This journal of Confederate Topographical Engineer Jedediah Hotchkiss covers January through May, 1865. Hotchkiss discusses operations in the Shenandoah Valley and movements in the Staunton area, including the March evacuation of the town. Hotchkiss also discusses hiring a servant in Staunton, most of whom could be paid for only in grain. He also reports finding a room to rent in the town. He discusses prices throughout. Also of interest are Hotchkiss's reports of soldier and civilian reactions to Confederate surrender. Hotchkiss also describes the process of parole by Union forces, and efforts by Staunton town authorities to prevent looting, collect taxes, and define their relationship to the federal government after Confederate surrender.
Sunday, January 1, 1865.--Spent the day at home. It was very cold, but clear.
Addenda. On the 1st of January, 1865, Lomax's division of cavalry was located, one brigade at Burtonsville, one brigade at Liberty Mills, one brigade at Stanardsville, three regiments on picket. Hdqrs. at Barboursville. The outer line of pickets began at Criglersville, on the left; then, via Madison Court-House, to Locuts Dale. Interior reserves at Culpeper Court-House. Vedettes at fords of Rappahannock.
Monday, January 2.--Went to Staunton to hire servants, but did not get one, as they were hired only for grain and at very high rates, men bringing 100 bushels of corn or wheat. The day was quite cold in the a.m., but became quite pleasant. Gen. Early has gone to Richmond.
Tuesday, January 3.--Went over to see the bridge at the river, which the pioneers nearly completed to-day, and then H. B. Sieg and myself went to Staunton, where I hired a servant woman of Mrs. Opie for $50 in specie, or its equivalent. Came back, and hunted wagons to haul wood to-morrow. A fine morning, but it began to snow about noon, and snowed all the rest of the day quite fast. Snowed until midnight.
Wednesday, January 4.--Spent the day at home, looking after hauling wood, &c. Had five men of pioneer party to cut, and a team from there, and Doctor Wilson's and Dudley's teams. Got two loads of wood from Dudley's and twelve from Heiser's woods. Cold in morning, but became pleasant. Robinson copying battle maps.
Thursday, January 5.--I went up to Swoope's Depot to see Gen. Rosser. Found him at Col. Baylor's. Got from him positions of cavalry in fights, &c. Dined with him and then returned home. Munford, with Wickham's brigade, came from Midway to Swoope's to-day. He came by the Parkersburg road to Staunton the same day we went to Harrisonburg after Custer, then crossed to Ivy Depot, back to Greenwood, then to Rockfish and across Tye River Gap. Rosser's pickets are still at Stony Creek, and he has a squadron in Pocahontas County. It thawed and force alternately to-day.
Friday, January 6.--Spent the morning at home looking, altering things generally. After dinner self and servant rode to camp at Fisherville. It began to rain last night and rained quite steadily all day. The streams are rising rapidly and the snow is nearly gone, but the frost has not yet left the ground. Gen. Early came back yesterday. Robinson is copying battle maps at my house.
Saturday, January 7.--Worked at amps of Rosser's fight at Lacey's Spring. Oltmanns at reduction, and James Arthur Wilson began work to-day by copying map of Rockbridge. A fine, bracing day; thawed some in a.m. and froze in p.m. and at night; clear.
Sunday, January 8.--It froze hard last night; thawed some to-day.
Monday, January 9.--Orders came to move camp to Staunton, and this morning the general and all moved up. I went to look for rooms. Had much trouble. Ground frozen hard in the morning, thawed and rained in p.m. Robinson came back to camp. Wilson and Oltmanns at maps.
Tuesday, January 10.--It rained all last night and most of the day quite hard. Ground still frozen some, but very muddy. Got rooms at Arnall's for $50 a month. It cleared off about sundown.
Wednesday, January 11.--Worked at Rosser's fight at Lacey's Spring and at Hanging Rock. Oltmanns at reduction. Robinson at copy in Lynchburg. Wilson finished Rockbridge. It froze very hard and the day was quite breaking. Thawed some in p.m. Gen. Rosser attacked and captured the garrison at Beverly this morning before day, and took 585 prisoners of the Eighth Ohio Cavalry and Thirty-fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Attacked with 300 men. Col. Cook lost his leg (commanding Payne's brigade). Snow from six to eighteen inches deep on Cheat and Alleghany.
Thursday, January 12.--Finished map of battle at Hanging Rock, and Wilson began copy of map of Western Virginia for Rosser. Col. Smith went to Lexington. Quite cold.
Friday, January 13.--All engaged as usual. Cool day.
Saturday, January 14.--Worked at battles of Wilderness. Wilson copying Western Virginia. Oltmanns at reduction. Robinson copying Hanging Rock. Little snow in the a.m. Air quite bracing. Rosser at Greenbrier bridge.
Sunday, January 15.--A fine day. Quite mild. Robins singing.
Monday, January 16.--Came to camp early in the morning and worked at Wilderness battles. Robinson copying Hanging Rock. Oltmanns and Wilson at same as before. Maj. Gilmor came to see the general at night. He is now in command in Hardy County. Gen. Early seems to think we have hard times ahead of us, the supply of grain is so small.
Tuesday, January 17.--Finished Wilderness map and began one of Spotsylvania battles. Oltmanns reducing Admas County. Wilson finished map of part of Western Virginia for Gen. Rosser and began map of part of Pennsylvania for Maj. Gilmor. Robinson finishing map of Hanging Rock, tracing part of Spotsylvania, &c. Day bracing; furriers of snow. Rosser himself reported.
Wednesday, January 18.--Worked at Spotsylvania, &c. Oltmanns finished Admas and began York. Wilson at Pennsylvania. Robinson helped Col. Smith to make his property returns. I sent to bureau, &c., for maps last night. Echol's brigade going to Dublin Depot. McCusland's brigade came to Fisherville, and he to headquarters on way to Alleghany and Greenbrier; the Fourteenth to go to Weldon. Cold day; air chilly. Wrote to Rosser at night and inclosed map.
Thursday, January 19.--All engage as yesterday, except Robinson, who began copy of Wilderness battle. The cavalry of Lomax's division is on its way westward to subsist. McCausland was here at night, and gave me details of the campaign in regard to his brigade. A fine, bracing day.
Friday, January 20.--Wilson finished map of part of Pennsylvania, Robinson also copy of Wilderness, Oltmanns at York, I at Spotsylvania. Jackson's cavalry went through westward. Fine, bracing day.
Saturday, January 21.--I finished Spotsylvania and began Lomax's Gordonsville fight. Robinson finished map of first day in Wilderness; Oltmanns at york; Wilson map of Western Virginia for Lomax. It sleeted and force all day; cold; trees loaded with ice. I went home in p.m.
Sunday, January 22.--It misted some, but thawed most of the day; very muddy. Enemy captured picket at Edengubrg, which was retaken.
Monday, January 23.--Returned to Staunton early. Worked at Gordonsville and Liberty Mills; completed them. Robinson at Spotsylvania; Oltmanns and Wilson as before. It rained quite hard most of the day; froze at night. Robinson copying report to Engineer Bureau.
Tuesday, January 24.--Made maps for actions at Hedgesville, Martinsburg, and Hanover Junction. Robinson copying Spotsylvania, Oltmanns York, Wilson Western Virginia. It froze nearly all day and was quite cold.
Wednesday, January 25.--Corrected map of Western Virginia, office copy. Robinson finished battles of Spotsylvania for Gen. Ewell; Wilson finished Western Virginia for Gen. Lomax, and Oltmanns at York. Quite cool and bracing. Wrote to Nelson and Gen. Lawton. Finished report at night.
Thursday, January 26.--Made map of routes of Second Corps in May for Gen. Ewell. Wilson began second copy of Western Virginia. Oltmanns at York; Robinson copied battles of Wilderness. Intensely cold. Froze very hard. Cold wind.
Friday, January 27.--Finished route maps and began Hagerstown; Wilson at Western Virginia, Oltmanns at York; Robinson copying actions at Liberty Mills and Gordonsville. Rosser came and gave details of Beverly affair at night, and got from Munford actions of his brigade during campaign. Day very raw and cold. Dined with Gen. Early.
Saturday, January 28.--I made map of Rosser's Beverly affair and the route to the same. Robinson copied -------, Wilson at Western Virginia, Oltmanns at York. A very cold and windy day. I went home in the p.m.
Sunday, January 29.--Mild and pleasant.
Monday, January 30.--Attended trial of Col. Munford and gave evidence. Finished route map to Beverly and made map of action at Milford at night. Very cold and frosty morning, but the day was very pleasant. Much agitation about peace.
Tuesday, January 31.--Finished map of action at Milford and made map of position of army the 1st day of February, 1865. Oltmanns to well; finished York. Wilson finished Western Virginia. Robinson copying maps for Col. Smith. A very fine day; warm; thawed; the ice has been ten inches thick. Gen. Wharton spent night with me.
Wednesday, February 1.--Completed map showing the present position, &c., of the army, and made map of McCausland's expedition to Chambersburg. At night made map of action at Guard Hill. Oltmanns finished York County; Wilson copying King George; Robinson copying maps for Col. Smith's report for January. Col. Carter came up to say good-bye. He and two battalion of artillery go to Richmond to-morrow. A fine, warm day. . .
Monday, February 6.--Returned to Staunton quite early and made route map. We heard of the return of the so-called "Peace Commissioner,"with no results. No one seems disappointed. Quite cold in the morning. Day became pleasant, but was chilly. Wrote ten pages of report at night.
Tuesday, February 7.--Worked at route map. Robinson was finishing up maps for Gen. Ewell, and Wilson tracing maps of routes, &c., for me; Oltmanns reducing Cumberland County. It began to snow before day and snowed quite steadily all day. Finished my report of thirty pages and sent it off. Snow about eight inches deep. No cars.
Wednesday, February 8.--Employed on maps for report. Sent Gen. Ewell six maps to accompany his report. Wilson traced maps for me; Oltmanns finished reducing Cumberland County, Pa. Payne's brigade yesterday got orders to cross the mountain from Lexington. We heard of the defeat of the Second Corps below Petersburg and of Gen. Pegram's death. Fitz Lee leaves to-morrow. A fine day; cooler toward night. Robinson finished Gen. Ewell's maps.
Thursday, February 9.--Made map of the route of Second Corps from Hanover Junction to Gaines' Mill; Robinson copying map of Wilderness; Wilson tracing outlines for me and began Northwestern Virginia; Oltmanns finished Cumberland. A fine day; thawed a little; good sleighing.
Friday, February 10.--Engaged on map of battles in Hanover County. Oltmanns finished Loundoun. Fine day; thawed some.
Saturday, February 11.--The morning was quite cold, but the day was pleasant. Oltmanns began copying Howard County.
Sunday, February 12.--Cold and windy; ground covered with snow six inches deep and crusty.
Monday, February 13.--The day was pleasant and it thawed some, but it became very cold in the evening.
Tuesday, February 14.--Intensely cold morning, but pleasant day; thawed some.
Wednesday, February 15.--I worked at battles near Richmond. Oltmanns finished reducing Howard County. It snowed very hard in the a.m., then rained and thawed. Very sloppy.
Thursday, February 16.--Engaged as yesterday. Oltmanns began Anne Arundel County; Robinson and Wilson came back, and Robinson copied map of rutes; Wilson at Western Virginia. Thawed considerable.
Friday, February 17.--Same as yesterday; also, Oltmanns and Wilson. Robinson copied route map from Hanover Junction to Gaines' Mill. It snowed nearly all day. Not very cold.
Saturday, February 18.--Finished map of positions in Hanover County. Robinson copied route map from Gaines' Mill to Staunton; others as before. I went home in the evening. A fine, warm day; thawed rapidly. We heard of the fall of Columbia.
Sunday, February 19.--Fine day; thawed some.
Monday, February 20.--I worked at map of Fisher's Hill. Robinson copied route from Staunton to Washington; others as before. Very fine day; cool morning. Heard of the fall of Charleston. Part of army hospital went to Richmond.
Tuesday, February 21.--Finished map of Fisher's Hill. Robinson copied three small maps. Oltmanns began copying Fauquier for Engineer Bureau. Wrote in journal at night. A very pleasant day.
Wednesday, March 1.--Orders were issued yesterday for breakfast at daylight and be ready to move at sunrise, but it was nearly noon before our baggage all got of, and the last rain did not leave until 4.30 p.m. The general and staff left at 3.45 p.m. Everything was removed from Staunton. The enemy came on from Harrisonburg rapidly, driving the squad of cavalry that we had before them, and capturing many refugee wagons, &c. The enemy across Middle River, and encamped. Their advance at the Poague farm. Some of their pickets came into Staunton in the night, it was reported. We went to Waynesborough. Sent our wagons across the river. (My servant, William, got drunk in Staunton and got out of the way, and I left Staunton without him and did not know of his whereabouts until I got to Waynesborough, so I rode back in the night, very dark and mud very deep, to John Hamilton's, and got my servant and horse, and came back about 2 a.m. of the 2d, and slept awhile at a refugee camp, as I could not find my own.) Our infantry picketed the road at Fisherville, but spent the night in its own camp. Gen. Rosser had but few men, twenty or thirty, to watch the enemy's movements. Pleasant, but chilly.
Friday, March 3.--The fog and rain continued all night, but it ceased before noon. The enemy kept on crossing the mountain. Robinson came up in the morning, having been out all night. I spent the day at Harlan's, going out in the p.m. and looking at the situation. Saw the enemy's pontoon train, &c., cross the mountain. The enemy took about 1,100 prisoners, which they marched to Hamilton's Shop to-day. Gen. Early spent last night at Jarman's Gap, and to-day went to Whitehall. The whole army scattered. The enemy passed toward Charlottesville.
Saturday, March 4.--Mr. Antrim and myself went out early and found the enemy gone, so we went on to Waynesborough through the wrecks of our train, &c., Crossed South River, which was quite height; dined at Antrim's, and then I went on to John Hamilton's near Fishersville. Could hardly get through, the mud was so deep. The enemy left many of the captured wagons and four pieces of artillery, of six they captured, stuck in the mud. It was a fine day. Col. William H. Harman was killed at Waynesborough. The enemy did a great deal of damage. Rosser encamped at Middle River.
Sunday, March 5.--I went on to Staunton quite early, and then up to Buffalo Gap to Gen. W. L. Jackson, and got him to send cavalry to aid Gen. Rosser in recapturing our men, who went down the Valley guarded by about 900 men. He sent a regiment (Arnett's) and Imboden's brigade, under Col. G. H. Smith, which went down the Warm Springs road. The cavalry could not rendezvous for the high waters, and these only got here to-day. Rosser, with a few men, is following the enemy down the Valley. A fine day; cool in p.m. the prisoners encamped at Cline's Mills yesterday. Rosser fought the enemy at Harrisonburg and went to Melrose.
Monday, March 6.--Col. G. H. Smith and staff came late last night and spent the night with us. He went on early to join his brigade, which came to Parnassus during the night from McDowell. Col. Arnett's regiment spent the night at Churchville, and went on also to-day to Harrisonburg. I spent the day at home, fixing up after the losses at Waynesborough. Bought a horse of Robert Knowles for $1,000, blind in one eye. J. A. Wilson came home yesterday also. The county is full of rumors, and all unsettled. A very fine, warm day. Rosser went to Rude's Hill.
Tuesday, March 7.--James A. Wilson and myself started to go to Lynchburg. After going to Greenwood to see about my maps, went via Staunton and saw Maj. Bell; then to Fisherville and got my servant William, and on toward Waynesborough. Heard, but did not believe it, that the enemy had pickets at Rockfish Gap, so turned to the right and spent the night at Gibson's. A very fine day. Met Robinson and Jesse going to my house. Rosser attacked enemy at 10 a.m. at Rude's Hill. Had three companies over river.
Wednesday, March 8.--We went to Stuart's Mill crossed South River; then by a path to the Howardsville road, and then along the top of the ridge to Rockfish Gap, and thence to Greenwood. Did not find my maps there, so we took our snack and fed, and then went up to Jarman's Gap for the night. It was quite pleasant until 3 p.m.,when it began to rain. The Yankees went to Charlottesville and thence toward Lynchburg.
Thursday, March 9.--Went down to South River, but could not cross, so went up and crossed at Waynesborough. Dined at Antrim's and then went on to Staunton, where I found Gen. Rosser. Spent the night there. A fine day. Heard that the enemy was at Tye River.
Friday, March 10.--Spent the day in Staunton. A fine day. Imboden's brigade camp to Staunton.
Saturday, March 11.-Gen. Rosser started at 7 a.m. toward Lexington; went three miles beyond Midway; had about 500 men. I went to Fisherville to see about my servant, and then went on and joined Gen. Rosser at Bell's, beyond Midway. It froze quite hard last night, but the day was fine. . .
Tuesday, March 21.--Started for Petersburg at 6 a.m. and got there about 10, and spent the day at Gen.'s Gordon's, Grimes', and Walker's headquarters, getting information for my report of the campaign of 1864. It rained a good deal during the day, and was cool. I spent the night with Capt. Hinrichs, at Walker's headquarters. The Second Corps is in the breast-works in front of Petersburg, and the division commanders all have quarters in Petersburg. Gen. Early went to Lynchburg yesterday.
Wednesday, March 22.--Left Petersburg at 6 a.m. for Lynchburg by the South Side Railroad, a very rough one. We did not reach Lynchburg until 8 p.m. Then we tried to get transportation, but could find no officer. The canal to Lexington is broken, so we will have to go via Salem. Gen. Early left Lynchburg in the p.m. of to-day for Abingdon. Pleasant, but cool. The cars are full of our returned prisoners.
Thursday, March 23.--Got transportation and left Lynchburg for Salem at 8 a.m. Reached Salem by 2 p.m., and found Maj. Pitzer leaving on the cars to join Gen. Early. Capt. Moore and myself went to Pitzer's for the night. A very fine day. Enemy reported advancing from East Tennessee.
Friday, March 24.--We went to Salem in the morning and got a wagon and four mules and rations, and in the p.m. started for Staunton. Went eleven miles to Cloverdale Mills, and encamped at Langhorne's. Fine day.
Saturday, March 25.--Started at 6 a.m. and went, via Buchanan, to Flaherty's, six miles beyond. Got our own suppers, because refused a lodging at Flaherty's. Then went to Barger's for the night. Fine day.
Sunday, March 26.--We continue our journey, via the Natural Bridge, to Lexington. Found the road very rough and some deep mud holes. I spent the night at Rev. W. H. Ruffner's. Maj. Kyle joins us from here. Fine day.
Monday, March 27.--We went to Ballard Smith's, three miles beyond Midway. Fine day; roads better.
Tuesday, March 27.--We reached Staunton about 2 p.m., the stage only being a half day ahead of us. Lieut. Flood and party got there in the p.m. After looking up my horses, seeing to my baggage, &c., I went on home. Got there about dusk. Found Jackson's and Imboden's brigades near Churchville. They reached there Monday from Hanover Junction. Fine day; quite warm.
Wednesday, March 29.-- A very fine day. Robinson and Wilson went to town.
Thursday, March 30.--It rained quite hard last night and was showery all day to-day; grass and all things growing finely. I came to Staunton and got rooms at the Virginia Hotel. Gen. Lomax was ordered to take command of the Valley District to-day. Robinson made map of Rude's Hill, Rosser's affair, and Wilson finished Western Virginia. I did not do much. There was a fight on Hatcher's Run.
Friday, March 31.--I corrected some maps. Robinson made second map of Rude's Hill, Wilson copying vicinity of Lynchburg. A pleasant day, but cool. Lonfax moved to the county.
Saturday, April 1.--I spent the day assorting my maps and putting all things in good order. Robinson ruled the map of the Valley for reduction and a sheet for the same; Wilson copying vicinity of Lynchburg. I went home in the p.m. A fine day.
Sunday, April 2.--I spent the day at home; rode to Staunton in the p.m. A very fine day.
Monday, April 3.--Spent the day fixing up, &c. Robinson and Wilson engaged as on Saturday. At an early hour a report got out that Richmond had been evacuated, and then one that the Yankees were coming up the Valley. Gloom pervaded the whole community, and some made preparations for moving away. Gen. Lomax came to town and ordered the impressment of teams to haul bacon, &c., to Lexington. No definite information could be gotten from Richmond. News came up the Valley that 300 Federal cavalry came to Woodstock yesterday. A fine day. Shower after dark. Col. O'Ferrall attacked the enemy in camp at Hawkinstown and routed them.
Tuesday, April 4.--Spent to-day in getting transportation, &c., to move away. Town full of rumors. Richmond has certainly been given up, and Lee has gone toward Danville. Robinson reducing Valley map; Wilson copying vicinity of Lynchburg. I corrected Valley map some. Fine day.
Wednesday, April 5.--Wilson as yesterday; I corrected Valley map; Robinson reducing Roanoke County. The enemy is again advancing up the Valley. Encamped last night at Fisher's Hill and came to-day to Maurertown, our cavalry skirmishing with them. I went home in the p. m. and spent the night. Started Robinson with my maps to Lynchburg. A fine day, but cloudy.
Thursday, April 6.--I came back to Staunton at an early hour. The enemy is still advancing up the Valley; also said to be at Christiansburg. Our trains from Richmond going toward Lynchburg; the enemy at Goochland Court-House. It rained quite hard last night and this a.m. We spent the day in Staunton. Late in the p.m. it was reported that the enemy had gone back down the Valley. Fine day. . .
Tuesday, April 18.--Went on home, via Summerdean, where we dined at Dunlap's. Got home about dark. The Soldier's Aid Society of Churchville had just adjourned as I got there. Many of the soldiers have reached home. Found all well at home; not expecting me, thinking I had gone on south. The minds of soldiers much exercised as to what course to pursue. Lincoln's proposition for Virginia to come back as she was, &c., has worked a revolution in sentiment. Pleasant day. Rode thirty-two miles.
Wednesday, April 19.--Spent the day at home; almost sick from my boil. Enemy reported coming up to parole soldiers. Pleasant day.
Thursday, April 20.-- Bands of men are marauding, gathering up what they claim to be Government property, but really stealing cattle, sheep, &c., where they can find them. Quite an engagement took place three miles from Staunton yesterday, in which Col. M. G. Harman and his men retook a lot of his sheep and drove off the plunderers. Col. Harman's horse was shot. Heard that Lincoln had been assassinated. Cool in the morning; Pleasant day. Soldiers, &c., all busy planting corn and sowing oats.
Friday, April 21.--Fine day; quite warm.
Saturday, April 22.--Pleasant day; turned cool in evening. Many rumors about French intervention, Lincoln's death, &c.
Sunday, April 23.--The day was quite cool. Reports of Lincoln's death confirmed, also of an attempt to kill Seward. Johnson, of Tennessee, has become President and breathes out wrath against the South.
Monday, April 24.--Went to Staunton. A full bench of justices had bean summoned to take steps to prevent the plundering and stealing that is going on throughout the county by bands of men pretending to gather up public property. Mr. Sheffey and Col. Baldwin made some advisory remarks, and an address was ordered, calling on the people to abide by the law, &c. It was also ordered to go on with the collection of taxes. Soldier part of the community still in a quandary. Warm. . .
Saturday, April 29.--I went to Staunton. The Federal troop, about 800, came in at 2 p.m. and went into camp west of town. They were very quiet and disturbed no one. Rosser was here but left in the morning, and Jackson also went on, where, no one can tell, for it is highly probable that all the armies have surrender since Sherman and Breckinridge have had a truce to agree upon terms.
Sunday, April 30.--Soldiers in doubt what to do. Some of them indisposed to be paroled.
Monday, May 1.--I went to Staunton to-day and got myself paroled as a prisoner of war, with permission to remain at home. There was a large crowd at Staunton, more than could be paroled. Large numbers of servants collected at the Federal camp.
Tuesday, May 2.--the troops left Staunton this morning and returned toward Winchester, leaving large numbers of unparoled soldiers in the community. Rosser and Jackson, with a few followers, left yesterday for the Southwest.
Thursday, May 4.--Heard of Johnston's surrender
Monday, May 8.--Went to Staunton to a meeting of the people called for an expression of sentiments in reference to the state of the country, and to take steps to restore the civil government. Mr. Stuart was made chairman, and a committee was sent to draft resolutions. They reported, through Mr. Sheffey, a series of resolutions, declaring that armed resistance has ceased in this county; that the only way to make our laws conform to the condition of the country, from necessity, is to call a convention on the basis of the House of Delegates, and appointing a committee to go to Richmond and see if the federal authorities will allow such a body to meet and deliberate. Col. Baldwin explained the resolutions in some forcible remarks, and they were unanimously adopted. The chairman was authorized to appoint the committed. Federal troops coming up Valley again, said to have encamped at Harrisonburg yesterday.
Bibliographic Information : Letter Reproduced from The War of The Rebellion: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series 1, Volume 46, Serial No. 95, Pages 510-523, Broadfoot Publishing Company, Wilmington, NC, 1997.