantry, strongly posted in the cliffs over the ford, yet they yielded to the moral effect of a few shells before engaging our sharp shooters, and the crossing of the canal (now dry) and river was affected with all the precision of passing a defile on drill. A section of artillery being sent with the advance and placed in position on the Loudon side, another piece on the Maryland height, while Pelham continued to occupy the attention of the enemy with the other, withdrawing from position to position until he was ordered to cross. The enemy was marching from Poolesville in the meantime, but came up in line of battle on the Maryland height, while Pelman continued to occupy the attention of the enemy with the other, withdrawing from position to position until he was ordered to cross. The enemy was marching from Poolesville in the meantime, but came up in line of battle on the Maryland bank only to receive a thundering salutation with evident effect, from our guns on this side. I lost not a man killed on the expedition, and only a few slight wounds. The enemy's loss is not know; but Pelham's one gun compelled the enemy's battery to change its position three times. The remainder of the march was destitute of interest. The conduct of the command and their behavior towards the inhabitants is worthy the highest praise; a few individual cases only were exceptions in this particular.

Brigadier General Hampton and Colonels Lee, Jones, Wickham and Butler, and the officers under their command, are entitled to my lasting gratitude for their coolness in danger and cheerful obedience to orders. Unoffending persons were treated with civility, and the inhabitants were generous in profers [sic] of provision on the march. We seized and brought over a large number of horses, the property of citizens of the United States.

The valuable information obtained in this reconnoissance [sic] as to the distribution of the enemy's force was communicated orally to the Commanding General, and need not be here repeated. A number of public functionaries and prominent citizens whom the enemy has torn from their homes and confined in dungeons in the North. One or two of my men lost their way and are probably in the hands of the enemy.

The results of this expedition, in a moral and political point of view, can hardly be estimated, and consternation among property holders in Pennsylvania beggars description.

I enclose a map of the expedition, drawn by Capt. W. W. Blackford, to accompany this report. Also, a copy of orders enforced during the march.

Believing that the hand of God was clearly manifested in the signal deliverance of my command from danger, and the crowning successes attending it, I ascribe to Him the praise, the honor and the glory.

I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant.

J. E. B. Stuart,
Major-General Commanding Cavalry.

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Description of Page: Poetry and fiction

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Description of Page: Fiction and classified advertising

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Description of Page: The page also includes miscellaneous war and national news.

The Restoration of the Union
(Column 1)
Summary: Celebrates the recent Democratic electoral triumphs in the border states and argues that it sends a welcome sign to Southern Unionists. They must now, say the editors, rise up and dispose of Jefferson Davis, while the North breaks the Confederacy's military power. Abolitionism has made the chances of reunion less likely, and President Lincoln should heed the warning and see that if he does not change his policies, the "days of our country as a united nation are numbered."
Full Text of Article:

The result of the recent elections in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana is a happy omen in favor of the restoration of the Union and the future happiness, prosperity and greatness of a common country. Its effect upon the Union cause in the South will be immense. Thousands of Union men in the Southern States who still love the old Government and the old flag, but who have been commanded into silence by the despotism of Jeff. Davis & Co., will hail with unmingled joy the news of these victories in the North, of conservatism and Constitutional principles over fanaticism and error. It will convince them that the people of the free States are not all Abolitionists and that there is yet hope of a re-construction of the Union upon the broad principles of the Constitution, where the rights and privileges of all the citizens of all the States shall be respected and protected as guaranteed and defined in that instrument. It will encourage them to cling to the faith which they have so long in silence cherished in their hearts, and which, through the madness and folly of those in power at Washington, many have forsaken and gone over to the enemy. It will stimulate them to active exertions in behalf of the Union when the hour of their redemption arrives and enable them, in course of time, to rally a powerful Union party in their respective States, turn the minions of Jeff. Davis out of power and bring the States back into the Union through the voluntary action of their own people.--This is the only feasible plan of restoring the Union and the only way in which it can be restored. Break the military power of the "Confederacy" by the strong arm of the Federal Government--the army and navy--punish the leaders, pursue a wise, moderate and conciliatory policy towards the people of the seceded States, guarantee them protection in their Constitutional rights, convince them by such a course that they have been deceived and imposed upon by the leaders who precipitated this rebellion upon the country, and you can restore this Union, and you can do it no other way.

Let the administration of Mr. Lincoln and others in authority, listen to the voice of the people, as well as the voice of reason and of common sense. Let them abandon the radical and unconstitutional measures which they have urged upon the country during the past year; let them change their line of policy in accordance with the course we have indicated, and be guided strictly by the letter and spirit of the Constitution, independent of sectional prejudices and partisan considerations, and our eyes may yet behold but one Constitution, one country and one destiny."

All the confiscation and emancipation schemes that have been urged with so much pertinacity by the Abolitionists, are sheer madness. Apart from their unconstitutionality they are inexpedient, and instead of tending to restore the Union, their tendency has been and must continue to be still further to widen must continue to be still further to widen the breach between the two hostile sections of the country and render their reunion an utter impossibility. This policy has produced evils enough already and caused the country to drink of its bitter fruits to very dregs. It has turned thousands against us in the South who would otherwise have been with us. It has verified the predictions of the Secessionists that the Republican party intended a war upon the Constitutional rights of the Southern people. It has made good the chief argument of the rebel leaders by which they were enabled to carry the people with them. Instead of endeavoring to convince the people of the South that they were deceived and imposed upon by their leaders, and thereby weaken their cause, our rulers at Washington pursued just the opposite course and did everything that was calculated to consolidate, strengthen and give permanency to the rebellion.

Such has been the policy of the party in power. It is high time that it were changed to a more wise, rational and feasible policy. If this be done and done quickly, we may yet hope to see our beloved country emerge from her present calamaties [sic] to a future of peace, prosperity, greatness and glory. If it be not done then we fear that the days of our country as a united nation are numbered, and we can see nothing in the future but anarchy and strife ending in the total subversion of our republican institutions and the establishment of a military despotism, more despotic and arbitrary than the most tyrannical Government of Europe. Will President Lincoln take warning and save the country while it may yet be saved? We sincerely hope so.

A Malignant Attack
(Column 2)
Summary: This editorial reprints a portion of an article from the Dispatch, which attacks an unnamed Franklin County politician who had switched from the Democratic to the Republican party. Once in office, though, says the Dispatch, he turned around and began associating with Democrats again. The editors of the Spirit and Times condemn the Dispatch's attack on a "gentleman, a loyal citizen, and a true patriot."
Editorial Comment: "The semi-weakly Dispatch, the Editor and manager of which is either a knave or a fool (in charity to him we think the latter,) publishes the following malignant and wanton attack on a highly respectable and aged citizen of this place:"
What the Democrats Will Do
(Column 3)
Summary: Argues that, when the Democrats take power in Congress, which it appears that they will, they will not attempt to silence the Republicans in the manner in which the Republicans have attacked Democratic editors and politicians. Rather, Democrats will let the abolitionists talk and give them enough rope to hang themselves.
Origin of Article: Louisville Democrat
Editorial Comment: "They fancied they had a life-estate in the Government and could use it for any purpose, change its fundamental principles and make it bend to their fanatical and one-idea notions, or subvert it entirely and establish a military despotism on its ruins."
The Defeat of General McCall
(Column 4)
Summary: The vote against General McCall, who had in the editor's eyes performed gallantly at the Seven Days' battle in Richmond, in the Congressional race shows that Republicans are willing to punish anybody, no matter how qualified, simply because they are a Democrat.
[No Title]
(Column 3)
Summary: Argues that Jefferson Davis and other Confederate leaders must be quaking in fear, as the recent elections in the North reveal their lie to the Southern people--all the people in the North, as it the elections show, are not abolitionists. Now Davis has nothing left with which to justify his rebellion, the editors conclude.
Origin of Article: Louisville Democrat

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Sworn In
(Column 1)
Summary: W. S. Stenger, Esq. was sworn in as district attorney last Monday. His office is on Market Street, a few doors west of the Franklin Hotel.
(Names in announcement: W. S. StengerEsq.)
The 126th Regiment
(Column 1)
Summary: The 126th Regiment Penn. Volunteers left their camp near Sharpsburg last Thursday and are now camped four miles below Harper's Ferry, on the Maryland side of the Potomac.
(Column 1)
Summary: The editors note that they are pleased to hear of the recovery of the editor of the Repository and Transcript from a "long and severe illness."
(Names in announcement: Mr. Strickler)
Conococheague Restaurant
(Column 1)
Summary: The editors note that E. Finefrock, the proprietor of the Conochcheague Restaurant, dropped off some fresh oysters at the office of the Valley Spirit and Times for the editors' enjoyment.
(Names in announcement: E. Finefrock)
To Whom It May Concern
(Column 1)
Summary: The editors issue a veiled threat to the "incumbent of a certain Post Office, not more than seven miles from this place," that if subscribers to the Valley Spirit and Times complain about not getting papers, the editors will begin inquiring into the causes.
Death of a Soldier
(Column 1)
Summary: George Shenafield, formerly of Chambersburg, a member of Company D, 126th Regiment, died in the military hospital at Sharpsburg a few days ago. His remains were brought to his parents' house in Chambersburg, and he was buried on Monday. This is the fourth death in the 126th since its organization.
(Names in announcement: George Shenafield)
(Column 1)
Summary: Court convened on Monday to dispose of petitions, motions, etcetera. C. M. Duncan, Esq., presented a petition from a number of voters in the North Ward of Chambersburg contesting the election of John Downey, Esq., alleging a number of people who voted in the ward were not qualified voters. T.M. Carlisle was appointed commissioner to hear testimony in the matter. The court disposed of several other matters, then adjourned until the 25th to hold an Orphan's Court.
(Names in announcement: C. M. DuncanEsq., John DowneyEsq., T.M. CarlisleEsq.)
(Column 1)
Summary: "Our old friends" Captain S. R. McKesson of the 77th Reg't Penn. Volunteers and Sergeant M. W. Houser of the 57th Reg't Penn. Volunteers have opened a recruiting station at the law offices of George O. Seilhamer, Esq., in Chambersburg. These regiments have been in service eighteen months, and enlistees will be discharged at the end of the three-year term.
(Names in announcement: Capt. S. R. McKesson, Sgt. M. W. Houser, George O. SeilhamerEsq.)
Capt. G. W. Z. Black
(Column 1)
Summary: G. W. Z. Black was commissioned Captain of the 107th Reg't Penn. Volunteers on his 19th birthday. As lieutenant he was in command of his company after the death of Capt. John T. Dick. He "acquitted himself nobly" at the battles of South Mountain and Antietam, and is recovering from a wound suffered at Antietam.
(Names in announcement: Capt. G. W. Z. Black, Capt. John T. Dick)
Origin of Article: Pilot
John Rowe, Sr.
(Column 1)
Summary: John Rowe Sr. died at his house on Saturday night after an illness of "some days." He was born in Ireland in 1801 and moved to the United States in 1820. Since then has been a resident of Franklin County. He was elected justice of the peace and was serving his third term when he died.
(Names in announcement: John RoweSr.)
Origin of Article: Pilot
Advertise! Advertise!
(Column 1)
Summary: The editors point out that the Valley Spirit and Times has a larger circulation than any other paper in the county. Its subscription roll of 2500 makes it an excellent "medium of communication with the public."
Important to Butchers, Auctioneers, etc.
(Column 2)
Summary: The editors report the decision of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue that the new tax law requires the following: butchers who run a cart through the country must pay a $10-$15 fee for a "peddlar's license"; "vendue criers" fall under the head of auctioneers and must pay $20 for an auctioneer's license; and "hucksters" who buy produce in the country and sell it in the towns or cities from their wagon must buy a peddlar's license, and if they sell it from stalls they must buy a dealer's license, providing their sales reach $1000 annually.
A Gross Outrage
(Column 2)
Summary: The editors note with displeasure that a number of Anderson's Cavalry entered the offices of the Carlisle Volunteer on October 24 and proceeded to do about $50 of damage to the office. The editors argue that "mob violence is not the proper mode to redress grievances, real or imagined," and hope that Mr. Bratten can ascertain the guilty parties.
(Names in announcement: Mr. Bratten)
The Drafted Militia
(Column 2)
Summary: The editors report that the drafted men of Franklin, Fulton, and Cumberland counties are now encamped on the farm of Mr. Harcleroad, two-and-a-half miles south of town, and the editors offer some advice for the organization of the regiments.
(Names in announcement: Mr. Harcleroad)
Important to School Teachers
(Column 2)
Summary: The Governor has received authority from the Secretary of War to discharge county superintendents and teachers from the draft, if their withdrawal will be "injurious to the cause of education." The teachers must provide to the Superintendent of Common Schools, Thomas H. Burrows, a letter from the school board of directors certifying their employment, their valid teaching certification, and a testimony that their withdrawal will injure the cause of education.
(Names in announcement: Thomas H. BurrowsEsq.)
Donations to the School House Hospital
(Column 2)
Summary: George Bayne, steward of the School House Hospital, notes the donation by the Ladies' Committee of pies, butter, apple butter, milk, stewed fruit, and such, but apologizes for not keeping an exact record of who donated what.
(Names in announcement: Mrs. Ed. Culbertson, Mrs. L. S. Clark, Mrs. Shepler, Mr.s William Gelwicks, Mrs. Kauffman, Mrs. Gehr, Mrs. Bard, Mrs. Harper, Mrs. Trostle, Mrs. Dr. Senseny, Mrs. Fohl, Mrs. Dr. Lambert, Mrs. Dr. Richards, Mrs. Dr. Fisher, Mrs. Campbell, Miss S. A. Chambers, Mrs. B. Chambers, Mrs. William Chambers, Mrs. Jordan, Miss Ellen Cook, Mrs. Perry, Mrs. Allison Eyster, Mrs. Cline, Mrs. Chas. Eyster, Mrs. McCulloh, Mrs. Bush, Mrs. Linn, Mrs. Nelson, Mrs. Kimmel, Mrs. Carlisle, Mrs. George Flack, Mrs. John McDowell, Mrs. Samuel Radebaugh, Mrs. Fritz, Mrs. Johns, Mrs. Buchanan, Mrs. Erhart, Mrs. William Reed, Mrs. Hutz, George Bayne)
Franklin County Teacher's Association
(Column 3)

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Description of Page: Advertisements

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Description of Page: Advertisements