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Valley of the Shadow

Valley Spirit: March 29, 1865

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-Page 01-

Description of Page: Classified ads, columns 1-4, poetry and fiction, columns 5 and 7

Negro Equality--The Whole Thing Out
(Column 6)
Summary: Reports on a debate among members of the US Congress about the meaning of racial equality.
Full Text of Article:

In a late debate in the Senate of the United States, Mr. Sumner indicated quite distinctly, that the object of himself and friends in their efforts in behalf of the negro, will not cease till perfect equality is effected--hear him:

Mr. Henderson (Rep. Mo.) advocated the proposition, holding that both Houses ought to admit the members from Louisiana, each without consulting the other. In the course of Mr. Henderson's remarks a short dialogue took place between him and Mr. Sumner. Mr. Henderson inquired of Mr. Sumner if he believed the Southern States were out of the Union.

Mr. Sumner (Rep. Mass.) said he did not. They had never been out of the Union.

Mr. Henderson (Rep. Mo.) inquired if that was so, why not let Louisiana be represented in Congress?

Mr. Sumner replied because the government of that State had been subverted, and there was really no government there now.

Mr. Henderson said the loyal men of Louisiana had recognized the existing government. Then why should not the Senator recognize it?

Mr. Sumner (Rep. Mass.) said that when the loyal men, white and black, recognized it, he would do so, not until then.

Mr. Henderson (Rep. Mo.) Does the Senator from Massachusetts assert that Congress has the right to interfere with the right of suffrage?

Mr. Sumner replied that under the Constitution a Republican form of government was guaranteed to the citizens of every State. It was the duty of Congress to guarantee perfect and complete freedom from all oppression and equality before the law to every man.

Mr. Henderson said that if no State government was Republican in form that did not permit negroes to vote, then the majority of the States in the Union were not Republican in form, and Mr. Sumner ought to move for the exclusion of the Senators from Connecticut, New York, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri and Maryland, and many other States. He (Mr. Sumner,) would have a very small Union before he got through. While Mr. Henderson was speaking of the rights reserved to the several States by the Constitution, Mr. Sumner said: May I ask the Senator if he remembers the words of George Washington, when he transmitted the Constitution of the United States to Congress, when he undertook to declare the desire which the Federal Congress had nearest its heart to see these States consolidated into one.

Mr. Henderson--"The Union is consolidated," he said, "and that is the Union I am in favor of."

Mr. Sumner said the government in Louisiana that Mr. Henderson was in favor of was an oligarchy, and he was opposed to any such thing as this. The trouble in Louisiana was that all the loyal citizens were not allowed to vote.

Mr. Henderson--What does the Senator mean by all the loyal citizens?

Mr. Sumner--All the blacks of that state.

The New Enrollment Law
(Column 6)
Summary: Provides a summary of the provisions of the most recent enrollment act, including the prohibition of recruitment in the rebel states.
The War Sneaks
(Column 7)
Summary: Condemns the "war sneaks," those men who cry out for war but do not participate themselves. Notes that these men tend to be supporters of Lincoln.
Origin of Article: Ex.

-Page 02-

Description of Page: Dispatches reporting on troop movements in Maryland and in City Point, Virginia, columns 6-7

Impending Battle
(Column 1)
Summary: Argues that the suppression of the rebellion depends on a successful conclusion to the impending battle between Lee's and Grant's armies.
Full Text of Article:

Before many days have passed a great battle, decisive in its results, will have been fought, between the opposing armies of Grant and Lee. The preliminaries are being rapidly arranged and the country stands spell-bound with awe at its possible results. Silently but surely the storm is gathering. Already is the breeze laden with the preliminary sounds of the great contest about to begin, and before this article reaches our readers, the battle may have been fought and won--or lost.

In our opinion, on the approaching campaign depends the complete success, or the entire suppression of the rebellion, as a thing of magnitude. How important is it then that no mistakes should be made by our Generals or reverse sustained by the Union army in the initial contest. The immense force now under the command of Gen. Grant would seem to dissipate any fears which we might entertain as to any such result as a reverse, yet the past history of the existing war admonishes us not to over sanguine, and that defeat is not impossible. The army of the Union, now on the banks of the James and South of Richmond, is the largest ever marshalled [sic] on this Continent. Everything that the government, with its immense resources, could do to render it invincible has been done; it has been supplied with all the material of war required by its commanders; it is composed of the best bone and muscle of the North, many of whom are the veterans of a score of hard fought battles, and all equipped, drilled and disciplined for the fight. And now, to-day, the equal of that grand army, we are fully convinced, exists not on the face of the globe. The Lieutenant General commanding this great army, is recognized, by all, as one of the ablest commanders of the age, possessing in an eminent degree those rare qualities which constitute the great military Chieftain. With such an army thus ably commanded, and in a just and holy cause, can reverse or defeat be within the bounds of possibility?

Of the numbers composing the army of General Lee we are in total ignorance, but it is manifest to all that the rebel government has brought everything to bear and strained its resources to the utmost to recruit the thinned ranks of its armies, and to equip and supply them with everything necessary to render them effective, in this last grand struggle. It is known too, that in all former campaigns our armies were met by the rebels with full ranks, well equipped and supplied, ably officered and ready for the fray. It is, therefore, fair to presume that behind those earthworks, in its front, lies an army of veterans, large in point of numbers, who will bring no discredit on their past achievements.

Although we cannot be assured of success, let us trust that our commander is thoroughly prepared for the conflict; that when the fight begins our gallant men may not be driven to their deaths in attempts to accomplish an impossible purpose, and that our leaders may prove equal to the task before them. Victory to the Union arms and the defeat and destruction of the army under Gen. Lee, must inevitably soon end this terrible war and peace again bless with her smiles a distracted and afflicted land. Defeat will just as surely prolong the contest to an indefinite period, drenching our fertile plains with the life-blood of our bravest and best, until the mutual exhaustion of the belligerent puts an end to the contest.

Soldier's Orphans
(Column 2)
Summary: Excerpts a state report on soldiers' orphans. Notes that 110 orphans of deceased soldiers are currently being cared for in Pennsylvania schools, 56 boys and 54 girls. The average age of the orphans is 9 years, 5 months and 15 days.
Doctor Martin R. Delaney
(Column 2)
Summary: Paints a negative portrait of Martin R. Delaney, a black doctor recently appointed regimental surgeon by President Lincoln. Accuses Delaney, formerly a resident of Franklin county, of taking part in John Brown's failed raid of Harper's Ferry and then continuing to plot against "the peace and safety of the people of the United States" in the years thereafter.
(Names in announcement: Patty Delaney, Martin R. Delaney)
Full Text of Article:

Many of our readers doubtless recollect "Old Patty Delaney" and her son Martin, who came to this place from Virginia sometime about the year 1832, and resided here for several years. This son Martin, who was only known here as an insolent, impudent negro, has recently been appointed by the President a regimental Surgeon, with the rank of Major, in the United States army. This negro, as black as charcoal, is now superior in rank to any captain in the service.

Delaney was born near Charlestown, Va., and came to this place with his mother and after several years residence here went to Pittsburg [sic], where he worked as a barber, bloodletter, cupper and leecher. Some years after he resided there, he published a small weekly paper, which was marked by a small share of ability, and circulated entirely among the negroes and abolitionists of that vicinity. He occasionally delivered lectures, and during the time the late Geo. M. Dallas was minister at London, Delaney made his appearance there at a meeting of an International Congress, and was introduced by Lord Brougham, when Mr. Dallas withdrew from the convention. After his return to the United States, he engaged in the treasonable conspiracy of the cut-throat John Brown, to excite a servile insurrection in the South. He assisted to draw up the Constitution for the government of the South after John Brown had liberated the slaves. After the failure of John Brown's conspiracy, Delaney fled to Canada, where, along with the mulatto Douglass, and other fugitive negroes, and traitorous Abolitionists, he was engaged in other plots against the peace and safety of the people of the United States.

Such is a brief sketch of this full-blooded woolly-headed, jet black negro, who has been elevated by Mr. Lincoln over the heads of the brave and gallant captains in our country's service, who have fought and bled on many a hard fought field, and who must now acknowledge, in this thick-lipped African, a superior officer. Oh tempora, Oh mores!

A Word to the Wise
(Column 3)
Summary: Contends that a Democratic or a "wise Republican" administration in Washington would be able to make peace with the rebels. Accuses the Lincoln government of being unwilling to deal with Confederate leaders.
Mr. Davis' Last Message
(Column 4)
Summary: Takes note of a recent speech given by Confederate President Davis which suggests that peace is possible without further bloodshed.
Origin of Article: World
The Richmond Press on the Message of Mr. Davis
(Column 5)
Summary: Notes that all the newspapers in Richmond have expressed support for President Davis' appeal for peace.
Origin of Article: Petersburg Express
Raising Negro Troops: The Rebels Going to Work in Earnest
(Column 5)
Summary: Prints Confederate government dispatches that document the South's new willingness to put black men--free and enslaved--in uniform.

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Description of Page: Classfied ads, columns 2-7

Cure for Drunkenness
(Column 1)
Summary: Provides a recipe for a potion that promises to cure drunkenness. The ingredients include: sulfate ofiron, magnesia, peppermint water, and nutmeg.
Stamp Duties
(Column 1)
Summary: Lists costs of stamp duties on various documents. Leases, for example, require a five cent duty, while deeds require a thirty cent stamp.
The Montgomery House
(Column 1)
Summary: Announces that Mrs. Margaretta Montgomery has rebuilt and furnished a large building on the site of the old hotel. Notes that it is open for business.
(Names in announcement: Mrs. Margaretta Montgomery)
Drafted Men
(Column 1)
Summary: Clarifies a common misinterpretation of the recent enrollment act. Says that it does indeed allow for a conscript to purchase a substitute.
[No Title]
(Column 1)
Summary: Reports that under the new revenue law, the tax on incomes over six hundred and under five thousand is five percent. The tax on incomes between five and ten thousand dollars is seven and a half percent, and the tax on incomes over ten thousand dollars is ten percent.
[No Title]
(Column 1)
Summary: One of Franklin County's "largest farmers" suggests that bacon not be hung yet because of the continued cold weather. Explains that if the bacon is hung now, it will spoil.
(Column 1)
Summary: Thanks Hon. William McSherry of the State Senate and Hon. J. McDowell Sharpe of the House of Representatives for the "numberless favors" during the last session. Does not elaborate on what those favors were.
(Names in announcement: Hon. William McSherry, Hon. J. McDowell Sharpe)
(Column 3)
Summary: Rev. S. H. C. Smith married William Bush and Margaret Bohn on March 25.
(Names in announcement: Rev. S. H. C. Smith, William Bush, Margaret Bohn)
(Column 3)
Summary: Charles W. Kline died last Friday at age 51.
(Names in announcement: Charles W. KlineSr.)

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Description of Page: Classified ads, columns 1-7