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Valley of the Shadow

Valley Spirit: July 12, 1865

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The Conspirators
(Column 1)
Summary: Reprimands President Johnson for his decision to try the conspirators involved in Lincoln's death in a military court, in spite of the fact that the war has ended. As a result, the article asserts that the "community at large" has no confidence in the verdict, particularly in the case against Mrs. Surratt.
Origin of Article: Journal of Commerce
[No Title]
(Column 1)
Summary: In reaction to criticism leveled by the Repository, which asserts that the Spirit has become "more Union than Union men themselves," the Democratic organ argues that its support of Johnson is a reflection of his pro-Democratic policies.
Origin of Article: Repository
Full Text of Article:

Now, when to go wrong would be hopeless folly, the SPIRIT crawls in under the shadow of a Union President, and like all new converts, seems more Union than Union men themselves. --Repository

We always claimed to be better Union, if not "more Union," than the "Union men themselves." The SPIRIT "crawls in under" no strange shadows being content to rest in the refreshing shade of Democracy. If the "Union President" has determined to take a seat under the Old Hickory Tree, we have no disposition to crowd him out, but on the contrary, will make room for him, and assist in keeping the flies and other vermin of abolition fanatacism from annoying him.

The Civil Law Supreme
(Column 2)
Summary: Relates the case of William B. Cozzens, who successfully appealed his arrest by military officials after the close of the war. Cozzens's counsel managed to obtain a writ of habeus corpus, declaring that the president's right to suspend constitutional guarantees was valid during the rebellion, but that this prerogative ceased with the end of the conflict.
[No Title]
(Column 2)
Summary: A group of army veterans recently met in New York where they organized the "United Service Society." Under the stewardship of Gen. Warren, the group passed a number of resolutions; the two most important being that martial law should soon be abandoned and that the federal government's tax structure should be revamped.
Full Text of Article:

A MEETING of persons who have belonged to the army, was held recently in New York, to organize an association for political purposes, under the title of the "United Service Society." The objects of the society are to organize a separate party from either of the two in existence, which shall cast its vote for the candidate which it deems to be of most advantage to its purposes. Gen. Warren officiated as President. Among the resolutions adopted, the two following are the most significant:

8. That the time has come when the application of martial law and trial before military courts should cease wherever civil law and government exists under the authority of a loyal State of the Federal Government, excepting as to persons in the military and naval service of the United States. 9. That the interest of the industrial classes demand an equalization of the taxation which shall bear alike upon all and specially upon none; and that no particular kinds of property, whether it be government securities or otherwise, should be exempted from the burdens which we all owe to a common country.

Huge Standing Army To Be Kept
(Column 3)
Summary: Speculation in Washington indicates that a huge standing army will be maintained in the wake of the war. It is envisioned that the cost to maintain the troops will not be less than $175 million annually, a sum that is sure to dismay and anger citizens already burdened by high taxes.
Full Text of Article:

Advices from Washington say that the regular army, or permanent military organization of the country will be organized upon the following basis:

General officers-One General, five Lieutenant Generals, fifty Major Generals, and seventy-five Brigadier Generals. The regular army proper to be composed of nineteen regiments of infantry, six regiments of cavalry and five regiments of artillery, all filled up to the maximum number; besides these, fifty thousand colored troops will be retained with the regiments filled up to the maximum number.

Hancock's corps will be increased to a full corps of three divisions, about thirty thousand men. The veteran reserve corps, twenty-five regiments filled up to the maximum number.

The medical staff will be increased to one hundred full surgeons, with a corresponding number of assistant surgeons.

The infantry and cavalry regiments of the regular army comprise three battallions of eight hundred men each.

Under the proposed arrangements the total strength of the army will be nearly as follows: Regular infantry, 45,000; regular cavalry, 14,400; regular artillery, 12,000; colored troops, 50,000; Hancock's corps, 30,000; veteran reserve corps, 25,000--total, 177,000 men.

The cost of keeping up such a huge standing army as that will not be less than one hundred and seventy-five million dollars annually. The people will not submit to be taxed to raise that amount for a single day longer than they believe it to be absolutely necessary. Indeed it will be hard to convince them that any such burthen upon the industry and the wealth of the ocuntry is at all necessary even now. They know very well that our volunteer system will supply any needed number of soldiers at ten days notice, if the emergency should demand it. Would it not be wise then to reduce the propsed standing army one-half, or even more, at the same time to arrange for reducing it still further at the earlierst period possible. The people of this country will never support a large standing army in time of peace.

Three Theories
(Column 3)
Summary: According to the article, there are three possible solutions for the readmittance of the states formerly in rebellion. The first, President Johnson's model for Reconstruction, proposes appointing provisional governors to guide the restoration process and allows individual states to decide whether to permit black suffrage. The second is the "Radical Abolition theory," which contends that Congress should determine when the Confederate states have become sufficiently repentant to rejoin the Union. And the third alternative, the "Democratic and true Constitutional theory," posits that the states should simply be readmitted, "with all their rights unimpaired," once the authority of the Constitution has been restored.
Origin of Article: Norristown Register
Full Text of Article:

In the development of events, three theories appear to loom up as to the restoration of the Union. President Johnson proposes to restore the States by rebuilding or remodeling through the appointment of Provisional Governors, who shall say, by instructions received, who shall be the future electors of these States. They reconstruct the States de novo [unclear]. After these States are so formed they may say whether negro suffrage may exist or not.

The Radical Abolition theory is that the seceded States are out of the Union and must be re-admitted upon such terms and conditions as Congress shall prescribe, and as they now have the majority in Congress, this will enable them to regulate their admission and institutions as they may prescribe.

The Democratic and true Constitutional theory is that the rebellion having subsided and the authority of the Constitution being restored, the States remain, with all their rights unimpaired, under the Constitution of the United States and all that can be necessary, therefore, is for these States to place themselves into their former practical relation in the Union. This latter is certainly in accordance with the unanimous resolution of both houses of Congress as passed in July, 1861, and for which President Johnson must have voted, as he was then inthe United States Senate. The resolution is as follows:

Resolved, That this war is not waged on our part in any spirit of oppression, or for any purpose of conquest, or interfering with the rights or established insitutions of the States, but to defend and maintain the supremacy of the Constitution, and to preserve the Union with all the dignity and rights of the several States unimpaired--and that as soon as these objects are accomplished the war ought to cease.

The difference in these theories is that the first is a concentration of power in the hands of the President; the second, in Congress, and the last leaves the States in the hands of the people under the Constitution of the United States.

(Column 4)
Summary: Applauds President Johnson for appointing southerners to administer the Reconstruction governments, in spite of northern protestations. Taken from a Republican journal, the article contends that individuals who complain the most about President Johnson's policies are those who hope to exploit the region as speculators.
Origin of Article: Springfield Republican
Full Text of Article:

President Johnson shows excellent wisdom in appointing loyal Southern men to official positions int he South. Those Northern citizens who think the safety of the country depends on their getting such places and enriching themselves by speculations in cotton and tobacco are naturally much aggrieved, and will be among the loudest howlers of the new radical opposition. But the country is satisfied. Everybody sees that nothing could tend more to perpetuate the alienation of the Southern people than to send a lot of greedy Northerners to rule over and plunder them. The disappointment and vexation of such men is the cief secret of the present hullabaloo against the President.

Correspondence of the Valley Spirit
(Column 4)
Summary: Contains the latest installment in a series of communications from a Franklin county soldier who, having set sail from Richmond, is currently on his way to Texas. Includes musings about the people and places he has encountered during the voyage.
Full Text of Article:

BEAUFORT, S.C., July 1, 1865.

Messrs. Editors:--At last writing I was at Richmond, and was loth to leave it. --Reared among huckleberry bushes, wild flowers and stately oaks, I was taught to love nature. The handsome shade trees, shrubbery and vines of Richmond made it like home. I left there on Monday, June 26, on the Thos. Collyer, for Fortress Monroe, and after the necessary red tape maneuvering there, I was placed on board the tug Gen. McClellan and run out the Roads to the Empire, which was to sail for Brazos the same evening. Owing to a stiff gale, we lay in the Roads till Tuesday morning. This is the last vessel but one of the Texas Expedition. We have on board 64 horses, about 35 colored soldiers and 5 officers--with water, forage, rations, &c. Our vessel is a steam propeller with three masts, and is by no means a good one. Until we passed Cape Hatteras we were in sight of land, but after that I saw only the rolling waves. Of all the disagreeable things I ever experienced, the first two days on the ocean was the most. Talk of riding in a stage coach over mountains, getting off an Ale spree, or settling up your last boarding bill, none of them compare to sea-sickness. The vessel rolled and rocked, moving like a "see-saw" until my head sounded like a machine shop. We have been on shore for 20 hours and still my head is swimming, in and out doors, although I have been thoroughly cured of sea-sickness. On the eve of the second day we put on full sail and the vessel became steady which was the first of my cure. I saw hundreds of hog fish three and four feet long, shooting along the top of the water, ever and anon jumping up two or three feet out of the water. Lt. Oviatt dispersed a "school" of them instantly by shooting at one.

After a voyage of 74 hours from Fortress Monroe we landed at Port Royal, S.C. to coal up. The place afforded no facilities for coaling and we were obliged to run up here, 15 or 20 miles for that purpose. Port Royal is a place of no real importance--a small military point, garrisoned chiefly by colored troops.

Arrived at Beaufort, S.C., I started out to see the city. Population about 2,500, chiefly colored. There are only a few good houses here, but the shade trees make it a perfect picture. The squares are regular, and at regular intervals of about twelve paces shade trees are planted, such as sycamore, live oak, weeping willow, a species of ash and wild plum, &c., on both sides of the street. If half the care had been taken to build regularly as was taken to plant, Beaufort would be a perfect Eden. The 32d, 104th, 128th U.S.C.T., and two batteries are doing duty here. Col. Baird's, 22d Regt. was recruited at Philadelphia, and in it I found a number of Mercersburg men. The residents here possess some mechanical enterprise, but a more independent, impudent race I never saw. The soldiers are a glorious exception, dressing tidily, speaking in mannerly and assuming a soldierly bearing. I think favorably of the colored soldiers. The intelligence of the people is unquestionable. At a saloon having for its sign "Soder Warter, Buiskit and Yanky Cakes," I stopped to get a small plate of ice cream at 25 cents, and a claret punch at 30 cents. Watermelons, green corn, apples, &c., are plenty in market.

The thermometer in the shade, yesterday, stood at 93. My Lockwoods last about twenty minutes. The mail leaves here every eight days--July 6 being the next mail day.

We sail to-day intending to coal again at Key West, Florida, and stop no more till we reach Brazos, on the Rio Grande. I learn from one of the officers aboard that we shall hardly have a mail for two months. More anon.


Trailer: 127-11-5
News Items
(Column 5)
Summary: Announces that a convention for Virginia blacks will be held in Alexandria, Va., on August 2nd
News Items
(Column 5)
Summary: Notes that the receipts from internal revenue are expected to amount to $270 million.
News Items
(Column 5)
Summary: Blacks in Vicksburg are protesting the appointment of Judge Sharkey as the Provisional Governor of Mississippi. Additionally, they are demanding the right to vote.
News Items
(Column 3)
Summary: Reports that President Johnson recently granted 170 pardons, mostly to individuals from North Carolina.
New Items
(Column 5)
Summary: President Johnson has named Benjamin F. Perry to lead the provisional government in South Carolina.
News Items
(Column 5)
Summary: The Great Eastern steamship is expected to start laying the Atlantic telegraph in the next few days.
News Items
(Column 5)
Summary: The New Hampshire Legislature, which is largely Republican, passed a resolution in favor of universal suffrage.
News Items
(Column 5)
Summary: Rumors of a black insurrection circulated in Richmond on the previous Monday, prompting a call to double the number of city guards.
Radical Crimination of the President
(Column 6)
Summary: The Spy complains that the delegation from South Carolina, which met with President Johnson and received his tacit approval to run the state's provisional government, is composed of individuals who are not loyal. In opting to recognize this conservative group as the representatives from South Carolina, Johnson chose to ignore the opinions of others from the Palmetto state who advocate black suffrage.
Origin of Article: Worcester Spy
Editorial Comment: "Referring to the South Carolina delegation which was recently admitted to an interview with the President, the Worcester, Mass., Spy says bitterly:"
Full Text of Article:

This is the only delegation that has appeared in Washington from South Carolina having anything like a representative character; and this was confessedly disloyal. Yet they received the impression from the President that the work of "restoration," since that is the word he prefers, would be practically entrusted to their hands. Dr. Mackay, representing the decisive Union element, of which he was always a solitary representative, came to Washington, but it was not to ask for a governorship. Dr. Crowly presented to the President the compliments of those who were in favor of colored suffrage there; but it was only to ask for the privilege of free discussion, which had thus far been denied to them. Only those who had a hand in the rebellion have been publicly consulted on the subject of the future political relations of the State to the Union. In this respect South Carolina is not an exception. Neither Governor Holden, nor Judge Sharkey, nor Judge Parsons, nor Governor Johnson had a clear record, or could take the oath required by the laws without perjury.

Execution of Payne, Herold, Atzerott, and Mrs. Surratt
(Column 7)
Summary: Announces the execution of Lewis Payne, David E. Herold, George A. Atzerott, and Mrs. Mary E. Surratt, all of whom were found guilty for their roles in the conspiracy to kill President Lincoln.

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Local and Personal--On A Visit
(Column 1)
Summary: Notes that a Democratic newspaper in the southern portion of the state is for sale. Those interested should contact the offices of the Valley Spirit.
Local and Personal--At Home
(Column 1)
Summary: Capt. Michael W. Houser returned home to Franklin county, having served in the 57th Regiment P. V. since the beginning of the war.
(Names in announcement: Capt. Michael W. Houser)
Local and Personal--Stuck by Lightning
(Column 1)
Summary: On Saturday July 8th, the wife and son of Mr. Rotz were killed when they were struck by lightning. The victims were aged 49 and 16, respectively.
(Names in announcement: Joseph Rotz, Mrs. Rotz)
Local and Personal--Who Owns the Baby?
(Column 1)
Summary: Reports that an individual abandoned a baby girl at the Scheuring residence on July 12th with a nursing bottle, clothing, and a ten dollar "greenback." The brief article assails the "entirely too frequent" practice of abandoning children, and calls for the prosecution of those who commit the crime.
(Names in announcement: Mr. Scheuring, Mrs. Scheuring)
Local and Personal--Discharge of Volunteers
(Column 2)
Summary: The War Department has set the timetable for discharging volunteers still in the service.
Editorial Comment: "The following official order from the War Department will answer many inquiries as to the time of the discharge of volunteers yet in the service:"
Full Text of Article:

The Secretary of War directs that all volunteer organizations of white troops, in the Army of the Potomac, whose terms of service expire between this date (May 17) and September thirtieth, (30th,) next inclusive, be immediately mustered out of service.

All men in the aforesaid organizations, whose term of service expire subsequent to October first, (1st,) 1865, will be transferred to other organizations from the same State; to Veteran regiments, when practicable, and when not practicable, to regiments having the longest time to serve.

It is proper to add that this order will discharge as follows:

First, The three (3) year regiments that were mustered into service under the call of July second, (2d,) eighteen sixty-two, (1862,) and prior to October first, (1st,) of that year.

Second, Three (3) year recruits mustered into service for old regiments between the same dates.

Third, One (1) year men for new and old organizations, who entered the service between May seventeenth, (17th,) and October, (1st,) eighteen sixty-four, (1864.)

In addition to, and explanatory of the above, the Provost Marshal General says, "Men drafted in the last draft, who reached the field before the Order suspending all further drafting will be held to service until dishcarged under the regulations governing the muster out of troops."

Local and Personal--The Bounty Tax Law
(Column 2)
Summary: The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania has upheld the constitutionality of the Bounty Tax Law, as mandated by the legislature on April 25, 1864. The law was resisted by many within the state and even divided the Court along partisan lines, with Republicans supporting the measure and Democrats in opposition.
Full Text of Article:

On Friday, the 30th ult., at Philadelphia, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court rendered a decision that the act of the Legislature, passed April 25th, 1864, authorizing the levying of a bounty tax to raise volunteers, by township and corporate authorities, was in accordance with the State constituion and legal. The question arose originally in a suit started in Indiana county, where the lower court decided the act to be legal. It was thence carried up to the Supreme Court, where it was argued by some of the most eminent legal talent in the Commonwealth, and after a long interval, a majority of the judges have rendered the decision mentioned.

This case has been watched with more interest perhaps, than any brought before our courts. Upon its issue millions of dollars were pending, and there is scarcely a township which is not affected by the decision. Many persons have refused to pay their bounty tax until the case had been fully tested, and they will now be compelled to settle with the collector without further delay.

The Court in this case, as in a number of others, since the war commenced, divided according to partizan sympathies. The two Democratic judges, Woodward and Thompson, gave opinions contrary to the legality of the act; the two Republican judges, Reed and Agnew, pronounced it entirely constitutional; and Justice Strong, who was elected by the Democrats to the place he occupies, but who has in all political issues during the rebellion, co-operated with the Republicans, cast his decision alongside of Reed and Agnew, as was predicted.

(Column 5)
Summary: On June 13th, Humphrey F. Adams, formerly of St. Thomas, Franklin county, died of chronic diarrhea in Petersburg, Va. Adams, 45, served in Co. K, 21st Penna, Cav.
(Names in announcement: Humphrey F. Adams)

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