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Valley of the Shadow

Valley Spirit: June 8, 1864

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-Page 01-

Thrilling Adventures of a Lady in the Secret Service
(Column 1)
Summary: Tells the story of Pauline Cushman, a spy for the Union who was arrested by the Confederates and then recaptured by Northern troops. Notes that she has been named a Major in the US Army in reward for her bravery.
Origin of Article: New York World
Full Text of Article:

Her Experience as a Spy in Dixie.
She meets the Rebel Generals Forrest, Bragg, Hoone and Morgan.
Captured and Condemned to Death.
She is Recaptured by our Troops and made a Major in the U.S. Service.

[From the New York World.]

We have now among us one of these heroic women whose glorious courage and unflinching personal sacrifices have given a tinge of the olden time romance to the somber annals of our terrible civil war. There arrived yesterday at the Astor House, where she will remain for a few days, Miss Major Pauline Cushman, the gallant and true-hearted girl, with whose exploits the country North and South has been ringing for a year past. She has come among us on her way to the farther recesses of our cool and salubrious climate in pursuit of relaxation of her health from the wounds and fatigues to which she has been subjected. A full narrative of all her "hair-breadth escapes and ventures perilous" since she entered the secret service of the Union would furnish forth a bulky volume, surpassing by far the real interest of the most ingenious and highly wrought fictions of the day. Of course we can tarry for only a brief narration of a few of the more striking incidents of her career.

Her History,

since the war began, commences at Cleveland Ohio, where she was residing when hostilities commenced in 1861.

Of mingled French and Spanish, descent, and a native of New Orleans, where she first saw the light in 1863, she brought to the profession of the stage all the fire and vivacity of her lineage and climes; and soon became by her talents as well as the graces of her person, exceedingly popular. From Cleveland, at an early period of the war, she removed to Louisville, Kentucky, and there her histrionic success continued. Among her many acquaintances and friends were some paroled confederate officers who, during her engagements at Wood's theatre, in March 1863, were very attentive, and presumed at length so far upon her courtesy as to ask her to offer upon the stage during the performance of "The Seven Sisters," the following toast: "Here is to Jeff Davis and the Southern Confederacy. May the South always maintain her honor and her rights." Shocked in her patriotic feelings by this proposal, she at once privately acquainted Col. Moore the provost marshal who, after some serious conversation, held out such inducements as persuaded her to enter the secret service of the Union. This being understood upon a giving night offered the toast in question with full advice and consent of the authorities. The theatre was crowed, and the incident fell upon the multitude like a thunder clap, confusing and mortifying all loyal persons present, and highly delighting their "secesh" neighbors. This, of course, led to her mock arrest and dismissal from the theatre. Speedily released, she next repaired to Nashville, and while there engaged at the new theatre, it was suggested to her by Col. W. Truesdale, the chief of army police, to make a little excursion to the headquarters of the Confederate General Bragg. This idea fully coinciding with her own innate love of wild and dashing adventures, and an excellent pretext being available in the fact that she had a brother in the rebel service, she willingly undertook the expedition, after having solemnly accepted the following oath:

United States of America,
Dep't. of the Cumberland,
Office Chief of Army Police,
May 26, 1863.

I, Pauline Cushman, do sol[e]mnly swear that I will bear true allegiance and fidelity to the Government of the United States of America, and that I will faithfully serve the same during the time that I am employed in the service of the Army of the Cumberland, to the best of my knowledge and ability; that I will observe and obey all the instructions which may be given me; that I will in no manner or form convey or give any information to the enemies of the Government of the United States which will be of advantage to them or injury to the Federal cause, so help me God.

The Colonel then gave her a series of very minute, solemn and impressive instructions for her guidance, and she set forth as a refugee and victim of "northern tyranny."

She Is Caught At Last.

All good as well as evil fortune must one day take a turn, and at length, in the very plenitude of her renown, the fair and brave Pauline was taken in the dead of night by rebel scouts, while she was resting at the house of one Baum, a farmer residing near the Hardin turnpike road, which she had been exploring after the capture of Nashville by the Union forces, her purpose being to ascertain the position and strength of the enemy after their retreat from that city.

John Morgan,

or as she calls him, "Johnnie Morgan," the renowned guerrilla chieftain, became her first custodian and conducted her to the quarters of General Forrest. On the way "Johnnie" manifested all the gallantry that usually distinguishes the genuine son of Mars in the presence of the fair and offered the beautiful Pauline all his friendship, a magnificent diamond ring and a silver mounted revolver as keepsakes and urged her to become his aid de camp so soon as she should be released.

Her Interview with Gen. Forrest

was dramatic in a high degree. The General was not little pleased to see her in his camp and greeted her with unfeigned warmth:

"Well, I'm really glad to see you," said he, "I've been looking for you a long time but I have got this last shuffle" (the General still retained the phraseology of his profession before the war) "and I intend to hold you. You have been here before--you know all the roads, bridle paths and bog paths, even in the country." While finely assumed indignation, our heroine exclaimed, "Tis false! I've never been here before, and I should like to send a bullet through the man mean enough to make the charge."

Forrest gazed at her with amazement, while she continued:

"Yes, and I'd send one through you if I could, if you dared to repeat the assertion!"

He looked at her for a moment in silence, and then replied:

"Well! your'e [sic] made of good fighting stuff, if you are a woman. I got my visit South as a poor refugee expelled from the Union lines on account of her strong Southern feeling, and accounted most adroitly for the absence of her baggage, stating that she had been deprived of all by Col. Truesdale. The General questioned her as to her plans for the future in the South, the position and resources of the Union army, &c., and all those inquiries she managed skillfully to meet with woman's ready with. At length he summarily informed her that he should hand her over to his Provost Marshal General, Col. M'Kinstry--"a humane and just man"--who would investigate the serious charges against her, and according the truth decide.

After a little more bandying of words on both sides, Pauline still stoutly maintaining her confederate loyalty, she was dispatched to General Bragg's headquarters at Shelbyville, receiving, as she parted from "Johnnie Morgan," his good wishes, expressed in the following touching language:

"Good-bye! I hope we shall meet again where we can have something better than corn bread, baked in ashes, and rot gut whiskey at fifte[e]n dollars per quart!" Her parting song, as she rode away, was "Trust to luck." By a curious coincidence, when she next saw the redoubtable Morgan, it was in prison at Columbus, and in his convict garb, while she was then again free and within the circle of Federal authority. Advancing to him she laughingly exclaimed, as she held out her hand:

"How are you, Johnnie?"

"Ah! replied he, the boot is on the other foot now!"

A Quaint Interview With Gen. Braxton Bragg

was the result of her visit to Shelbyville.

Having been conducted to the General's tent, her coloquy with that important personage thus began:

Bragg--Of what country are you?
Pauline--I am of French and Spanish descent.
Bragg--Where were you born?
Pauline--In New Orleans.
Bragg--Your speech savors of the Yankee twang.
Pauline--Well, as an actress, I have been playing Yankee parts so long that I suppose I've caught the "twang."

She then went on to narrate the history of her fighting qualities from a woman--my own good, brave mother.

"But to the point. You have important papers in your possession, and if they prove you to be a spy nothing can save you from a little hemp."

She carelessly replied: "Well, go on and root the whole thing up, if you like."

Then picking up a packet of letters, he in turn said:
"Without sending spies, I know everything that goes on at the Yankee headquarters better than their own clerks there!"
Pauline--But if I am found guilty what will you do with me?
Bragg--You will surely be hanged.
Pauline--General, come, now! I don't think I'd be either useful or ornamental dangling at the end of a rope. If I must die let me choose the method of my death.
Bragg--I cannot promise that, because you might prefer a natural mode of exit.
Pauline--No; if I must perish let me be shot, for that would not hurt me so much.

Shortly after this highly consolatory interview, Miss Pauline was taken exceedingly ill, and having been found guilty and condemned, was saved from death by this circumstance alone. It was only after three months' captivity that, one fine morning, while she still lay upon her sick bed, the joyous sound of the Union bugles as the rebels fled and the Federals under Generals Gordon, Granger, Mitchell, and Stanley entered the town, recalled her to liberty and life. After this it was that General Garfield in recognition of her long and most invaluable services and her sufferings in two severe wounds received from the enemies of the Union while she was on duty, that General Garfield conferred upon her the rank and title of Major by which she is now universally known.

New Personal Appearance.

The fair "spy" whose name has already become historical, possesses, many personal graces. Rather above the medium height, her figure is fully rounded, yet agile and elastic; and a high brow of classic contour is adorned with clustering tresses of rich dark hair, and a comely waist and feminine hand and foot subdue all the ruder associations of the camp and field; and the ensemble of the thoughts awakened, as this lady stands before you, and, in glowing phrase, recounts her own strange story, is bewildering yet fascinating in the extreme, seeming rather some romance of the days Joan of Arc than a reality of our own less golden time.

Miss Major Cushman has with her the various passes, uniforms, etc., used by her, and will probably be visited during her brief stay by thousands of her grateful country-men. It is rumored that to-night a grand serenade will testify in patriotic melodies the appreciation of very many personal friends who admire in her the true woman and the tried and trusty patriot.

Gen. Butler Shown Up
(Column 3)
Summary: Reports that Governor Pierpont of Virginia has issued a lengthy pamphlet outlining the "most aggravating abuses" by General Butler and his men in Virginia.
Origin of Article: St. Louis Republican
Latest Telegraphic News: From the Armies of Generals Grant and Sherman
(Column 5)
Summary: Prints official dispatches reporting on troop movements in Virginia and Tennessee.

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Description of Page: Fiction and poetry, columns 1-3, classified ads, columns 4-6

-Page 03-

Description of Page: Classified ads, columns 2-6

The Tobacco Field
(Column 1)
Summary: Offers suggestions for planting successful tobacco crops.

-Page 04-

Description of Page: Report on troop movement in Mississippi, column 5

The Military Situation
(Column 1)
Summary: Summarizes recent military movements and criticizes General Grant for making little progress since he took over from General McClellan two years ago.
The Cleveland Convention
(Column 3)
Summary: Summarizes proceedings of the recent Republican convention in Cleveland and suggests that enthusiasm at the meeting was "feeble."
Read This
(Column 4)
Summary: Urges "abolition" newspapers to print a speech given by General Jackson that suggests that fighting alone will not solve the political issues of the war.
B. F. Butler
(Column 4)
Summary: Reiterates the Valley Spirit's "non-admiration" of General Butler.
"Dats a Lie!"
(Column 5)
Summary: Derides President Lincoln for holding a convention in South Carolina in which Republicans gave into demands that blacks be included in a delegation to the Baltimore Convention.
(Column 5)
Summary: Expresses frustration that privates in the 21st Pennsylvania Cavalry have not been paid, while officers in that regiment continue to receive their pay.
Full Text of Article:

In addition to the injustice of reducing the members of the 21st Regiment of Pa. Cavalry to Infantry we are informed that the privates have not yet received their pay, whilst the officers have been paid. We confess that we are unable to comprehend the justice in this discriminating against the brave privates who are perilling [sic] their lives in defense of their country.

Isaac Hutton & Son
(Column 5)
Summary: Notes that Isaac Hutton & Son has moved their boot and shoe store to the opposite side of their street.
(Names in announcement: Isaac Hutton)
Chambersburg Races
(Column 6)
Summary: Reports that the Chambersburg races opened last Saturday, and asks that residents not obstruct the racecourse by walking across the track.
The Wheat Crop
(Column 6)
Summary: Expresses confusion as to why wheat prices remain so low when the harvest is half its normal yield this year.
Died From Wounds
(Column 6)
Summary: Reports that Private J. Noel Hall, grandson of John Noel, Esq., died in a Washington hospital on May 30. A member of the 12th Pennsylvania Reserves, Hall died of wounds received in the battles in the Wilderness. His remains are in the possession of his uncle, Jacob P. Noel.
(Names in announcement: Private J. Noel Hall, John NoelEsq., Jacob P. Noel)
Pennsylvania Reserve Corps
(Column 6)
Summary: Urges readers to provide members of the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps with recognition for their bravery when they return home.

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Description of Page: Classified ads, columns 2-6, including a report of the Chambersburg markets

Ladies Fair for the Benefit of the Christian Commission
(Column 1)
Summary: Lists committees that have formed for the planning of a Ladies' Fair to benefit the Christian Commission. Fancy Tables: Miss M. Spiders, Miss S. Reynolds, Miss Maggie McCulloh, Miss Kate Miller, Miss Mary Block, Mrs. William Stenger, Mrs. V. McCoy, Mrs. Emma Carlisle; Toys and Books: Mrs. J. K. Shryock, Mrs. J. Foster; Ice Cream: Mrs. D. K. Wunderlick, Miss Maggie Stevenson; Cake: Mrs. W. Mitchel, Mrs. B. T. Fellows; Confectionery: Mrs. S. G. Lane, Mrs. G. Platt, Miss Sarah Wright, Major Bert; Restaurant: Mrs. G. N. Lull, Mrs. Thos. Early, Mrs. Lyman Clark, Mrs. A. H. McCulloh; Coffee: Mrs. S. Huber, Mrs. J. Grier; Strawberry: Mrs. W. H. McDowell, Mrs. J. S. Nixon; Floral: Miss Mary Chambers, Miss Lucy Chambers, Capt. Surringer; Silverware: Miss Julia Wampler, Mrs. M. J. Stoner; Lemonade: Mrs. Kinney, Mrs. C. M. Duncan, Mr. J. R. Kinney. Notes that donations should be given to the above committees.
(Names in announcement: Miss M. Spiders, Miss S. Reynolds, Miss Maggie McCulloh, Miss Kate Miller, Miss Mary Block, Mrs. William Stenger, Mrs. V. McCoy, Mrs. Emma Carlisle, Mrs. J. K. Shryock, Mrs. J. Fuster, Mrs. D. K. Wunderlich, Miss Maggie Stevenson, Mrs. W. Mitchel, Mrs. B. T. Fellows, Mrs. S. G. Lane, Mrs. G. Platt, Miss Sarah Wright, Major Bert, Mrs. O. N. Lull, Mrs. Thos. Early, Mrs. Lyman Clark, Mrs. A. H. McCulloh, Mrs. S. Huber, Mrs. J. Grier, Mrs. W. H. McDowell, Mrs. J. S. Nixon, Miss Lucy Chambers, Miss Mary Chambers, Capt. Surringer, Miss Julia Wampler, Mrs. M. J. Stoner, Mrs. Kinney, Mrs. C. M. Duncan, Mr. J. R. Kinney, Mrs. D. N. Cobon)
Trailer: Mrs. D. N. Cobon, Prest.
The Draft
(Column 1)
Summary: Explains that anyone who pays $300 to be exempt from the draft will only be exempt from the present draft and not any future draft.
Full Text of Article:

By a late decision of Judge Whiting, Solicitor General of the United States, it appears that the payment of the three hundred dollars commutation money will only exempt the party paying it from the operation of the present draft, leaving him liable to be drawn again in case there should be another call. The names of persons paying commutation money, however, will not again be put into che [sic] wheel until the entire list shall have been exhausted.

(Column 3)
Summary: On May 17, Rev. S. McHenry married Levi Lauchbaum and Amanda Virginia Baker.
(Names in announcement: Rev. S. McHenry, Levi Lauchbaum, Amanda Virginia Baker)
(Column 3)
Summary: On May 20, P. McGarvey Esq. married William Bratten and Sarah Rorabaugh.
(Names in announcement: P. McGarveyEsq., William Bratten, Sarah Rorabaugh)
(Column 3)
Summary: On May 29, Samuel Irwin Allen, son of Josiah and Anna M. Allen, died at age 8 months, 18 days.
(Names in announcement: Rev. Josiah Allen, Anna M. Allen, Samuel Irwin Allen)
(Column 3)
Summary: William Null died on May 23 at age 21.
(Names in announcement: William Null)
(Column 3)
Summary: Cora Meranda Baxter, daughter of E. C. and M. A. Baxter, died on May 30 at age 3 months.
(Names in announcement: Cora Meranda Baxter, E. C. Baxter, M. A. Baxter)
(Column 3)
Summary: John S. Ludwig died on June 3 at age 29.
(Names in announcement: John S. Ludwig)

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Description of Page: Dispatches from Fortress Monroe, Virginia, and Arkansas, columns 1-2; classified ads, columns 3-6

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Description of Page: Classified ads, columns 1-6

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Description of Page: Classified ads, columns 1-6