Records Related to Augusta County Regiments


Confederate Topographical Engineer Jedediah Hotchkiss kept a journal from August to the end of December, 1864. In it, he details his role in campaigns in Maryland and the Shenandoah Valley. Hotchkiss discusses events in Staunton, VA, as well, including troop movements in the vicinity, the evacuation of the town in October, personal business, dinner with Major M. G. Harman who had served as Staunton's quartermaster, and Harman's efforts to select winter camps in Augusta County.

Thursday, August 4.--We started at sunrise and went to Shepherdstown via Leetown. Breckinridge went the same way. Rodes and Ramseur went by Martinsburg to near Hainesville. Hdqrs. at Mrs. Bedinger's. Pleasant.

Friday, August 5.--We crossed the river to Sharpsburg and had engagement with Coke's cavalry and drove them away, and then encamped near there. Gen. Early and myself rode over part of the battle-field of Sharpsburg, and I sketched, by his order, the position of his brigade there. Gen. Ransom accompanied us. Rodes and Ramseur encamped at Claggett's Mill. A warm day.

Saturday, August 6.--We marched to Tilghmanton and the cross-roads beyond toward Hagerstown, and then went to Williamsport and encamped on the Virginia side. We found Rodes and Ramseur near Saint James' College. The general went to Saint James' College and paroled Doctor Kerfoot and Professor Coit for the return of Doctor Boyd, of Winchester, to his home in three weeks. He talked to Doctor Kerfoot for some time. It began to rain very early in the morning and rained most of the forenoon, then cleared off finely. We dined at Williamsport. Breckinridge encamped opposite Williamsport. Rodes and Ramseur went to near Hammond's Mill. The Yankees have a force at Harper's Ferry.

Sunday, August 7.--We started at an early hour and went to Martinsburg and spent most of the day at Ed. Pendleton's, and in the p. m. went on to Bunker Hill. Breckinridge came to Darkesville and Rodes and Ramseur to Bunker Hill. Gen. Pegram reported for duty. Quite warm.

Monday, August 8.--Worked at map of the battle of Monocacy all day. Quite warm. Enemy reported coming up from Harper's Ferry.

Tuesday, August 9.--Spent day in camp at Bunker Hill making map of battle of Monocacy. Robinson reducing Adams County and Oltmanas copying map of District of Columbia. Lieut. Koerner came to see me in p. m. about details, &c. Warm.

Wednesday August 1O.--We moved at an early hour to Stephenson's Depot, Breckinridge in advance, and then by Jordan Springs to the Red Bud and Abraham's Creek, where Breckinridge encamped. Rodes marched to the right of the road at Stephenson's and encamped. Ramseur marched yesterday to Winchester to meet a reported advance of Averell from Romney. We got the details of the rout of our cavalry at Moorefield. It was a disgraceful affair. We lost some 400 men and 4 pieces of artillery. We had headquarters near Burgess', a mile from Winchester on the Berryville road. Dined at Walls. Warm day. Enemy made demonstrations on the Millwood, Berryville, and Martinsburg roads in the p. m., and were easily repulsed.

Thursday, August 11.--Appearances indicating a general attack by a large force, we this morning formed a line of battle covering the approaches east and southeast of Winchester; Breckinridge covering the Berryville and Millwood roads, Ramseur the Front Royal road, and Rodes the Martinsburg road. Everything was moved from Winchester and we had a skirmish on the Millwood road. About noon I guided Gordon across the country, by a route I had selected in the a.m. , to the pike near Kernstown and took him to a position south of Newtown. The rest of the army followed, and we had a brisk skirmish, about dark, on the road to the Double Toll-Gate from Newtown. We drove the enemy back and encamped near Newtown. Headquarters at Chrisman's. Very warm. Bryan's and Lowry's batteries, on the Millwood road, were engaged some.

Friday, August 12. --We marched at an early hour and went across Cedar Creek and formed a line of battle. The Yankees came on and formed on the north side of the creek, and we had some skirmishing but no general engagement. In the evening we fell back to Fisher's Hill and took up our headquarters at Funkhouser's. I spent the day reconnoitering and carrying orders, and at night took Col. Jackson and his cavalry to the Middle road and posted them for pickets. Got to camp at midnight. Very warm.

Saturday, August 13.--We selected a line of battle on Fisher's Hill, Wharton on the right of the pike, Gordon to the top of the hill beyond the railroad, Ramseur from Gordon to the top of the hill beyond the Middle road, and Rodes half a mile beyond the Middle road with strong pickets across the Valley to the Back road; cavalry in front, McCausland at the foot of Three Top Mountain, Jackson on the Middle road and Johnson on the Back road. We spent the day on the lines. The troops fortified them. Very warm.

Sunday, August 14.--We spent the day on the lines, staying under a tree by the roadside. Had a little skirmishing with the enemy. Most of them remained on the north side of Cedar Creek. Our signal men were driven off the point of Three Top Mountain, but Capt. Keller and his sharpshooters drove the Yankees off and killed 2 and captured 3.

Monday, August 15.--Spent the day on the lines and at Breckinridge's headquarters. In the p.m. we drove the enemy back to Cedar Creek Hill and found them in the same position. A very warm day. It rained late in the p.m. and at night. Maj. Jones spent the night with me. Gen. Lomax came to-day.

Tuesday, August 16.--Sketched the country between the river and Massanutten Mountain and along the foot of Fisher's Hill. Quite warm. Fitz Lee came to see Gen. Early, his cavalry being at Front Royal. Anderson had a fight with the Yankee cavalry at Guard Hill, in which he got the worst of it.

Wednesday, August 17.--We found the enemy gone this morning and the smoke rising from all parts of the Lower Valley from the burning of barns and hay and wheat stacks by the retreating Yankees. We followed, Gordon in advance; then Wharton, Ramseur, and Rodes. McCausland went down the Valley pike, Jackson on the Middle, and Johnson on the Back roads. We did not get up with the enemy until we reached Kernstown; there drove in the skirmishers, and found the cavalry posted on Bower's Hill. I took Forsberg's small brigade to the Middle road and threw them out to the left and drove the enemy from the hills in front and to the left of Bell's, Johnson's cavalry being there on our left; then reported, and Wharton's division was sent there. I put in it line to advance against Bower's Hill. Then saw it go in and take the hill. Ramseur's sharpshooters advanced at the same time. I watched the left of the line and the advance of Johnson's cavalry, then reported to Gen. Early after dark. Gordon crossed from Kernstown to the Front Royal road and came into Winchester from that way. We lost some killed and wounded, and inflicted some loss on the enemy and drove them through the town. We got the town just after dark. We encamped at Pritchard's, near Kernstown. We took 200 prisoners. The day was pleasant and cloudy; part of it very hot. Anderson marched up to the Opequon.

Thursday, August 18.--We moved our camp to the yard of Mrs. Wood, near the Town Spring, at Winchester. Rodes moved out a mile or so on the Berryville road, Ramseur on the Martinsburg road, and Gordon and Wharton remained on Abraham's Creek, near Hollingsworth's Mill. Gen. Anderson came up with Kershaw's division and Fitz Lee's cavalry and encamped near the Opequon, on the Front Royal and Millwood roads. It rained most of last night and half of to-day quite steadily. Oltmanns finished a map of the Valley, which I sent to Gen. Lomax, and corrected some maps.

Friday, August 19.--We moved at an early hour to Bunker Hill, Ramseur in advance, followed by Rodes and Breckinridge. All encamped in the vicinity of Bunker Hill. Anderson and Fitz Lee remained at Winchester. Lomax and his cavalry went to vicinity of Martinsburg and halt the line of the Opequon all along. A fine day. Slight showers. Cool evening. Lomax went to Martinsburg and Shepherdstown.

Saturday, August 20.--We spent the day in camp. I corrected some maps. Oltmanns copied part of battle of Monocacy and Robinson copied a Valley map. It rained and misted most of the day. We had some skirmishing with the enemy along the Opequon. Camps as yesterday.

Sunday, August 21.--We moved toward Charlestown at an early hour. Drove the enemy from the Opequon. Met their infantry skirmishers at Aldridge's about 9.30 a.m. Rodes was in front and threw out his skirmishers and drove the enemy to the vicinity of Charlestown. Ramseur was put on his right and advanced to near the Summit Point road. Anderson came by the old Winchester and Charlestown road and Fitz Lee by the Berryville road. They had some fighting near Summit Point. We advanced by Smithfield. It threatened rain some, but cleared off by noon. Lomax, with Vaughn, Johnson, and Jackson, advanced by Leetown and then toward Summit Point with part of his force from Smithfield. Gordon was put on the right and Wharton on the left of the pike in reserve. We skirmished with the enemy during the p.m. and used some artillery. They made some advances, but were repulsed. We encamped some two and a half miles from Charlestown. A fine day. I reconnoitered positions, &c.

Monday, August 22.--We advanced at an early hour and found the enemy gone, leaving only cavalry behind. We soon drove them off, and three miles beyond Charlestown. Anderson and Fitz Lee came to vicinity of Charlestown, and our cavalry was thrown out toward Shepherdstown and toward the Shenandoah. It rained very hard for several hours in the p.m. I dined at Mr. Strider's. Robinson copied map for Gen. Kershaw in p.m. and night. Hdqrs. near Davenport's.

Tuesday, August 23.--The army remained in front of Charlestown. Made some few movements to thwart moved of the enemy, moving more to the left. I sketched the portion of country that we fought over on Sunday. There was a dense for in the morning, but it cleared off and became quite warm. Hdqrs. at Davenport's.

Wednesday, August 24.--Still at same place. Enemy drove in our pickets toward Harper's Ferry and created some stir, which was soon quelled. Quiet the rest of the day. I rode over to Rock's Ford, on the Shenandoah, to view the country. Dined with Maj. Adams at Osborne's. Very warm day.

Thursday, August 25.--We started at an early hour for Shepherdstown, via Leetown, Wharton in front, followed by Gordon, Rodes, and Ramseur. Fitz Lee went by Smithfield to Leetown and Lomax collected his at the same place, and all went on to Martinsburg and Williamsport. We met the enemy's cavalry advance about one mile and a half from Leetown and had quite a heavy skirmish with them. Wharton's division was thrown out and engaged, most of it on the left of the road. Gordon was moved to the right and Rodes to the left. We soon drove the enemy off, with considerable loss on both sides. They made another stand near Shepherdstown on the Charlestown road, which Gordon repulsed with Terry's brigade on the left, then York and Evans on the right. Quite a lively skirmish ensued, in which Gordon was wounded in the head, but he gallantly dashed on, the blood direction, and encamped at night near Shepherdstown. Hdqrs. at Boteler's house. A stampede of ambulances when the firing began came near causing a stampede of Wharton's division. We lost a good many. The Yanks had started on a raid and had three days' rations with them. Very warm. The cavalry is opposite Williamsport to-night.

Friday, August 26.--We spent about half the day at Shepherdstown, then marched back to Leetown, Ramseur in advance, followed by Rodes, Gordon and Wharton. Our cavalry came to the vicinity of Shepherdstown, having found the enemy in force to oppose their passage at Williamsport. They had an artillery duel in the morning. Anderson had a fight near Charlestown in the p.m. Hdqrs. in the orchard at the old Gen. Lee house. Col. Boteler spends the night with me. Robinson and Oltmanns worked awhile at maps. Fine day. Windy and some rain at night.

Saturday, August 27.--We continued our march back to our old camp at Bunker Hill. Rodes went by Dandridge's and the Sulphur Springs, the rest by Smithfield. Ramseur followed by Gordon and Wharton. Anderson came from Charlestown by Smithfield, and went on to Stephenson's. Pleasant, but quite cool in the p.m. We also found the cavalry falling back, but Gen. Early ordered McCausland back to Charlestown, and he went beyond toward Harper's Ferry. Fitz Lee and Lomax remained near Shepherdstown.

Sunday, August 28.--We spent the day in camp at Bunker Hill, and had preaching in some of the divisions. The enemy's cavalry advanced on ours, and we had some fighting near Smithfield, especially Harry Gilmor, but our cavalry retired, Lomax toward Bunker Hill, and Fitz Lee toward Brucetown. The enemy occupied Smithfield, burning three houses there. Some infantry marched toward the Opequon, but was not engaged. The day was quite cool. Robinson made a map for Gen. Wickham.

Monday, August 29.--The enemy's cavalry advanced this morning and drove ours across the Opequon. Ramseur was marched out by the turnpike and advanced to drive them back. Gordon moved by a road to the right to turn the enemy's left flank. The artillery was also advanced. After some brisk commanding across the creek, and skirmishing, we drove the enemy through Smithfield and two miles and a half beyond, then returned to our old camps again. Rodes help the road toward Martinsburg. We lost 10 killed and 75 wounded. Late in the p.m. our cavalry was again driven across the Opequon by the enemy. I went to Gen. Anderson in the morning to apprise him of the situation, then came back and witnessed most of the advance. Pleasant day. Cool in morning and evening. Robinson and Oltmanns worked at maps. I sent Green's baggage to Winchester.

Tuesday, August 30.--Spent the day in camp, not feeling very well, but worked some at maps. Robinson and Oltmanns copying maps of the Valley. Fine day; cool night; all quiet.

Wednesday, August 31.--I sketched the road to the Opequon and back. The Yankee cavalry made some advances toward Winchester. Came to the Opequon. Anderson moved back to near Winchester. Our cavalry was moved to meet them, but they went back in the p.m. and the usual quiet prevailed. Fine day; cool at night. Rodes' division went to Martinsburg and back.

Thursday, September 1.--I rode up to Winchester in the a.m. and brought back some dispatches for Gen. Early. Oltmanns copied map of the Valley. Robinson finished reducing Adams County, Pa. A very fine day.

Friday, September 2.--Dispatches came in the morning stating that the enemy was moving toward Berryville in force. So we moved across the country toward Stone Chapel by Fry's Ford, Gordon in advance, followed by Wharton and Ramseur. We got nearly to Stone Chapel when Vaughan's brigade of our cavalry to stampeded at Bunker Hill and ran away, leaving the wagons and Johnson's brigade to take care of themselves. A few hundred cavalry took fourteen wagons and some men and compelled us to turn back. Rodes had been left near Stephenson's. He turned back and drove the enemy nearly to Bunker Hill. We turned back through Brucetown, Ramseur in advance, and encamped between Brucetown and Stephenstown's. Our wagons went from Stephenson's nearly to Summit Point ahead of the army, but all got back safely to Stephenstown's about midnight. The enemy retired and Fitz Lee reported that the enemy had gone to City Point. Anderson and Fitz Lee moved toward Berryville.

Saturday, September 3.--The enemy's cavalry appeared at White Post this morning threatening to come to Newtown. Fitz Lee moved toward Newtown and Anderson toward Berryville. He met the enemy near there in the p.m. and drove them from a line of works with small loss. The cannonading kept up until 9 p.m. Rodes started in the morning for Bunker Hill, to be followed by the rest of the corps; but he alone went on and had a skirmish with the enemy there after the cavalry fight, in which Harry Gilmor was wounded. Ramseur remained in camp guarding some roads. At night Gordon moved to Winchester, his men in high spirits. It rained in the night; began just about dark. I went to Winchester to attend to some business.

Sunday, September 4.--We were roused up very early to go to Berryville, Ramseur in front, followed up Wharton and Rodes (Gordon remained at Winchester). We found Anderson in line of battle in front of Berryville and joined on to his left. He was skirmishing some with the enemy. Their cavalry soon passed back from Millwood. We marched to find the enemy's right flank. Went as far as Sidney Allen's. Found them well fortified, so skirmished with them until night and then withdrew to a line parallel with the Winchester and Berryville roads, and there spent the night. Hdqrs. at Russell's. A fine day. It rained some at night.

Monday, September 5.--We remained in front of Berryville until 2 p.m., then withdrew and returned to Stephenson's Depot by the way of the Burnt Factory, Jordan Springs, &c. Rodes was in front, followed by Wharton and Ramseur. Anderson moved back to Winchester in the morning. Our cavalry had a skirmish with the enemy below Stephenson's and was falling back when Rodes' advance came there, just before dark, and threw out a brigade to the right of the pike and advanced rapidly and drove Averell's cavalry some three miles, inflicting some damage. It rained very hard late in the p.m. and also after dark. Hdqrs. at Mrs. Stephenson's.

Tuesday, September 6.--We spent the day in camp, and it rained and misted most of the time. I corrected maps and wrote some letters. Gave Col. Smith a map of the northeast of Virginia.

Wednesday, September 7.--I rode over a back road to Winchester on the left of the pike and back by one of the right and sketched them. A fine, clear day. Enemy's cavalry made a demonstration near Brucetown; also near the Yellow House on the Martinsburg road, and also on the Millwood and Front Royal roads not far from Winchester, and were repulsed at all points. The general went to Winchester.

Thursday, September 8.--I went to Newtown to-day to see Lieut. Koerner. Met him and we went to Maj. Jones' and spent the night. It rained most of the day; began at 10 a.m. We changed camp and went back of Mrs. Stephenson's.

Friday, September 9.--It cleared off and we had a fine day. Koerner and myself came back to camp, then went over to Breckinridge's and fixed to have his engineer company go and aid in the survey of the country. The enemy came to the Opequon and burned some mills. Wharton went to meet them.

Saturday, September 10.--We moved down to Bunker Hill, Rodes in front, followed by Ramseur. Some of Lomax's brigade preceded us. We had a very hard rained in the morning, with thunder and lighting. We marched through. Our infantry marched just beyond Darkeville. Our cavalry drove the Yankees through Martinsburg after the infantry had started them from Darkesville. All the enemy went south of that stream. We came back to our old camp at Bunker Hill. Ramseur and Rodes came there. Lomax remained at Darkeville. The day became pleasant.

Sunday, September 11.--It began to rain about 11 p.m. last night and rained very hard until 7 this morning, with thunder and vivid lightning. The infantry moved back to Stephenson's to-day. I went with Capt. Wilbourn by the Back road to our old camp at Stephenson's. The cavalry remained at Darkeville. There were several hard showers during the day, accompanied by thunder and lightning. We dined at Mr. Abbott's.

Monday, September 12.--Spent the day in camp preparing to go to Staunton. All quiet. A fine day; showery. Cool morning and evenings. Maj. Jones dined with us.

Tuesday, September 13.--I left for home. Went to the engineer camp, seven miles southwest of Strasburg, and spent the night. There was heavy cannonading near Brucetown when I left. A fine, cool day. The enemy advanced on the old Charlestown road. We broke up camp at Stephenson's at 2 p.m. The general spent the day at Carpenter's battery on the left of the road near the Opequon. We skirmished across the creek. Carpenter had 2 guns disabled, 3 men killed, and 5 wounded. Gordon on the left. Ramseur on the right. Enemy left. Hdqrs. at same place at night.

Wednesday, September 14.--I rode as far as Mr. Cowan's, near Tenth Legion. It rained very hard most of the day. Cold and chilly. Col. Boteler left for Winchester. Anderson took his division away to Culpeper Court-House via Front Royal.

Thursday, September 15.--Went on home by way of Mossy Creek. Dined at Mr. Craun's and called at Maj. McCue's. A fine, cool day. The people are busy sowing grain. Grass is growing finely. Otlmanns made copy of map of Virginia. Lieut. Boyd came to headquarters to report to Lieut. Koerner.

Friday, September 16.--Went to Staunton by the way of E. Geeding's. Looked some for supplies. Got maps and sent some down to camp. A fine day. Cool in evening. Lieut. Koerner sent Boyd and Chichester to the west of Winchester to survey.

Saturday, September 17.--Rode around among my neighbors to buy supplies for the year. Had some difficulty, but got along well. Fine, bracing day. They had dinner in camp at 1 p.m. and two days' rations were ordered, and moved at 3 p.m. to Bunker Hill, Gordon in advance, preceded by Jackson and followed by Rodes. Camped at Bunker Hill.

Sunday, September 18.--I spent the day at home, as it portended rain and rained some in the a.m. Henry Sieg and others called to see me. Fine day. At 3 a.m. Gordon marched for Martinsburg. Cavalry met enemy's pickets at Big Spring and drove them through town of Martinsburg. Two brigades of Gordon went to the left of Martinsburg, and one (York's) to the right. Destroyed Tuscarora bridge, took 21 men and horses, 5 wagon loads of coal, and 5 coils of telegraph wire. Left at 4 p.m. and came back to Bunker Hill; headquarters at Stephenson's. Rodes came to Stephenson's. Grant said to be at Harper's Ferry.

Monday, September 19.--I started back to camp by the way of Staunton. Passed through Harrisonburg, where there was a large crowd at court. Came to Big Spring and spent the night at Lincoln's. Fine, warm day. Enemy came on by the Berryville road and Ramseur engaged them three miles from Winchester, at right angles to the road, from 3 a.m. Lomax, Johnson, and Jackson on the right. Rodes came up at 10 a.m. and formed on Ramseur's left, and Gordon came about noon and formed on Rodes' left. Wharton came up and fought along the Martinsburg road to Gordon's rear. He drove the enemy's cavalry back several times. The infantry fighting became heavy about noon. Gen. Rodes was killed between 1 and 2 p.m. Enemy advanced several times. Were repulsed with very great loss. The Yankee cavalry made a dash on our left at 1 p.m. and were driven back, but at 4 p.m. they turned our left and fell on our rear and made our men give way in great confusion, coming to the suburbs of Winchester. Then Gordon's line gave way and we were compelled to retreat about sundown. This was effected with little loss. The enemy's cavalry come on to Kernstown, but were checked by Ramseur. We fell back to Newtown, Gordon in front and Ramseur in the rear. Camped about midnight. We took 400 prisoners and inflicted a loss of 8,000 or 10,000 on the enemy. Our loss about 1,500. Fine day. Chilly night. . .

Saturday, September 24.--We formed a line of battle on Rude's Hill in the morning, Wharton on the left and Ramseur on the right, in front, and Pegram on the right and Gordon on the left, in the rear, and remained there until noon. The enemy came on and threw a few shells and began to move up the opposite side of the river on our left flank. We then fell back to near New Market, then gradually, in line of battle and by the flank, skirmishing and using artillery, to Tenth Legion Church, where we formed a line and kept the enemy at bay until after dark. The enemy drove our cavalry rapidly on the Back and Middle roads. Wickham brought his cavalry across the Massanutten enemy followed him closely. I took orders to Maj. Harman about the wagons, and then aided in getting them off the pike and onto to Keezletown road. After dark the infantry retired to Flook's, eighth miles from Tenth Legion, on the Keezletown road, getting there about midnight, Ramseur in front, followed by Gordon, Wharton, and Pegram. I remained and posted Jackson's cavalry brigade. Our cavalry was driven in great confusion nearly to Harrisonburg. We rested at the wagons at Flook's until the moon rose. A fine day. Cool in p.m. and some rain.

Sunday, September 25.--We started the wagons on toward Port Republic at 1 a.m. At daylight the army came on, Pegram in rear, by Peale's Cross-Roads, Meyerhoeffer's Store, &c. Wharton preceded Pegram. I came to Port Republic to guide the head of the train. It went on to Brown's Gap. Harman and Allan were with me. I rode on to Staunton to look after my map box. Got there by noon. Found much excitement. They were evacuating the place. I dined at Maj. Harman's. Got back to camp by 10 p.m., having ridden forty miles to-day. A fine warm day. The enemy did not follow. Their cavalry came to Harrisonburg. We got out whole commanding into Brown's Gap, except the cavalry. Left them north of the South River. Hdqrs. at Mount Vernon Furnance.

Monday, September 26.--Kershaw's division came up from Saint Run Gap. Joined us about noon. The Yankee artillery fired a few shots at it as it turned off at Lewis' to come to Brown's Gap, and a few cavalry went down the river to attack his trains. Kershaw got some men and artillery in position and gave them a warm reception. The Yankee cavalry drove ours across the river and came up to our lines. Pegram's division was marched out on the Cave road, and skirmished some with them near the angle of the road, and repulsed several charges of their cavalry, using artillery. The enemy also advanced on the turnpike, and Ramseur drove them back from there. Wharton moved out in rear of Ramseur, and Gordon in rear of Pegram. I showed Kershaw the way up, and carried some orders. Oltmanns copied a map of the Valley. A fine, warm day. Enemy reported up South River, and Wickham moved to near Patterson's, on South River. My horse was killed by a bullet in the Yankee charge.

Tuesday, September 27.--Wickham crossed the river at Patterson's, and Gordon followed him with artillery, &c. Ramseur followed Gordon. We attacked the Yankee cavalry encamped near Weyer's Cave and drove them away from between Middle and South Rivers, and also from the vicinity of Port Republic, giving them some help with our artillery as they went toward Harrisonburg. Pegram pushed forward shaw held the front of Brown's Gap. Wharton followed Pegram. We surprised the Yankees, but an untimely opening of artillery advised them of our approach. We brought our camp to opposite Weyer's Cave. The army (except Kershaw, who remained at the Furnace) encamped between the rivers. I suggested the routes of the army and guided movements. Pleasant day.

Wednesday, September 28.--We started at an early hour to go to Waynesborough, but a report of an attack on Pegram's pickets turned us back for a time. Then we had to wait for Kershaw's train to pass by. Then a misunderstanding of orders caused delay at Mount Meridian. The train went up South River and crossed at Patterson's Ford, Ramseur in front. Pegram, followed by Wharton, went by the Waynesborough road from Mount Meridian. Five miles from Waynesborough Wharton took the River road and Pegram kept on to Dogtown. I guided Kershaw by Mount Meridian to New Hope. A mile beyond New Hope we took the Waynesborough road. We encountered the enemy's cavalry pickets near the Hermitage, five miles from Waynesborough, and drove them rapidly forward. Pegram drove them to Dogtown by dark, and attacked them there just after Wickham drove them through Waynesborough from toward Rocksfish Gap, whither he had gone by the south bank of South River. Pegram drove them to Dogtown by dark, and attacked them there just after Wickham drove them through Waynesborough from toward Rockfish Gap, whither he had gone by the south bank of South River. Pegram had driven the Yanks three miles and a half. He gallantly attacked them after dark and drove them toward Fishersville and encamped where they had had their camp on the Staunton road. Gordon followed Kershaw. All encamped in the vicinity of Waynesborough at a late hour. Hdqrs. at Gallagher's. A fine day. Some rain in p.m.

Thursday, September 29.--We moved our camp to the southwest of Waynesborough and spent the day cleaning up. I rode around the lines with the general in the a.m. The enemy went toward Mossy Creek at a rapid rate. They made the night light with burning barns, hay stacks, &c., during the day and night. I went to the tunnel in the morning to see if any damage had been done there; also examined the track of the railroad and got the pioneers and engineer troops at work on the bridge across South River, which the enemy had burned. Showery day. Rained hard at night. Quite warm.

Friday, September 30.--We spent the day at Waynesborough. It rained and misted in the morning, but got quite pleasant in the p.m. The Yankees went to Bridgewater yesterday. Our cavalry went up to Staunton and put pickets out to Middle River. A great deal of burning going on to-night toward Rockingham-mills, barns, &c. . .

Monday, October 3.--Spent the day in camp. Army quiet, save some skirmishing with Yankee cavalry along North River. It misted and rained during the day and rained hard at night. Gen. Rosser came yesterday, and to-day reconnoitered the front. The enemy holds the line of North River. Sent map of Southeastern Virginia to Gen. R. E. Lee.

Tuesday, October 4.--Spent the day in camp. Oltmanns went to Staunton. Robinson copied map of Valley. It cleared off and was a fine day. All quiet. Rosser's cavalry encamped near Staunton; came from Lynchburg and Richmond. The enemy burned barns, &c., at night.

Wednesday, October 5.--Spent the day in camp drawing--Robinson reducing Pennsylvania maps, Otlmanns copying Valley map. Gordon moved camp to vicinity of Naked Creek. Rosser moved to Landes' Mill, on road from Stone Church to Mossy Creek. Cars ran to Smith's to-day, two miles and a half from Staunton. We have rebuilt the bridges over South River and Christian's Creek. About two miles of track are to be railed. Enemy still near Harrisonburg. The general rode along the lines to-day. Fine day. Lieut. Boyd dined with us. . .

Saturday, October 22.--I started on the state for Richmond at 7 a.m. to bear dispatches to Gen. Lee. Got to Staunton after dark. Spent the night at M. G. Harman's. Had quite a long chat with Andrew Hunter. Quite cool.

Sunday, October 23.--Went to Richmond on the cars. Many of the reserves were going down and I met some coming to the Valley District. A fine day, but cool. I went to Gen. Lawton's to get a horse to go to Gen. Lee's at Chaffin's. Took tea with Gen. Lawton and had a long chat. Got a horse and went to Gen. Lee's, six miles. Got there at 11 p.m. Saw Gen. Lee and we had a long talk about matters in the Valley, commanding generals, &c. I spent the night there. Gen. Early told me not to tell Gen. Lee that we ought to have advanced in the morning at Middletown, for, said he, we ought to have done so.

Monday, October 24.--I went down to see Gen. Ewell at the Chaffing house; found him in a fine humor. We rode out along the line of works and to Fort Gilmer. Saw Fort Harrison and the Yankee lines. Came back and conversed awhile with Gen. Lee, then went up to Richmond. Transacted some business at the Engineer Bureau. Went to the Spotswood and found my old friend Col. Heck there. Called on Col. Nat. Tyler in the evening and went home with him and spent a pleasant hour or so. A fine day.

Tuesday, October 25.--Went to Staunton on the cars and then got a horse and rode home. Got there at midnight and spent a few delightful hours with my family. Fine bracing day. All quiet at the army.

Wednesday, October 26.--Started for Staunton at 5 a.m., then went on to New Market on the stage. Found all quiet, save that the cavalry of Sheridan had been fighting Lomax at Milford, and he had repulsed all their attacks. Cool day. Some rain at night. Rosser's brigade went to Luray in the night. . .

Thursday, November 17.--Worked at battle of Cedar Creek; Robinson finished Southeast Virginia and worked on Franklin County, Pa. Oltmanns at small Virginia. Misty and rainy. Pegram moved up to Big Springs. Hinrichs called to see us.

Friday, November 18.--Spent day as yesterday. It rained and misted all day.

Saturday, November 19.--Drawing map of battle of Cedar Creek. Oltmanns copying map of Eastern Virginia. Robinson reducing Franklin County, Pa. It snowed in the morning and rained and misted until about noon.

Sunday, November 20.--The day was chilly and misty. Capt. Page came back from Richmond. Monday, November 21.--All engaged as before. It rained and misted all day. Got orders at dark to go to-morrow with Maj. Harman to select camps for winter quarters for the troops in Augusta County.

Tuesday, November 22.--We were up by 5 a.m. I took breakfast with Maj. Harman, and we were far on our way by sunrise. Col. Allan accompanied us. We stopped a short time at Mrs. Grattan's, but pressed on and reached Maj. Harman's, near Staunton, by 4 p.m., forty-three miles. The air was very chilly and the ground in places white with snow. The enemy's cavalry, two divisions, encamped at Woodstock last night, and to-day it came on up as far as Rude's Hill. We marched three divisions of infantry down to meet them, Gordon's, Wharton's, and Grimes', from their camps three and four miles southwest of New Market. Grimes, Gordon, and Wharton in order. We took a line on the top of the hill ------- on the left of the road ------- on the right, and ------- in reserve in the rear of the others. A regiment of cavalry and ------- pieces of artillery. The enemy came boldly up to near the hill, when we opened on them and sent them back in great disorder, inflicting considerable loss. Our infantry skirmishers pursued to Hawkinstown and the cavalry to below Edenburg. A brigade of our cavalry pursued. All came back to the old camps at night. Marched twenty-five miles.

Wednesday, November 23.--Maj. Harman, Col. Allan, and myself went toward Waynesborough to look for winter quarters for the troops. Col. Allan soon found a camp for his ordnance train and left us, and we spent the day riding through woods, &c. We selected a set of camps near Fishersville and returned to Maj. Harman's by 5 p.m. The day was chilly. Rode thirty miles.

Thursday, November 24.--We rode toward Christian's Creek and selected some camps there if it should be desired to encamp some troops there. The engineer troops passed through Staunton on their way to Lexington. The day was quite pleasant. Rode twenty miles. . .

Monday, November 28.--Spent day in camp. Finished battle of Cedar Creek and worked at battle of Kearneysville. Oltmanns finished Western Virginia; Robinson made map of Harper's Ferry. Mild day; fog in morning.

Tuesday, November 29.--I sketched the road to Mount Jackson, and got position at Rude's Hill. A fine, warm day; summer-like. Heard that Rosser had captured a gun at Moorefield and gone on toward Cumberland.

Wednesday, November 30.--Spent the day in camp making map of the engagement at Rude's Hill. Oltmanns copying battle of Chattanooga. Robinson made maps for Col. Smith's monthly report, showing position of army, pickets, &c. A fine, pleasant day. We heard of Gen. Rosser's capture of New Creek; 800 prisoners, 8 pieces of artillery, &c. I drew my pay for November, $833.33 1/3, under new appointment.

Thursday, December 1.--Finished my map of the engagement at Rude's Hill. Visited Gen. Gordon's camp. Got information of positions, &c., from Gen. Wharton, Maj. Peyton, &c. Oltmanns copying Chattanooga. Robinson is sick. Col. Smith went to Luray Valley. Fine, warm day.

Friday, December 2.--Worked at map of battle of Charlestown. Oltmanns finished map of battle of Chattanooga. Robinson was sick. Rosser got back to-day with flags, &c. Maj. Peyton called to see me to-day. Col. Smith got back. It began to rain about noon. Somewhat cool.

Saturday, December 3.--Finished map of battle of Charlestown. Oltmanns began yesterday a reduction of the map of Northeastern Virginia and part of Maryland and Pennsylvania. Robinson still sick. A pleasant day. The Yankee prisoners were brought in.

Sunday, December 4.--Spent day in camp. A fine, warm day.

Monday, December 5.--Finished map of action at Kearneysville and worked at battle of Harper's Ferry. Robinson finished off several battle maps and outlined some. Oltmanns at reduction. A hard white frost and day chilly. Mr. Lacy spent some time with us.

Tuesday, December 6.--Finished map of Harper's Ferry and worked some on one of Fort Duncan. Robinson made a copy of Rude's Hill; Oltmanns at reduction of Northeastern Virginia. Gordon's division changed camp and moved up toward Staunton; also Pegram. A pleasant day; little rain in a.m.

Wednesday, December 7.--I began map of fight at Smithfield. Robinson copied Cedar Creek. Oltmanns at reduction of Northeastern Virginia. Wickham's brigade went from Mount Jackson to Timberville.

Thursday, December 8.--Finished Smithfield and began map of New Creek. Robinson finished copy of Cedar Creek. Oltmanns at reduction. Finished copying my journal at night. It is reported that Gordon's and Pegram's divisions went to Richmond from Staunton last night. A big battle is expected at Richmond. The Sixth Corps of Sheridan's army has gone there, and it is reported to-day that more of his men have gone.

Saturday, December 10.--It snowed all last night and for some time to-day; the snow is about ten inches deep. I began another map of the battle of Cedar Creek, after correcting a map for Robinson to copy of Rosser's route. Oltmanns at reduction. Quite cold.

Sunday, December 11.--The day was cold and chilly; it rained a little and snowed a little.

Monday, December 12.--Worked at Cedar Creek. Robinson copying Monocacy; Oltmanns at reduction. A very cold day; wind sharp and biting. It froze very hard last night.

Tuesday, December 13.--Robinson finished Monocacy. Oltmanns at reduction, I at Cedar Creek. Cool day; looks like storm.

Wednesday, December 14.--Worked at Cedar Creek. Robinson at map of vicinity of Washington; Oltmanns at reduction. Some rain that froze early in the a.m.; mild day. Grimes' division left for Richmond.

Thursday, December 15.--Spent the day finishing some maps for Col. Smith. Robinson was very sick and we sent him to the hospital. Oltmanns worked at reduction awhile and then packed up. Mild day; thawed some.

Friday, December 16.--We started from New Market about 11 a.m. Wharton's division started by daylight and went to near Mount Crawford. Rosser's division went on toward Swoope's and Lomax's to Swift Run Gap. We rode on the Harrisonburg and spent the night there. It thawed all day. Warm south wind.

Saturday, December 17.--I rode on quite early to show Gen. Wharton his camp. Turned off at the Willow Pump and went by the Barren Ridge road to the Waynesborough road; showed his inspector the camp and then went to John Hamilton's for the night. It continued to thaw and most of the snow left. Gen. Early came to Staunton. Wharton went out two miles toward Waynesborough. It rained some in the p.m. and at night.

Sunday, December 18.--I rode back to Staunton to see Gen. Early, then came back to Fishersville, where the wagons came, and went to look for a camp. It rained most of the day and the mud got quite deep. We spent the night in the woods near Fishersville. The general did not come from Staunton.

Monday, December 19.--I obtained quarters near Fishersville and moved to them. Wharton's division came two miles this side of Staunton night before last and encamped, and to-day came on to camps near Fishersville. The general came down late in the p.m. and went to Mrs. McCue's. We went to Staunton on the cars again, owing to report of enemy coming up the Valley-at Woodstock to-night. Two divisions of their cavalry crossed the Blue Ridge at Chester Gap. Mild day.

Tuesday, December 20.--We started back down the Valley this morning to meet the advance of the enemy. Rosser, who moved to Swoope's Sunday, went in advance. I guided Wharton across by Maj. Harman's into the pike and we went on to Naked Creek, where we spent the night. Had our quarters in the church. Rosser went to Harrisonburg and the enemy came to Lacey's Springs, a division of cavalry. Most of the snow gone, but the day was quite chilly and before midnight a severe storm began of sleet, hail, and snow.

Wednesday, December 21.--We marched on at daylight in the midst of a blinding storm, cold and biting, but most of the men in a good humor, though in no plight for a battle. Rosser moved at dawn and attacked the enemy just as they were saddling up. Routed their first and second brigades, capturing 35 prisoners and getting their wagons and ambulances, but they rallied on their third brigade and he had to fall back and they got their wagons back, but at once retreated down the Valley. The infantry was halted at the Big Spring on the pike three miles southwest of Harrisonburg, and went into camp. Rosser did not get all his up in time for his attack. We got to Harrisonburg about noon. The storm ceased at noon. It was quite warm for a short time. It was very slippery on the pike. The general stays in Harrisonburg. I had J. Arthur Wilson detailed for topographical duty.

Thursday, December 22.--The day was windy and quite cold. Wharton marched back to near Staunton. Payne's and Wickham's brigades came to near Staunton.

Friday, December 23.--In p.m. went to Staunton and down the quarters at Fishersville; air keen and cold, but clear. Roads very icy. Wharton's division (two brigades) took the cars and went across mountain (Blue Ridge); one brigade went to old camp.

Saturday, December 24.--Went to Fishersville, then back and up to Staunton, and Mr. Oltmanns and Col.'s Smith and Allan went home with me to a Christmas dinner, and we had a very pleasant evening. Robinson came out yesterday. A fine day. It thawed some. The Yankees came near to Gordonsville and were repulsed there.

Sunday, December 25.--Col.'s Smith and Allan went back to Staunton to-day. A fine day, quite pleasant and thawed some.

Monday, December 26.--I rode to Staunton. Was there awhile and then came back and examined the location for a bridge over Middle River. Lieut. Flood and party came out there to-day. It was warm. The sun shone brightly and most of the snow was melted. Gen. Early came back to Staunton yesterday and dined at Maj. John Harman's to-day. (Came from Gordonsville).

Tuesday, December 27.--I rode to Staunton in the a.m., and after looking after business there while, I went on to Fishersville; dined at our quarters, then went to see Gen. Early and got a furlough until January 3, then went back to Maj. Harman's. It was very muddy. Quite warm; rain at night. Troops back in camp near Fishersville.

Wednesday, December 28.--Spent part of the day in Staunton looking for servants, &c., then rode home, stopping to see Lieut. Flood, who is building a bridge at Middle River. There was a heavy for and mist in the morning; then rain in the p.m., and at night quite hard. Very muddy.

Thursday, December 29.--Spent the day at home. Worked at map of Kernstown. It thawed some. Snowed last night. Froze at night. Robinson engaged at Lynchburg.

Friday, December 30.--Spent day at home. Worked at vicinity of Winchester. Robinson at Lynchburg map. It was quite chilly. Saturday, December 31.--Spent some time at battle map of Kernstown, and Robinson at Lynchburg. Snow in the morning; quite cold.

Bibliographic Information : Letter Reproduced from The War of The Rebellion: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series 1, Volume 43, Serial No. 90, Pages 567-588, Broadfoot Publishing Company, Wilmington, NC, 1997.

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