Valley Personal Papers

Return to Browse | Return to Search

Bibliographic Information | Modern-Spelling Version

Augusta County: Diary of Joseph Addison Waddell (1855-1865)

About Joseph Addison Waddell:

Joseph Addison Waddell

Joseph Addison Waddell

Joseph Waddell lived in Staunton in Augusta County, Virginia, during the Civil War. The surviving portions of the diary held by the University of Virginia covers the period from June 1855 to October 1865. His diary presents a neglected perspective from the Confederacy. Most Civil War diaries by Confederate men followed marches and battles across the South. Diaries of the Confederate home front are usually the diaries of the women left behind, struggling to maintain order in a world increasingly depleted of men. The home front was not solely the sphere of women. Joseph Waddell told the story of the men who stayed home.Before the war, Waddell owned and edited a newspaper in Augusta County, Virginia, the Staunton Spectator. On the pages of his paper, Waddell supported Southern institutions. Privately, however, he noted in his diary his misgivings over slavery and his desire to see it extinguished in God's time. In the prewar sections of his diary, Waddell described everyday happenings of family and community life as well as extraordinary events like feared slave uprisings.Waddell opposed secession, but supported his state in the Civil War nonetheless. Initially too old to be drafted and later exempted by disability, Waddell did not serve his fledgling nation as a soldier. Instead, he performed his duties to the Confederacy as a clerk in the Quartermasters Office. During the war years, Waddell recorded his views on slavery, abolition, politics, secession, and the war in his diary with great detail and clarity. His commentary ranged from perceptive political observation to extensive battlefield rumors. In his diary, Waddell recounted the confusion that greeted news from the battlefields of the South and the trepidation that greeted no news from the same quarters. He described gatherings with friends and family, remarkable not for serving delicacies like "genuine coffee" but for their juxtaposition with the sacrifices of everyday life. As conditions on the home front deteriorated, he celebrated the homespun ingenuity that transformed handkerchiefs into suit linings and "Confederate candles" into meager, but treasured, lighting. Surrounded by hardship and tragedy, he expressed anxiety for loved ones separated by war and gratitude for those close at home. He bemoaned the institution of slavery, but feared for the fate of an inferior people left to their own devices. Through the war, Waddell remained a believer in the Confederate cause, but became increasingly depressed about its chances of success.Once Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox, Waddell counseled against further attempts to wage war. In the subsequent months, Waddell described the looting of Confederate property in Staunton following surrender, occupation by Union military authority, and the assassination of Lincoln. He expressed his disapproval toward both those who ingratiated themselves with Union commanders and those who flaunted symbols of Confederate patriotism. Waddell became increasingly disturbed by the unruly behavior of ungrateful "negroes" emboldened by the presence of the Yankee occupiers. Toward the end of his diary, Waddell discussed early attempts to restore Virginia to the Union, an endeavor in which he desperately wanted to participate. Waddell ended his diary in October 1865 when he ran out of writing paper.


June 1855

Saturday night, June 2nd, 1855. —

This morning I took Virginia1 and Martha Lyle down to Tinkling Spring Church, in the carriage. Presbytery has been holding a special session there since Thursday. There was a large number of people, from every quarter of the county, in attendance. Mr. Trimble and Mr. Emerson preached. A heavy rain came up during the first sermon, and many persons going out to see after their saddles +c, the congregation was very much disturbed. As the rain continued after the service, the people dined in companies in the church. The scene was more like a merry picnic than an assembly met for religious worship. — We had quite a pleasant time. Got to town about half past five o'clock.

Pa, "the old lady,"2 and aunt Sally3 returned from Richmond and Prince Edward this afternoon. Mr Steel, our old Pastor, came up with them in the cars. It is eighteen years since he left Staunton, but I remember him distinctly. Addison Alexander, of Princeton, staid with us last night. He is very social and agreeable, and appears to enjoy this visit to Virginia as much as the former one.

August 1855

Tuesday night, August 21st 1855. —

Since my former date we have had heavy affliction in our family, which is likely to be broken up. Sad feelings oppress me, and there seems to be very little bright and cheering in this world. "The old lady" left for Richmond this morning; Sister4 + her children will go soon. The old house is left by the flood more gloomy than ever. None of us can ever live there comfortably. I wished to have the appraisement to day, but could not get the persons appointed to meet. Hope to have it over Saturday. We (or at least I) are greatly bothered in reference to the division of property. In Legh's5 account we must keep the farm, for a while at least, and sell every thing that can be spared. Sister must have her share and to let her have it now and leave something for Kate's6 present support is a difficulty.

My printing office partner appears discouraged about the business, and throws nearly the whole labor and care upon me. For months past he has attended to affairs very little. I feel that we are getting along badly — certainly unpleasantly. He has much to complain of, however. — oppressed with company. The Cooks are all here — two Gordons from Richmond — several of the Waynesboro' folks latterly — +c. +c.

Thursday night, Aug. 23rd 1855. —

This morning about 10 o'clock. I rode up to the farm with Addy Stuart7 — he riding Alick's8 young bay mare, and I the old sorrel. At the creek near Peaco's saw mill we encountered three men who had stopped with their wagons. They were drinking out of a large bottle, and one of them invited me to join them. On my declining the oldest man of the party, who was evidently a good deal intoxicated commenced cracking jokes upon temperance men, but his gibberish was unintelligible to me. — The day was remarkably pleasant, and I enjoyed the excursion exceedingly. Legh and I walked out to the woods, by the new ground corn, and tried to find the boundaries of the land, but did not succeed. We then went up to the Henderson house to see a pear tree, full of fruit, which, however, is still quite green. As we returned through the meadow, we heard the dinner horn. Addy Stuart was blowing us up. Lilly9 had set a table under the oak tree, and had provided a good dinner of middling and sundry vegetables. We then walked through the garden to the barn, where John Hill10 was [illeg.] a new plough [illeg.]. Joshua11 was cutting down some of the useless apple trees on the place. About 5 o'clock we started home, but were driven into the saw mill by a shower of rain. Addy was impatient to return that he might attend a juvenile party at 4 o'clock. Found Mr. Cook and Lyt. at the office. Went over to the Hotel, where Va was, and came up with her in the rockaway, bringing the papers of the morning. — The crop of wheat at the farm turns out 150 bushels, and the rye 140. The newspapers dull — my business dull — in every department. Va in the parlour at present with Mrs. T. of Wythe, and Miss P. P. of this county, who will depart tomorrow.

September 1855

Sunday night, Sept. 9th 1855. —

There was no preaching in our church to day (Mr. Wilson being at Bethel) and Virginia + I with the two little girls12, rode out to Hebron. Legh overtook us on the road. The day was fine and the excursion in many respects pleasant, but my spirits were depressed and I was glad to get back home. I met many acquaintances at the church, and received friendly greetings. Mr. Lore preached. Congregation not large.

Between 4 and 5 o'clock I went down home as Mr. Stuart and family leave to-morrow. Their going makes me feel very sad. Va talks of visiting them this fall, and I feel some desire to go myself. Sister had two young Bantam chickens which we gave her to take home — I fear they will not arrive safely. (My Shanghai cock has a return of his singular malady.). Kate, Martha, Legh +c went to the Methodist Church to-night; the rest of us staid at home. Mr. Taylor Lomax called in the afternoon and also at night, having just arrived from the Springs.

Until Friday the weather during the whole of this week was very inclement — clouds and rain — rain.

The corn crop generally is magnificent. Peaches quite abundant — for money.

Wednesday night, Sept. 19th 1855. —

This has been a very damp uncomfortable day. As Virginia says we are now having the third equinoxial storm in this month. All the fore part of the day I was at the office working on a circular for the Augusta Female Seminary. Found it difficult to get a good impression, and about 12 o'clock laid it by, and came home. Another reason for coming up earlier than usual (in addition to discouragement about the job) was, that we had company. Dr James Alexander, of New York, his wife and two sons — James and William — spent the day with us. We also had aunt Sally, Miss Agnes McClung13, Martha, Kate, Maria, and Lyt., to dinner. — The dinner was as good as common on such occasions — bacon, roast beef, chickens, ducks, Irish + sweet potatoes, Lima beans, corn, tomatoes, peaches + cream +c. +c. I sat with the company so long after dinner that I thought it useless to go down to the office again. — Felt dissatisfied, however, as the jobs are pressing. Legh came up just before day, to consult about the sale of a horse, and remained till after supper. He and Tate went to town together. Yesterday Tate bought F. Bell's farm on the McAdamized road for $60 per acre, not, as he says, $50 according to the usual payments. The children — Jimmy, Nanny and Matty14 — started to school on Monday to Martha Lyle, and seem much interested. Kitty15 goes to Sue Campbell — very unwillingly. We have all marked the contrast between James and Addison Alexander. — the latter is so much more simple in his manners, and conversation — and so much more agreeable.

Having a $1 Tennessee note and a $1 New York do last week, I enclosed them to Putnam for the first vol. of Irving's Washington.16 It arrived yesterday by mail.

Saturday night, Sept. 22nd 1855. —

We have just returned from the Hotel. Va went down street after dinner, and remained to supper. A large number of strangers there, returning from the Springs. This has been a most delightful day, and I have enjoyed it much — been unusually free from anxiety and care. James Alexander has been a good deal at the office. Wrote an editorial for me suggested by the fever in Norfolk. He preaches tomorrow, and will leave on Monday. Had a talk with Alick to day about our affairs. — Martha has returned home, leaving Kate very lonesome. Va suffered greatly yesterday and last night from head ache, but is quite well to-day.

Monday night, Sept. 24th 1855. —

It was Court day to day — a number of persons in town, but nothing of interest occurred — Persons from the country brought in $18.50 for Norfolk + Portsmouth, which with $8.50 previously received I sent to Col. G. W. Mumford of Richmond. The collection in church yesterday, for the same purpose, amounted to $98. We had two jobs today — hand bills. The Alexanders left us finally this afternoon. Went down to Waynesboro' accompanied by Aunt Sally. James A. preached yesterday morning + night. His text in the morning: "The story in the grace which is in Christ Jesus," at night: "Come now and let us reason together." His preaching is not so lucid and able as Addison but more practical and it may be more useful. He gave me a gold watch key, with the Gordon coat of arms on the seal, which he had cut in London. Alick sent by him to N. Y. Pa's daguerreotype to have it engraved. John Hendren informed me this evening of his anticipated marriage. When I came home, found Ann + Lucy Peyton, Maj. Cochran + Mary Donaghe here; also Mat, Lyle and Legh — The two last remained to supper. I dined to day at Aunt S's

Friday night. Sept 28th 1855. —

This afternoon we got news of the capture of Sevastopol by the Allies! I felt a good deal exhilarated by the news, although most persons about here sympathize with Russia — Virginia is particularly zealous that way. My feelings are more to be attributed to the regard one has for those of his own family and blood, than to any opinion I entertain of the merits of the controversy between the belligerents. The British are somewhat akin to us — and their literature and religion are ours. In the French I feel no interest.17

Craver, is putting up the fence around the garden at this place. He informed me today that he would be absent tomorrow, attending a Sunday School celebration at Churchville. No wonder that laboring men who leave their work thus get along badly. But some recreation and amusement is necessary, and perhaps it is well enough for him to go.

This morning we had a slight frost. I finished Irving's Washington (1st Vol) to night. — rather disappointed with it.

October 1855

Sunday night, Oct. 7th 1855. —

Mr. Wilson preached this morning and to night — congregation on both occasions pretty good. I was surprised to find on going to church this morning that the foundation was dug, for the front improvement — did not know that a plan had been agreed upon. We had the first heavy frost of the season, this morning. Va + I came by "home" tonight, returning from church, to get our lantern. — Alick all agog about putting up a house on the lot opposite. We expect to go to P. E. about the 25th.

Monday night, Oct. 8th, 1855. —

Cloudy, damp, cold day — This morning about 11 o'clock, after getting through with matters at the office I came up home and went over to Simpson Taylor's sale. Met a number of persons there, but nothing of interest occurred. Before I went out I purchased a pair of under shirts at Kayser's, and in the afternoon I took a silk vest to Sterrett's to be made up. Received a copy of the London Times by mail — perhaps from Henry Alexander. A rare communication came to the office also, from a man named Watson, at Churchville. He sent an obituary notice of a Miss Cox, and requested its publication on moderate terms. In a postscript he suggested that although he was not much of a writer he might be able to send us a few lines to pay for the publication, adding "on time, death, religion +c." I regret that I have not preserved all such documents received at the office. They would form a curious collection of literary, or rather illiterate, curiosities.

At dinner time time I observed that my young Shanghai cock was much duller than usual. This evening he died, and I buried him in a hole dug for a post. I shall miss him.

I have been galloping through Sydney Smith's Memoir by his daughter. Not much of a book. He appears to have been personally an amiable, kind-hearted man, but too frivolous, and his whole character inconsistent with his profession. So I cannot admire him as a man.18

We have lately been much amused at Nanny Tate's attempts to form the various parts of verbs. She says "I clumned," for I climbed", and "rud" for rode.

Va is busy preparing for her trip to P. E.

Thursday night, Oct. 11th 1855. —

Have felt rather in the dumps to day. Lyt. in the country, hunting, and I alone in the office. Va came down street this morning, and we dined at the Hotel. Mr. Tate went to his farm, and returned with Mrs. Walters who is now here. About 3 o'clock N. Brooks + I started to the farm for a walk. The day had been delightful, but before we arrived at the farm, we observed the clouds forming in the West. We had not been there long [deleted: before] until it commenced raining, + we took refuge with Legh and the servants in the barn. We waited till near dark when the rain ceased, and then hitched up the spring wagon to come home. I borrowed Joshua's oil cloth overcoat, which was useful as the rain commenced again before we started. N. B. had a sack over his shoulders, and covered up his legs with the straw. We reached town after dark, I stopped at the office to get the papers. Arthur had taken them to the Academy, and I sent for them when I reached home. No news of interest. The Democrats are carrying everything before them in Pennsylvania and Ohio.

Very much bothered about our family arrangements. Alick is anxious for Va and me to go down to live with them, and it is certainly desirable for some one to become house-keeper and take charge of affairs; but my expenses would be greatly increased, besides the trouble I would have to encounter. Cornelia Christian is with Kate at present.

Saturday night, Oct. 13th 1855. —

Felt very content and happy yesterday, last night, and this morning, but from about 10 o'clock have felt depressed. N. Brooks and I went with Tate and Jimmy down to the Bell farm to get some corn. We took the rockaway, and brought up about six bushels, which we had to shuck. Jimmy drove back — the rest of us walked. After dinner I went down street, got a new vest from the tailor's, settled an account with Peaco, waited for the mail and started home about 5 o'clock. At "our house" I overtook Va and Mrs. Walters — The carriage met us there and I rode up with them. Have read a little in a book called the Augustan Age of France — and reading the Spectator regularly. — How frequently my mind dwells upon those words in Isaiah "Fear not thou worm Jacob!"19 What could be more comforting! If God addressed us in a different manner — if he said, "Fear not thou man Jacob; be strong and show yourself a man," when we feel weak, helpless, there would be no consolation in the passage for us. He does not mock or reproach by calling us worms, but does it to let us know that he is fully aware of the extremity of our need. Who does not often feel himself to be a very worm? Yet, "fear not thou worm Jacob" — rely on my strength and protection — I am mighty to save and strong to deliver. — Oh that I may live nearer to God, day by day — to love him more — to serve him better.

"Lord, with this guilty heart of mine,
To thy dear cross I flee."

Wednesday night, Oct. 17th 1855. —

Early this morning the weather was cool and cloudy, but about 11 o'clock it cleared off, and the remainder of the day was delightful. A circus arrived in town this morning, which brought together a considerable crowd from the country. After dinner Tate + I rode down to his field, in a one-horse wagon, and husked + brought up a load of corn. I enjoyed the exertion very much. Dr McGill proposes for Alick to purchase his horse — The town clock has just struck 11.

Monday night, Oct. 22nd 1855. —

Va + I have made our arrangements to leave for Prince Edward on Wednesday. Kate + Aunt Sally go up to Lexington tomorrow, to Synod. Va + I went down to night after supper to see Kate and sat some time — Aunt S. came over + gave me a power of attorney to have a share of her Bank stock sold in Richmond. Mary Waddell was there also. ——— This was Court day — many persons in town — We got a little money, but not enough to pay our paper bill. Got two new subscribers + lost one or two. Was very busy all day. Feel not much interest in my business — no interest in politics and then my partner is so listless and thriftless that at times I am totally discouraged. Would like to sell out. Last Saturday we put up the Haruff20 land, in lots, at auction. Sold three out of the six — and Lyt. undertook to purchase one — two remain unsold — Felt dissatisfied + hiffed about the matter. Saturday afternoon, I rode with Tate out to John Trimble's. He wished to look at some horses. If my spirits had been better I should have enjoyed the ride. Several friends from the country were in the office to day. Capt. Henry, Tom. Galbreath, Frank Davis +c. It did me good to see them, + find them so cordial. As William Wirt said, "But for Friendship, literature, and religion, this world would be very dreary." We have had any quantity of big ears of corn or late — left at the office to be puffed.

November 1855

Wednesday night, Nov. 7th 1855. —

On Wednesday, the 24th October, two weeks ago, Virginia and I started to Prince Edward. — We left early in the cars, having spent the previous night at the Hotel. We arrived in Richmond at 1/2 past 1 o'clock, stopped at the St Charles Hotel, and went on the next day — reaching Keysville about 10 A. M. and Mr. Stuart's after 11. I remained there till the following Tuesday when I returned to Richmond. The cars were crowded with persons going to the Agricultural Fair. We reached Richmond after dark, and finding the Hotel full, I sought lodgings at Mr. Gordon's, where Alick and Legh were staying. On Wednesday (last) I visited the Agricultural Grounds — on Thursday went to see the Penitentiary, and then to Slash Cottage — and Friday came home. Have felt restless ever since — miss Va exceedingly — have heard from her twice, but have written to her four times. Tate goes to Richmond tomorrow, to attend Railroad meeting, from thence he will go to Briery, and Va will return with him next week. I am now at Oakenwold — Jimmy sleeping in the little room near our chamber — the other children at the Hotel.

Monday night, Nov. 12th 1855.

Legh is staying with me tonight — as he did two nights last week. Last night Jimmy + I staid down street, at my old home. The weather was so bad, and I dreaded the lonesomeness here so much, that I could not come up. We arose early this morning and came up to breakfast, in order to leave off our Sunday clothes. — I have not heard from Va since Wednesday last, and begin to feel unpleasantly about her not writing. — She will get home on Wednesday or Thursday, I presume. — This evening Lyt took up his note which I held, and gave me a check for $400. I have written to Ellott to send up the power press — I propose paying for it myself. (We concluded afterwards not to take it)

Tuesday night, Nov. 13th 1855. —

A quarter past ten — all alone. Jimmy asleep in an adjoining room — no one else in the house. How painfully quiet! It would be pleasant to hear the sound of a human voice. The walls (?) [deleted: crack] creak, and there are occasionally other strange noises, which startle me, and then leave me more lonesome than before. "Better dwell in the midst of alarms than nigh in this desolate place." —— This evening I came up before dark. Had some middling fried for supper, which, with the biscuits, I relished exceedingly. —— Lyle staid with me last night. — I was greatly disappointed at not hearing from Va today — Why she has not written I cannot tell. The weather has been glorious, since the clearing off last night. Feel very impatient for Va's return. She will be here on Thursday, at farthest, I suppose — but it seems as far off as it did a week ago.

Tuesday night, Nov. 20th, 1855. —

We settled down quietly at home once more. Va. got back on Saturday last. I went to Charlottesville to meet her. I left the cars at the University, and walked around the premises to observe the changes of thirteen years since I was last there. Then I walked down to town. Nothing has occurred since of any interest.

December 1855

Wednesday night, Dec. 12th 1855.

Va is out stewing some oysters — Frazier in the dining room — Tate down street — Sad! Sad! Day this has been to me. Kate told me this morning they had concluded to break up housekeeping at New Year. What a melancholy thing to me and us all — I could have wept. And there another domestic arrangement interrupted — Oh wretched! and discouragements in business — competition +c — I had almost forgot that God reigns. Lord have mercy on me, and give me strength - - strength — strength — for Jesus' sake.


January 1856

Sunday night, January 13th, 1856.

No preaching tonight, owing to the snow. Va is now (at 8 o'clock) in the dining room with Mary T.21 — the children about going to bed. ——— Yesterday week we had a dreadful winter day — snow fell the whole day to a considerable depth. The weather turned very cold, and remained so all the week so that there was little thaw and there has rarely been so good sleighing for so long a time in this section of country. Yesterday was just such a day as the previous Saturday snowing from morning till night. The cars which should have come yesterday had not arrived when I last heard from town. We went to church this morning and found a larger congregation than I anticipated. Mr. Wilson preached — no meeting at any of the other churches. —— — The breaking up at our old homestead (alluded to by me in the 12th ult.) was prevented in consequence of Kate's not being able to get boarding. —— We (that is the Spec.) have received new type for the paper and have written for a new press — For several days past, however, I have felt depressed about my business and generally. During the holydays Lyt + I went to Richmond to look at a Northrup press offered for sale there, but declined to purchase as most printers whom we consulted gave a bad account of it. But these thoughts should not be entertained on this day. Under discouragements and despondency it was a frequent remark of my beloved father, "The Lord reigns."

Within one week since New Year's day, Mrs. McClung22 has heard of the death of a niece (Mrs. Preston), a nephew (Dr Wm Graham), and a son-in-law (Mr. Kyle.) Mrs. Lyle and Jim McC have made preparations to start to Alabama, on Tuesday, but it is doubtful if the cars will be running by that time.

Thursday night, January 24th 1856. —

For nearly three weeks the ground has been covered with snow — since Saturday, the 5th, and all this time the sleighing has been fine. Never before, perhaps, has there been so much sleighing in this region during the same space of time. The weather too has been very cold. — There is no incident of interest to record in these pages. My life has glided on quite smoothly for several weeks, or, indeed, moths-past, I have been unusually free from those horrible glooms which have so often hung over me, and embittered existence, I have much to thank God for, since the "Union Republican" was merged into the "American," I have felt solicitous about the effect it would have on our business. They lost a great deal about their large circulation, but so far have not taken off our advertising patronage. The influx of business within the last week encouraged me a good deal, and to day I felt very cheerful, but this afternoon we received the Richmond papers, which contain notices of Dr G. who is in the city soliciting advertisements, and proclaiming the immense advantages of the "American." I have felt since a little desponding: May I "trust in the Lord and do right."

We have the type in the office to put the paper in a new dress, but are waiting for the press ordered from Massachusetts. We generally have no scarcity of visitors at the office — N. C. Brooks spends a good part of each day there. Mr. Campbell + Tate call frequently. Legh, William and others are there more or less, besides casual callers on business or to await the opening of the mails. William keeps a draft board there which is a source of general amusement, without, however, interfering with our operations. —— Kate sought an interview with me last night, when we went in after church, and told me her grievances, I sympathize with her deeply. Va got a fall to day, and injured herself slightly. In the circle of our church, the improvements of the church building is discussed at the present time - - politicians talk about the failure of Congress to organize war with England, the 12th section of the American platform +c — and every body about the snow and the weather

February 1856

Monday night, Feb. 11th 1856. —

Nothing has been talked about lately except the "hard winter" and the "hard times." The first snow fell on the 5th of January — we had two more — on the 12th and the 20th — so that the ground was covered completely and sleighing was good till the 5th inst. — something almost unprecedented in this region. For some days past it has been thawing + the snow is quite rapidly disappearing. From the 5th Feb. the cold at times was very severe. Monday the 4th was probably the coldest day.

As to the "hard times" I have never known anything like the present difficulty. So many persons are "breaking" as to suggest the inquiry, upon meeting a friend, "Any more failures since dinner?" In the County Court 302 suits have been brought to the March term, besides many others in the Corporation Court. We shall lose a good deal in the aggregate by these failures. Lytt has been vigorously prosecuting our claim against G. + Dr H. and to day he offended merchant S. by demanding that he should pay the money for the balance on his account. Not only the office, but the estate (my father's) will lose by the numerous insolvencies. But I cant harass and persecute people however hard it is to have to bear these losses. Since the 1st Jan, I have had very little money that I could have used for personal expenditures if my wants had required it. What will I do when we go to housekeeping? Would that I could with true faith and perfect hope trust the God of Providence! The purchases of type +c lately made, have required all the money we could raise.

Wednesday night, Feb. 13th 1856 —

Last night at bed time it was clear and cold — we found snow falling rapidly this morning. It continued to fall nearly all day, but tonight the sky is again cloudless. An election for Commissioner of the Revenue of the Corporation took place today, and the Irish and rowdies carried everything before them.

I was working at jobs during a good part of the day, but felt dull and depressed, and came home in the evening in the same mood. Have been reading the 4th vol. of Macaulay's History of England. Played chess with Va to-night. The chief topic has been the suit against Martin Wygand for breach of marriage contract.23

Saturday night, Feb. 16th 1856 —

Have felt very much depressed to day, and as weak as water. Our neighbor and rival, the "American," is growing in advertisements while we have received this week, so far, very few. Every view I take appears gloomy to me. This rival paper promises to injure us seriously, and moreover I felt dissatisfied with the political party which I am now acting. May God deliver me from sin, in feeling and in conduct, order all things for my good, and make me submissive to his holy will.

The weather was mild yesterday and to day, and the snow melting rapidly.

Monday night Feb. 18th 1856 —

Have felt considerably better to-day — A respectable number of advertisements came in, and at any rate I was in a more resigned and trustful state of mind. For some time past I have felt the importance of my taking a more active, energetic part in religious matters; but, alas! when I should be striving to do good to others, I am brooding over my own trials. — Weather very cold

Wednesday night Feb. 20th 1856

This morning Tate, Legh, and I rode down to James Poage's, about 5 miles, to see a singular lime-stone formation, out of which a fertilizer is manufactured. We went in Legh's wagon, and had quite a pleasant trip. Got back at half past two o'clock. After dinner I printed off some circulars which had been set up, at the office. Va came down — we took supper at the Hotel, and returned home after lecture.

The weather is again mild.

Tuesday, Feb. 26th 1856. —

We have had a mild and spring-like day. — Every body seemed to enjoy it. I felt contented and happy — surely I have much for which to thank God. H. J. Crawford's family, Mrs. Kayser + Miss Julia Baldwin dined with us. — Martin Wygand has been absent from home since last Wednesday, and we fear some evil has befallen him. He told before leaving that he was going to Cedar Grove (Rockbridge) to visit a German woman, and a note written in German has been found in his house, addressed to his Staunton friends, and informing them that he would be absent for a few days. This morning his dog was found on the railroad, dead, evidently killed — he left no one to see after his cows and hog — I went over to his house with H. J. C., to day, after dinner. — A man has been sent to Cedar Grove to ascertain if he has been there.24

The mail of this evening brought the news of the nomination of Fillmore by the American Convention at Philadelphia, on yesterday.

April 1856

Monday, April 21st 1856 —

Snowing all day, up to this time, past 8 o'clock at night. The snow has melted rapidly, but is now probably 2 or 2 1/2 inches deep.

May 1856

Sunday afternoon, May 25th 1856. —

Feel very dull and badly — spirits have been depressed for several days in consequence of the result of the election on Thursday. These frequent defeats are very discouraging to me, occupying the position I do. I was extremely reluctant to go into the contest for Commonwealth's Attorney, but finally yielded to the wishes of others, although I did not write a line during the canvass, in favor of the party candidate. I, however, desired the party to succeed, But away with the world and all its cares! Would that I could dismiss it thus easily! For some weeks past I have hoped that God was bringing me nearer to himself, but alas, how little advancement in religion have I made after all! The most that I can say is that I think I find in myself a stronger desire for holiness, for communion with God, for grace and strength to serve him every day and hour — to do all things — whatsoever I do — to His glory And yet when I review my life — even the last few weeks — what good have I done? — of what use have I been? My hope is in such truths as this — "This man receivith sinners."25 I thank God for putting the words on record. I am often greatly dissatisfied with my business and would give it up if I could. But the thought often occurs that God may have wise and good purposes to serve in keeping me in it — May He enable me to acquit myself in a proper manner!

There was no Episcopal preaching this morning, and the whole congregation was at our Church. The house was more crowded than I have seen it for a long time. Some persons were there, whom I have no recollection of ever seeing them before

We have about fifty young chickens and ten turkeys, which afford me a good deal of amusement.

Our domestic arrangements are still unsettled. Alick's house is progressing, and when he leaves the old place, Kate will not know what to do. If I was ready to go to housekeeping and had the house, there would be no difficulty. It distresses me to see her at times cast down, and the matter often becomes painful to me. But hitherto has God provided for us, and why can we not trust Him for the future?

August 1856

Friday night, August 8th, 1856. —

More than two months since the last entry! In the mean time much that was worth recording has occurred. — I have been alone in the office for nearly four weeks — Lytt being in Greenbrier and at the Springs — I have hardly missed him. As soon as he returns Va and I propose to take a trip to Rockbridge, and I may go over to the Alum Springs, and possibly to the Warm On Wednesday afternoon last, in company with Mauzy, of the True American, I went up on the cars to Millboro' Depot, the present terminus of the Central Railroad. The cars were crowded with passengers on their way to the Springs. At the terminus there were fourteen stages to take the passengers on. We got back about 8 o'clock at night. — We are now in the midst of the Presidential canvass — a very disagreeable time to me. The prospect for Fillmore is not very encouraging, and the recklessness and scurrility of the Democratic press is most annoying. — To-day there was a Fillmore meeting at Stribling Springs, speaking +c. —— Kate is in Waynesboro'. "The old lady" came up last week. — went to Lebanon to- day. Betty Lyle has been here since yesterday. I am reading Alison's History of Europe.

Saturday night, Aug. 9th 1856. —

The news of the elections in Ky, N. C., Ala., Missouri, very discouraging, and I feel in the dumps — Fillmore's prospect blue. — Since I went into the printing office we have had nothing but a succession of defeats — not a single victory to cheer us. — The Rev Mr. Richardson, of Waynesboro', came up with me to dinner — great Democrat — war discussion after dinner — very disagreeable. —— Weather uncomfortably cool to-night.

Monday night, Aug. 11th 1856. —

Yesterday when I went to church, I was surprised to see Lyt there. He got back Saturday night — We will start to Rockbridge Wednesday or Thursday if Mrs. McClung continues better. I got up this morning with a stiff neck, and all the forenoon felt very miserable. Felt better after dinner. A number of persons in the office, to talk about the recent elections — a general feeling of discouragement among them. John McCue very blue. I was afraid he would get out on the street and commit himself to Buchanan, and seriously endeavored to fortify him in the Fillmore faith. After we got the papers in the afternoon, our spirits revived somewhat. — We expected Kate from Waynesboro' to-day, but she deferred coming till Wednesday, Kitty here to- night — she staid with us last night also. Legh came up this evening and sat till after 9 o'clock —

Thursday night, August 28th 1856. —

While I write, a torch light procession is passing through the streets, calling on various persons friendly to Fillmore's election to speak. The Fillmore + Donelson Rally commenced to day. At an early hour in the morning the people commenced coming in, and by 10 o'clock the crowd was pretty dense. An effort was made to get up a precession, which only partially succeeded. Those who fell into line marched about town, preceded by the Churchville Band in a wagon. — At 11 the whole crowd assembled on the field above the Passenger Depot. The first speech was made by J. S. Pendleton, of Culpeper. — rather a dull affair. — Then time was given for the multitude — men, women, and children — to dine at the public table spread in the grove. The quantity of provision furnished by contribution was immense, but it was all consumed and destroyed. After dinner Strother, of Rappahannock, spoke, and was followed by B. H. Magruder, of Charlottesville. — To night, after supper, Va. and Mary Tate went over to the Academy to say good bye to the Cooks, who leave to-morrow, leaving me at home, an invalid, as they thought. But I heard the shouting down street, and hastened down to get a sight of the procession. —— I overtook it at the Va. Hotel, where, from the portico, Magruder was holding forth to a street full of people. Then Botts was called out, but he declined to speak, reserving himself for to-morrow. One feature in the occasion, is a large banner suspended by a rope stretched across Main Street from the tops of the houses.

On Wednesday the 13th inst. Va and I started on our visit to Rockbridge. We left the Hotel between 11 + 12 oclock — traveling in a buggy. The ride was delightful and never have I experienced more agreeable sensations. An elastic body suddenly relieved from heavy pressure, and rebounding to its natural proportions, represents my feelings. Above Middlebrook, we observed a crowd arising and took refuge for an hour at Mrs. Sproul's. Early in the afternoon we arrived at J. McBride's where we remained till the next afternoon.26 Thursday evening we arrived at Clifton (Mrs. Alexander's.) Friday and Saturday we spent there, most delightfully. I made pleasant visits to Lexington. Sunday we went to Church. Monday I went to the Rockbridge Alum Springs. Tuesday I took a seat in the stage for Healing Springs. Spent Tuesday night at the Bath Alum. Breakfasted Wednesday morning at the Warm. Was detained several hours at the Hot, which gave me ample time to see that place. Arrived at the Healing before dinner. Remained there till next morning, when I retraced my steps, spending Thursday night at the Rockbridge Alum, and reaching Lexington before dinner Friday. On Saturday we returned home.

September 1856

Monday night, Sept. 1, 1856. —

Cloudy all day nearly, cool and windy — Late in the afternoon cleared off, but wind still from the East. Rain very much needed — corn crop very short.

Sister and the children arrived Saturday afternoon in good health and spirits — buoyed up by the hope of going to Christiansburg to live. ——— Nathan, who was hired to Zimmerman, ran away last week, and Sunday a letter came from the jailor in Lexington stating that he had been arrested in that region. Where he proposed going, is a mystery. Legh went after him this evening. We all pity for the poor, unpromising creature, and Alick feels very much troubled to know what to do with him. —— Old Mr. Clarke died yesterday evening, in the 89th year of his age — a long life, but now that it is over, how short it seems! ——— I took tea Saturday night at A. H. H. Stuart's with John Minor Botts and others. It was the first time I had ever been in Botts' company, and I was interested in his conversation; but his egotism and profanity were not agreeable. — His whole conversation related to himself and matters which had come under his observation. He had a great deal to say about Henry A. Wise — Among other things he told of a violent personal assault made in Congress, on one occasion, by the famous Tom Marshall, of Ky, upon Wise, who in his reply took no notice of Marshall, but commenced a furious tirade against "little Nisbet" (of Georgia?) — a Presbyterian preacher (Elder Stuart said) who weighed only 115 pounds. Nisbet was the most amiable, benevolent man living, and would have walked a long distance to avoid treading on a fly. He was thunderstruck, and rising with great astonishment and excitement informed Wise that it was not he but the gentleman from Kentucky that had offended him, and finally turned the tables on his assailant completely.

Monday night, Sept. 15th 1856. —

Little to do to day, and did very badly. No job work, very few advertisements, and no facility at editorial. Had a visit about dinner time from Oliver P. Baldwin, of Richmond. Late in the afternoon Mr. Marquess called in, and detained me at the office till after dark. By the way I got into trouble by undertaking to act as trustee of the Seminary. Mr. M. is decidedly complaining, and unfortunately he has a good deal to complain about. We are trying to press on the buildings to completion, although we have not a cent of money. — Yesterday was communion in our church Rev. Dr. Baker, of Texas, preached Friday, Saturday and Sunday nights, and Dr McFarland Saturday and Sunday mornings Dr B. is collecting money for Austen College, Texas, of which he is President. As he has a great reputation as a revival preacher I was a good deal surprised at the character of his sermons. Parts of his discourse Friday night were very ludicrous. The text was "Precious faith," and he told the story about Abraham offering up Isaac in a way to make every body laugh. I understand that he remarked to Dr McF. + Mrs. Wilson that it often did good to make people laugh in church (!) Yet there is an execution in his preaching that is very agreeable. He said in one of his sermons that he had preached in this place some forty years ago, when he was pastor in Harrisonburg. He got no money here, I presume. —— Rev. Nathan Rice, D. D. of St. Louis, preached for us twice yesterday week — two very fine discourses. I saw him at Healing Springs. He is extremely unpretending and plain in his appearance and manner for a man of his ability and distinction. —— The trial of Rev. T. T. Castleman is progressing before a council of Episcopal clergymen.

Alick informed me to-day that he felt quite uneasy about sister's health. Her lungs, he thinks, are somewhat affected. It has depressed my spirits. — When I came home to-night supper was over, but Va had set a cup of coffee away for me. We took the lantern and went out to look after a hen with young chickens. I patched up a coop, and put the hen and chickens in it —— Politics are still in a tangle. The recent elections in Iowa, Vermont and Maine have elated the Black Republicans. The Buchanan men are rather cast down, and the Fillmore men more hopeful as the Republican triumphs go to show that the Democracy (Buccaneers) have no strength at the North.

Friday night, Sept. 19th 1856. —

Nothing of special interest recently. Sister and the children spent to night. The papers brought us word this evening that the Whig National Convention at Baltimore had endorsed Fillmore and Donelson too. The prospect brightens. — Business in town is at a low ebb. Breaking up and selling out is the order of the day.

October 1856

Monday night, Oct. 13th, 1856. —

At last the family at the old home stead is broken up, never, probably to be united. Alick + Legh stay there for the present at night, but as soon as possible the house will be rented or sold. Sister and her family, accompanied by Kate + Kitty, left on Tuesday last. I went with them to Richmond, and returned on Wednesday. The trip was in some respects pleasant to me, but at the same time I felt very sad.

The weather for several weeks has been most delightful. Cloudy to night, and it has rained a little. An eclipse of the moon on hand also. Mr. Tate and Mary have gone to John Tate's wedding. — The election takes place in Pennsylvania to-morrow for State officers, and everybody is awaiting the result. It will probably decide the contest. The news from Florida is so far favorable to Fillmore. —— was a good annoyed to-day about the Seminary business.

Wednesday night, Oct. 15th 1856. —

The news this evening from Pennsylvania is decidedly bad — the Democrats appear to carried everything before them. With this state of affairs there seems to be little or no chance for Fillmore's election. His friends throughout the country will be discouraged, and probably suffer the election to go by default. — The Democrats here are rejoicing, and the Whigs and Americans correspondingly depressed.

This morning the ground was covered with snow, and everything without wore a wintry aspect. It commenced snowing yesterday afternoon, and continued, at intervals, till late to- day I have no recollection of such a storm so early in the season before.

Mr. Tate and Mary returned from the wedding this evening, having been detained by the storm. Mr. T. + Mary acted as attendants — father and daughter! — but he only took the place of one who failed to be there. ——— I was at the Corporation office to-day, and looked over the report of the assessment of real estate in town, lately made. I find quite a difference between the assessment and the appraisement by commissioners of my father's property. The brick house was appraised at $3000, and assessed at $2500; the stone house was appraised at $1700 and assessed at $2000; the garden cot + stable assessed at $800 and appraised $900 respectively. This reminds me to enter a list of my possessions here, at this date, for the gratification of curiosity hereafter. First, I presume my interest in the Printing office, accounts and all, is worth at least $3000; then I have 10 shares in the Central Bank — worth at this time probably $900 — I have a Central Railroad Coupon bond for $1000 — worth $800. I have bonds, which with interest and dividends coming due, will amount to about $1000 on the 15th of January next; the balance of my interest in the estate (exclusive of the property in which the widow has a life estate) is some $1500 to $2000; Selena is valued at $1000 (I have been offered that for her), and Moses is probably worth $200 to $300.27 Our furniture, silver +c (including Virginia's) is worth some $200 — Besides I have books and pictures — the former accumulating rather too fast for my means — which might bring $100 to $150. Aggregate of my wealth — $8700. I think this rather under than above the real value. The following is an inventory of our furniture made out for the Commissioner of Revenue, on Feb. 1st 1856: Bureau $30 — 2 tables $3 — 2 chairs $8. - - Andirons Shovel + Tongs and Fender $5. — Bedstead $13. Bedding $41.50. — Lamps $5 — Washstand, $5. — old Bureau $3. — Wardrobe $3. — Bowl + Pitcher $1.50. — Book stand (called What- not) $10. — 2 Lounges $5. — Watch $15. — 1/2 doz. Table Spoons $20. — 1/2 doz. Tea Spoons $6. — Other Silver $9. — Jewelry (Va's) $20.

Dr McGill proposed to buy Selena to-day, and offered me $1000 — I would not have sold her for $20,000, unless she desired to go, or had grossly misbehaved. This thing of speculating on human flesh is utterly horrible to me — the money would eat into my flesh like hot iron. Slavery itself is extremely repulsive to my feelings, and I earnestly desire its extinction everywhere, when it can be done judiciously, and so as to promote the welfare of both races. Yet I am no abolitionists. The day for emancipation with us has not come, and we must wait God's time. For the present all that the most philanthropic can do is to endeavor to ameliorate the institution; but it is hard to do this in the midst of the mischievous interference of outside fanatics.

We printed upwards of 3000 election tickets to- day. But wherefore?

In pursuance of an arrangement for advertising with Parry + McMillan, of Philadelphia, book publisher, I received from them yesterday, through Bob Cowan, Brougham's Historical Sketches, and Howitt's Rural Life of England, and Visits to Remarkable Places. — Lytt still taken up with his project to buy a farm — not likely to get any more good of him at the office.

Va received at letter from Kate yesterday — all well and apparently in good spirits.

Thursday night Oct. 16th 1856 —

The news from Pennsylvania received this evening has turned the tables on the Democrats. Yesterday they were exultant, jeering the Fillmore men at every corner — this afternoon it was difficult to find one of them. The last report is that the anti-Democratic ticket has carried the State by upwards of 4000.

There is a glorious rain falling now — the most delightful we have had for nearly a year.

Friday night, Oct. 17th 1856. —

The Democrats again exultant — They have Pennsylvania — Ditto Indiana. We may as well give up. That party seems destined to rule and win the country.

Rainy, gloomy day. I felt very dull — rather unwell — all day. Wrote very little for the paper, and what I did write not worth publishing. Lytt so much taken up with his project for buying a farm that he neglects everything else.

The cars did not arrive at the usual time, and I started home near night without getting the mail. Overtook Alick and we into his office to sit a while. Heard the whistle before long, and at Alick's solicitation concluded to take supper with him, and then get the papers. Lytt came in — just returned from a sale in the country — Hogshead's. — Elvira called us to supper, and we went over to the old dining room where it was set out. After supper, Lytt + I went to the office + remained till the mail was brought. Then I came home feeling more blue still

Saturday night Oct. 18th 1856. —

As Va + I sat together here to night, we were aroused by an alarm of fire. It proved to be at the Lunatic Asylum — the Male Ward building. Went to the top of Green hill to see it. — The political news this evening "worse and more of it." Fillmore's chance blue, blue, and I have been blue accordingly

Sunday night, Oct. 19th 1856. —

There was no preaching this morning in our church and Va and I went to the Methodist church, and heard an indifferent sermon. No preaching to night — at least we heard no bell — and we are all at home. The day was most delightful. The sun shone brightly through a hazy atmosphere which mellowed and beautified the lanscape — the fields refreshed and green after the recent rain, and the temperature out of doors delightful.

But I have been depressed and sad. Nothing in life, past, present, or future appears cheerful or encouraging to me. The thought of very rapidly accumulating years quite weighs upon my spirits. And then last night, while looking over our old scrap book, an old grief was relived, and it has haunted me all day. — How different I am from Va! She is always cheerful — never gloomy. The worst of my case at present is, that I am not brought sensibly nearer to God. — Lord have mercy on me! — I believe, help thou my unbelief!28

Between Sunday School and church this morning, I went down to our old home to see Alick + Legh. The place is most comfortless. Old aunt Daphne came in and talked about the sad changes, and the provision made for her.

November 1856

Sunday night, Nov. 2nd 1856. —

Yesterday afternoon the remains of Kate and Roberta Stuart29 arrived in the cars, for permanent interment in our cemetery — Kitty Waddell's having been delivered to her father at Waynesboro'. Legh and I and the servants were at the Depot to receive the precious dust, and convey it to the Cemetery. We were detained there till dark, the preparations not being completed. How we all loved dear Kate, who was much older than little Bert at the time of her death; and she was the most beautiful and lovely child my eyes ever beheld. How I — not to speak of her mother — grieved at her death, and even yet sorrow fills my breast when I think of it. But yesterday we deposited in the ground all that is left of her on earth, — calmly and without sensible emotion. My spirits were heavy and sad — I could not realize the words of Jesus, "I am the resurection and the life" — I could not look beyond the tomb. Nearly all the day just past, my thoughts have been brooding over the scenes and transactions of yesterday.

While they were about lifting one of the boxes into the wagon, the horse took fright at the railroad whistle + dashed off. Nathan, who was on the seat, was thrown out, but not injured. The horse made a circuit in his flight, which enabled me to overtake him and seize the bridle; but I found it impossible to cluck him, and he ran some distance with me in that position. I could not let go without danger of falling and being run over by the wagon. It has startled me since to think of my peril. My limbs have been quite sore to-day.

Mr. Tate returned yesterday from the Fair. The Misses Graham are still here. Legh came up to-night after church, to get the "Central Presbyterian," and we walked to the top of the hill to see a light which we observed in the North-West — The mountain seemed to be on fire.

Tuesday night, Nov. 4th 1856 —

Presidential election to-day — I have felt nervous and depressed. Every-thing appears gloomy to me — nothing bright in the future. — We have done badly in the election. In town Fillmore's majority, as reported late in the afternoon, was between 30 + 40; whereas Flournay received 200 majority last year. This time 8 years ago Gen. Taylor was elected, and we then took charge of the Spectator just after a victory. Since then we have had nothing but a succession of defeats — Summers — Scott — Flournay — and now, Fillmore. — Many of those who acted with us in 1848 and several years afterwards, are now in the Democratic ranks. Strange facility — some men leave breaking off from life-long associations and sympathies, and joining their enemies!

Was in Alick's office this morning — found him depressed on account of the new medical combination forming against him — Legh seems to be contemplating emigrating to the west. Everything sad and gloomy to me. Would that I had a stronger faith in God. All these things are surely under his control.

Had a conversation with Va this evening about leaving this place and going to boarding, I fear we are staying longer than is desired, and do not wish to be charged with miserness. She is to broach the matter — to suggest to Tate to invite the Misses Graham to take charge of the house. It will take all my means to pay expenses if we go to boarding — and what will Kate do? These things weigh upon my mind. But, as my honored father used to say, the Lord will provide. Let me trust in this blessed assurance. "He that spared not his own Son but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things."30 Ah! it easy to write the words, but to feel the sentiment and rest upon it, is a different matter. I can only go back to the first principle of religion and say, God be merciful to me a sinner — Lord I believe, help thou my unbelief.31

Thursday night, Nov. 6th 1856. —

The election returns received to-day indicate the triumph of Buchanan by a decided majority. Fillmore gets only one State — Maryland! Fremont has carried all the New England States, New York, and all the North-Western States except Indiana and Illinois. "Democracy" seems to be irresistible. Our defeat is so overwhelming that we can never recover from it. The prospect is blue enough, and it is extremely irksome and discouraging to me to have to publish a political paper under such circumstances. My spirits have been down — down — but I have felt relieved to reflect that God still reigns — in earth as well as in heaven. — — I try to drive away sad thoughts. Legh wishes to sell the farm, to go to the West.

There was an exhibition of "Living Wonders" at Union Hall to-day — a Bearded woman and child, from Geneva; a Giantess, born in Maine, seven feet + four inches high, and 32 years old; a dwarf man called "General Gifford," from the West; and a dwarf woman of two children! The last two are very symmetrical in figure, and intelligent.

Thursday night, Nov. 13th, 1856. —

Was idle nearly all day yesterday and to- day, and consequently pretty blue. Mrs. Frazier here to-night and will be no body knows how long! After supper, I went down to Mr. Wayt's on Seminary business, but no one besides Mr. W. except Imboden. As I returned home, I thought how little account I was in the world. It seemed to me, and no doubt truly, that all my mental vigor was gone. I used to have some little, but there is no activity — no strength now. Nothing worth writing about.

December 1856

Wednesday night, Dec. 24th 1856. —

Since my last date how many things have occurred and how much have I seen that I would like to preserve in these pages! I have been to Savannah, Geo., to the Southern Commercial Convention nominally — that being the pretext for a free trip over the Railroads — but really to see the South. Jno. Baldwin + I started Thursday the 4th inst. Imboden, Wm Bayle, Marshall McCue + several others from Staunton started the following day. B. + I fell in with R. T. W. Duke and V. W. Southall jr of Charlottesville, and we four formed a party, rooming together in Savannah. By traveling day and night without stopping we reached Augusta, Geo, Saturday morning at 3 o'clock. Remained there till the afternoon and arrived at Savannah at 11 at night. I remained till Wednesday evening at 6 o'clock, when I started home. Spent several hours in Augusta — Friday night in Richmond, and got home Saturday afternoon. The entire trip was most delightful. For particulars see the "Spectator" for Dec. 17th + 24th, and my letters to Virginia.

This is Christmas-eve. Many persons are in trepidation on account of the rumored negro insurrection to take place to- night. Several negroes about Greenville have been arrested + brought to jail. I place no reliance in the reports, and fear that some poor negroes will suffer unjustly

My childish feelings always return in a great degree with every return of Christmas. Oh! how I did enjoy it once! I had few Christmas gifts, but we had ginger cakes cut into horses, deer, hogs, birds +c, and all the hog bladders we could collect to burst before day-light. Phil, old aunt Fanny's son, was the ring-leader in our sports, and then all the young negroes came home, each one of whom was an addition to our enjoyment. People do not keep Christmas as they did then. — Now we hear very few guns, which played so important a part in former times. One Christmas morning I well remember. I was probably 10 or 12 years of age. I rose before day, as I always did on Christmas mornings. Phil had built a fire in the dining room, with a big Christmas log behind, and then to my great grief he had gone off. His mammy, who was always calling him, whether she really wanted him or not, we thought, started to bring him home. I followed him through the dark to "Hill's pump," and from there we could see the flashes of the guns fired near the Wayne tavern as it was then. Between every valley, we could hear Phil's voice, singing the greatest glee. The old woman — not very old then — went on down, shouting at every few steps — "You Phil! you Phil!" notwithstanding I begged her not to go, as she might be shot! I returned home, and retain no further recollection of the day; but the impression of this much is as distinct on my memory as if it occurred yesterday, instead of some twenty years ago, or now.

Va has been busy to- day preparing for a dining to-morrow — spent the day at the Hotel, making her dessert. I bought a magic lantern for Jimmy and gave it to him to- night. Nanny + Matty went to bed early, to dream over Christmas gifts and all the joys which await them in the morning. I think much of those dearer children in Christiansburg. Would that I had a home for Kate.


January 1857

Tuesday night, January 6th 1857. —

Several evenings this winter when the weather was colder than usual, Va has found in the water bucket just from the spring a number of small fish. They doubtless run into the spring because the water there is at a higher temperature than in the creek. Last night there was a little fellow, about an inch long, in the bucket, and I caught him and put him in a glass jar of water. He has seemed very lively ever since. This evening Jimmy + I went down with a pair to catch some more, but we only captured one. — The weather is cold to-night — Va is reading "Count Robert of Paris," and "The Pirate." — Nothing of interest to record. Alick is moving into his new house.

I have an indistinct recollection that on one occasion when I was sick in my childhood, some member of the family placed one or more small fishes in a glass bowl for my amusement. Perhaps it was owing to this circumstance that for long afterwards I felt a great fondness for the same kind of pets, and made frequent unsuccessful efforts to catch the minnows which were so abundant in "the creek," as we used to call it. Once I succeeded in grasping what I thought a fish, and hastened home in a high state of excitement with my prize. I rushed into the kitchen, calling loudly for water, that I had a fish! — but alas, it proved to be a lizard or tad pole.

Thursday night, Jan. 8th, 1857. —

Yesterday morning Thornton brought up another fish from the spring, and we then had three. They were all very lively, and seemed to be eating, when Va + I went to meeting after supper, but when we returned they were apparently dying. Two actually died + I threw them out this morning. But I was not disposed to give up the business so. To-night about supper time, but in a clear moon-light, I took a cullender and tin bucket and went fishing. The first souse brought up seven, and that was all I could catch; for the rest, (I presume there were more) instantly dived out of my reach. For convenience I placed the cullender on my head, and as it froze tight to my hat, I had no trouble in bringing it home, I wonder the little fish did not perish on the way, it was so very cold. They are now sprightly enough in the jar above the fire- place.

Yesterday afternoon N. Brooks + I took a ride in the wagon to see Legh. It was real winter, but the trip was quite pleasant to me. Legh was to all appearance, happy as a Lord with his pigs +c +c. He has a room with a stove, bed, two tables, two chairs, old bureau, a case for papers, a few books, a carpet. Joshua + John Hill were threshing rye at the barn with flails — John jr was hauling wood to town.

Sunday night, Jan. 18th 1857. —

What a terrible snow storm! It commenced last night about 7 o'clock, and has continued without intermission to the present time — twenty-four hours. During the whole day the wind has been blowing a stiff gale, and in some places the snow is heaped up in drifts, while in others the ground is nearly bare. It has entered the house at every crack, even coming into our chamber through, or rather under, two doors. We have all been house-bound I went out soon after breakfast, and gave the fowls some corn, and since then have contented myself with looking through the windows. —— Jimmy calls one drift the Rocky Mountains, and a gap in it, the South Pass. —— My fish are still alive. It is necessary to change the water once or twice a day, and it must not get too warm, or the fish will die.

Tuesday night, Jan. 20, 1857. —

Yesterday morning I rose pretty early, for me, and soon after breakfast started to the office. I had to break a path through the field, and in some places the snow was very deep, and walking very tiresome. Such as storm as we had the day before was probably never known hereabouts before — at least everybody said so. Mr. Stuart, (A. H. H.) told me that his thermometer was at zero nearly all day Sunday, + Todd Gilkeson, of Christians Creek, made a similar report. Ours after night, in a sheltered Southern exposure, was at -3o. The morning yesterday passed off at the office very quietly. I found Lyt and Legh there when I got down, and the boys were just starting to breakfast. There was no mail Sunday and none has come yet — since Saturday. We had no difficulty, however, in making up the paper. I called at the Hotel yesterday before dinner, and Miss Agnes gave me a pocket full of cakes. She afterwards sent me by a servant a waiter full of pies, cakes +c, as I did not go to dinner, I had no appetite, and Lyt, William and the boys, disposed of the eatables. In the afternoon, N. Brooks, B. Christian, Gilmer, Mauzsy, Mat Coulter + others came in and we had quite a merry time. Legh was there a good part of the day. Returning home at dusk I had to break the path again, the wind having filled up the tracks I made in the morning. —— This morning we got through our usual Tuesday's work with more than usual ease. I dined at the Hotel. In the afternoon, A. H. Stuart, Jno. Baldwin, Mr. Campbell and others came in to get the paper, and remained some time to talk. N. Brooks was there nearly all morning. There were many sleighs running during the day. Before I got to the style, on my return home this evening, I observed Va and the children on the knoll, near the road, Mr. Tate and Thornton having opened a path from the house. I caught Nanny + Mattie + laid them in the snow. — Jimmy ran away. There is a snow bank before the house, in which I laid Va, while Mattie looked on not knowing whether to laugh or cry. —— Last night I finished reading "The Ocean," by Gope, and to-night I read aloud to Va, nearly a hundred pages of Reed's Lectures on English Literature

Thursday night, Jan. 22, 1857. —

The thermometer is at zero, and has been since sundown. Indeed all day the weather was very cold. This morning the mercury sunk to -2o. The jar of water in which my fish are was frozen when I left my bed, but not when Va arose. — No cars yet! — none since Saturday evening, so that we are in total ignorance what is going on in the great world. An engine came up yesterday, and reported that the track was clear, from Greenwood. It went on to the Western terminus (Millboro') and returned last night. It is said that there was comparatively little snow in the mountains west. Feeling quite unwell this morning, I came home to dinner, and did not return to the office in the afternoon. Two cups of tea at dinner, however, restored me to a comfortable state of health. Legh paid me a visit to-night — coming in while we were at supper - - and sat several hours. We shall be at a loss for "copy" tomorrow, unless the cars, by possibility, arrive to- night. Chandler is making a book-case for me, and I have been up frequently to watch the progress of the work.

The clock has just struck ten.

Saturday night, Jan. 24th 1857.

No cars yet. Just a week since we heard from Richmond, Washington +c! A few minutes ago we thought we heard the whistle, and ran to the door, but it appears to have been a mistake. Since last Saturday we have heard from Lexington and Woodstock, but from no points beyond those places.

Last night about 10 o'clock, Mary who was in her room, called to us that there was a house burning down town. There was a brilliant light. The houses of Mrs. Venable and Mrs. Lancaster were conserved. Mr. Tate went to the fire — I did not.

I observed last that there were two more fish in the jar. As every one denies having put them in, we are puzzled to know how they got there. Va thought there had been a natural increase, but the probability is that they were emptied into the water cooler, and from thence passed into the jar when the water was changed. Thornton says he brought up a number yesterday in the bucket.

Mr. Marquess sent for me this afternoon, and gave me a long talk about the Seminary. I was much perplexed. — sick in mind and body

Monday night, January 26th 1857. —

No cars yet! Nine days since we received a mail from Richmond. Henry Chrisman got to town yesterday, from Louisa Court-house, having walked from that place to Charlottesville. See the next no. of the Spectator — Jan. 28th

To-day, being the 4th Monday in the month, was January Court day. — Lyt stirred about and collected some money, besides what was paid at the office. We paid his father $25 1/4. David Strasburg $10, Joe Ryan $5, and divided $60 between us. We took in nearly $3 in three and five cent pieces! —— When I came up to dinner Va informed me that the cat, which Thornton threw into the well last Tuesday, was heard crying this morning. She made Thornton get it out. He lowered a basket by a rope, and the cat getting in was drawn up. It was there six days without food. There is no water in the well.

Mr. Ewing of Orange preached yesterday and at night in the Lecture Room which was crowded on both occasions. He is snowed up there, having come up from Rockingham, on his way home.

Tuesday night, Jan. 27th1857. —

Between one and two o'clock to-day, an engine with a single car came whistling in. There was a great running to the Depot. We received no mail, however. Bob Napper, who came up, told me they left Richmond on Saturday. The passengers who started Sunday week, were brought on.

Wednesday night, Jan. 28th. —

The cars arrived about 4 o'clock to-day, with 30 bags of mail. Having no idea that the office would be open before bed time, I did not wait for letters and papers, although I feel impatient to hear from Christiansburg, but came home. The mail agent on the train gave me a Richmond Dispatch of yesterday, in which I found some items of news. — Imboden gives an interesting account of the sufferings of travelers who left Richmond on the day of the storm. They were arrested at Louisa Court house, and detained there till Wednesday. They then got to Gordonsville, and remained there till Sunday last. Starting again on Sunday (a week after their departure from Richmond) they spent the night in the cars, arrived at Charlottesville, and reached Staunton the next day. Bob Napper baked ash pones for their supper Sunday night, and furnished breakfast the next morning. I urged Imboden to write out a narrative for publication, and if he does it will appear in the next no. of the Spectator — (Feb. 4th)

This evening something reminded me of old Louie (or Lousy) and I amused the children by relating various reminiscences of him. He was an old native African, and belonged to uncle Lyttelton. If I ever was acquainted with his early history, I have forgotten it. His breast was tattooed. He pretended to speak his native language, and also French. Before the law prohibited it he officiated to his colored bretheren as a Baptist preacher, and I remember to have heard him hold forth to a congregation in "Kennedy's barn." They got around the law in some way. It was a sermon preached on occasion of the death of "Kennedy's Mat." The old man used to count in his native tongue for the amusement of children. From 1 to 10 ran in this way, as near as I can reduce the words to writing — een, teen, tother, afother, afiss, ahather, alather (a-la- ther), ascorer, alather (a-lath-er), adix. — and then een-dix, teen- dix +c. Whether this was genuine African, or manufactured by Louie, I cannot tell.

Friday night, Jan. 30, 1857. —

The mail which arrived Wednesday afternoon, brought us eighty newspapers. This evening we received three Baltimore Americans. A letter from sister, written on the 15th, also arrived Wednesday, and I received one from Kate, concluded on the 27th, this evening. We have another snow to-night. It commenced about 5 o'clock — while we were at prayer meeting, Va was in town, and I brought her and Nanny and Matty up in the wagon, which was waiting at the Hotel. By the time we got home I was covered with snow, [deleted: and presented the appearance of winter personified.]

February 1857

Sunday night, Feb. 1, 1857.

I am laid up at home to night with a cold — Va went to church with Mr. T. The snow which fell Friday night was about 9 inches deep. The past day was mild and pleasant — colder to-night I feel dull — every way.

Sunday night, Feb. 8th, 1857. —

We did not go in to church to night, the walking being very bad, and my recent affection of the throat rendering it somewhat imprudent for me to turn out. Frazier came up to dinner, and staid till after supper. I sat in the room with him for some and the conversation, I am sorry to say, was not entirely suited to the day.

There is now very little snow left on the ground. I looked this evening to see, and there was none except in a few places on Northern exposures, along fences where it had drifted. The thaw commenced on Thursday, and since then the weather has been mild as April. On Friday the water courses were much swollen, and damage was done to fences and mill-dams. There was some rain to-day, and to-night it is colder then it has been for four or five days.

Yesterday morning, Va. sent the minnows to the Spring!

Thursday night, Feb. 12th 1857. —

Yesterday evening I closed the bargain with Quarles about the property trade. I give him our old homestead and eleven hundred dollars for his McCue property. The latter is to be conveyed to Kate and me, as equal owners. The old place we take at $2500 — She to be charged with $1800, and I with $700 — I, of course, pay the $1100, which pretty well exhausts me. On the whole I feel gratified with the arrangement, although somewhat nervous about going to housekeeping. ——— I had my ambrotype32 likeness taken to day - - it is not a very good likeness, but shows my moustache (!) which was my principal object. —— I made an engagement with N. Brooks this morning to ride up and see Legh in the afternoon. When we called at the office with the wagon, Lyt was there alone, and I proposed to him to go along. He readily agreed. We found Legh and young John ploughing in the first field, next to Peaco. Joshua + John Hill and three other hands were cutting wood and rails at the clearing, and two Polmers were there getting out timber for a shed at the barn. ——— It is now snowing again. —— Tate returned from Richmond this afternoon. He brought me, by request, Hodge's "Way of Life" and Caird's sermon on "Religion in Common Life."

Sunday night, Feb. 22, 1857. —

Va went to the Episcopal Church to night, with Mr. Tate, and has not returned yet. Mr. Wilson preached at Union this morning, and Mr. Davis, of the Lutheran Church, preached in our Church. Thoughts of our new house + lot have distracted my mind a good deal, and I have to lament another unprofitable Sabbath I spent yesday afternoon at the place, planting fruit trees, and cutting down others. I earnestly pray that God will not permit me to become too much interested in this establishment. —— Lyt started to New York on Thursday last with C. T. Cochran — will be gone two or three weeks. — old Milly Jackson died last Tuesday I saw her on Sunday, and did not know that she was more unwell than usual till I heard she was dead. I wish I had visited her oftener, and done more for her instruction and comfort. — — The weather has been very spring-like for some ten days past.

March 1857

Friday night, March 20, 1857. —

Past ten o'clock. Va is staying with her mother to-night, and I am alone in our room. Mrs. McC. was quite ill to-day. I should not be surprised if she were carried off at any time. ——— The weather was most delightful to-day, but I could not enjoy it. My spirits were somewhat depressed — I tried to write, but found the utmost difficulty in stringing together a few ideas. I began to think once more that I was too much of a dunce for any intellectual pursuit, and perhaps I am. —— Our new house + lot interest me more than my business. Yesterday and day before I was there for some hours taking up and replanting trees. I am still troubled with apprehensions about housekeeping, and should not have dreamed of making the experiment but on Kate's account. She had no home. I thought it possible she and Kitty might arrive this afternoon, and went over to the Depot, but was disappointed. ——— The workmen are putting up Alick's iron railing.

Of how little account am I in the world! How little do I accomplish for the cause of God! Why do I live at such a distance from Him? It is hard to give even the necessary attention to worldly business and not have a worldly spirit. But the Christian life is compared to a warfare. "Sure I must fight if I would win." The gifts of Christ and the Holy Spirit include everything necessary for our triumph over the world, and it is my sin that I live so far from God and that my affections toward him are so cold. I have sinned this day in thought and feeling grievously. But the glorious truth still remains that there's "a fountain opened for sin and uncleanness."33 I can only look to the cross. That God may cause me to love and serve Him more is my earnest prayer.

April 1857

Saturday night, April 18th, 1857, —

Here we are in our new home! Va is sitting before the fire with her hands folded; the children retired long ago. Mr. Tate and Legh were with us at supper, but left soon after. We moved on Monday last, part of the time during a snow storm. Kate and Kitty will come up on Monday next — they are now at aunt Sally's. They arrived from Christiansburg on Friday night, the 3rd. The expenses of housekeeping are pretty heavy, but I am in for it. —— Alick sent up his chickens yesterday for me to keep for him till Fall, his lot being too small for them. I turned them out of the coop to-day, and his game cock and my Shanghai got into a fight of course. I had to separate them twice, to prevent the Shanghai from seriously injuring his opponent. Dont know what to do to keep the peace between them. I have been up to Oakenwold every day since we left them to see after the chickens, as several hens are setting. — This evening I found that the eggs under one of them were hatching. -

During the last week the weather was excessively severe for the season. On Wednesday the wind blew a hurricane the whole day, and some damage was done to buildings and fences. It was snowing this morning when I awoke, and continued for several hours. Then it rained for several hours more. There was still a good deal of snow on the ground at night-fall.

I got three bushels of corn meal yesterday from Geo. Shuey at 66 1/3 cts a bushel, having engaged it a month ago. He previously bought me two barrels of flour, for which I paid him $12. We took Mr. L's bacon 330 lbs at 12 1/2 cts a pound. As yet I have not gone in debt for any purchases — furniture or supplies — with a few exceptions in cases were persons had accounts at the office — If possible I mean to pay the cash for all we buy. We bought our first piece of fresh meat to-day — mutton — for 50 cts. — Wood and lights are going rapidly.

June 1857

Monday night, June 15th 1857 — —

Since the date of my last entry we have been moving along quietly and contentedly. I have experienced more enjoyment in housekeeping than I ever anticipated. The new arrangement in the printing office, has enabled us to settle up our old business, and consequently I am rather flush of funds — for me.

Legh contemplates marrying next month — so I understand — and it causes me much anxiety, especially as he seems to be depressed in spirits. I dont know how the fellow is to get along.34 Little else has been talked about for a week past but the hanging at Port Republic. See Spectator files.

September 1857

Thursday night, Sept. 10th 1857. —

Weather delightful. For some time past I have been very busy in the garden, when I could spare the time from the office. I have made two strawberry beds, and Wright six or seven more. At present I am preparing to set out raspberries — digging the holes +c — which, as the ground is hard and stony, is quite a job. A week or two ago, I prepared a place for hops, with considerable labor. To-day I housed some fodder — cut within the last few days.

Yesterday afternoon N. C. Brooks and I walked up to see Legh and family. — "Norb" stopped at the Farm and I went on to Johnson's, where Mrs. Hill and Bell were, Legh having rented the house for the present. — Legh and Norb afterwards came up, and we spent a short time very pleasantly. The country looks beautiful, and Legh's farm especially so. Mrs. Hill + Bell staid with us nearly a week previous to their going to the country on Tuesday last. Bell was too sick to go up at the time they had to give up the house in town. Lyt is all agog about buying five acres of ground from H. J. Crawford, for building. It is the hill on the old Winchester road, back of the Parochial School house. I think it a very wild notion Nannie and Mattie are at "Inframont." They went out with Miss L. Graham.

We have been living "all sorts of ways" for the last month. Betsy was taken down about the middle of August, and at the time Rev. B. M. Smith and all his family were with us. We have had company nearly ever since. Wright has been cooking part of the time, but an oppressive amount of work has been thrown upon Va.

Thursday night, Sept. 24th 1857. —

This afternoon Virginia went out to the Rockbridge Alum Springs. Mary Tate and Nannie and Mattie accompanied her. I intended going with them as far as Millboro; but as they found company, it was unnecessary. Later in the afternoon Tate, Lyt and I walked down to the Factory — to look after fossils, but found none of interest. Daily, the Irish stone mason, has, however, brought me several quite pretty speciments.

I came up home a short time before night, and have missed Va no little. The whole place indeed seemed very lonesome, and the night has been very long. I was unusually long or slow, or long became slow — in getting through the newspapers. Kate was reading the Life of Charlotte Bronte, and would persist in reading sundry passages aloud, notwithstanding my restlessness, rattling the paper and other sighs of impatience as marked as was consistent with politeness (?). Some time after Jimmy and Billy retired I heard them talking and I came up to ascertain if they were burning a lamp. Billy was not in his closet, but under Jimmy's bed. He gave no answer when I called him, pretending to be fast asleep. The little scamp! I had to drag him out before he acknowledged himself awake.

Yesterday I settled my taxes for this year. Enormously high. The taxes on this house + lot, for instance, State + Corporation, are $28.80. — $14.00 each; but I do not pay the tax this year. Indeed I have no Corporation tax to pay, having been omitted by some mistake — I informed the Collector and Mayor Trout of the error, and they may correct it if they choose.

December 1857

Wednesday night, Dec. 9th 1857. —

We received the last of our pork to-day — six hogs from Col. McCue. In addition to these we have put up six raised on the lot, of which two- thirds (in Wright) were Wright's; and three I got from Moses — The weights were of the first (McCue's) 621 lbs — Moses' 627 — ours 672 — total 1960 — Value at $6 1/2 per 100 — $127.40 The weather is remarkably warm and I fear the pork will spoil — while I was salting it to-day, the persperation streamed down my face.

M. Baker, the new preacher we expect to get, staid with us several days — He went to D. Kayser's last Thursday night, and left for Washington on Tuesday morning.

Mr. Tate is lodging here to-night — he goes to his farm to-morrow.


January 1858

Monday night, Jan. 11th 1858. —

Weather very mild — I propose starting to Christiansburg day after to-morrow.

February 1858

Thursday night, Feb. 4, 1858. —

We had a fall of snow on Monday last, the 1st inst., another last night (neither deep) and this evening, after dark, it commenced again. With these exceptions we have had but one snow during the winter — that on Christmas day. The weather was remarkably mild last month, but February promises to make up for it.

I had been serving on the Grand Jury yesterday and to-day. A large number of presentments. Very tired of it.

There is a tableaux going on at Mr. Fultz's to- night. Virginia, Kate, Kitty, Legh, Mrs. Hill + Bell are there. As Mrs. H. + Bell will spend the night here I have kept up a fire in the spare chamber. There are also fires in Kate's room and our chamber. Between them all a wonderful cracking is kept up, and I have been running from one to another, to see after the sparks, till I am rather "tired of it."!

I purchased a $500 Orange + Alexandria Railroad Bond — to-day — gave $350.

My trip to Christiansburg was very pleasant. I went up by Lexington, Buchanan + Bufort's, and returned by Lynchburg + Richmond. Left home on Wednesday, the 13th Jan. and got back Friday the 22nd

April 1858

Wednesday night, April 14, 1858. —

A year ago yesterday, we moved to this house. In reviewing the past year, I feel that it has been the happiest of my life, and I would praise God for his lovingkindness. He has disappointed many of my fears and delivered me from some sore troubles. I am gratified to be able to record, which I do with diffidence, however, — and I hope in no boastful spirit — that so far as I can judge I have made some progress in religion. It seems to me that I am more decidedly on the Lord's side, and that I desire more earnestly and constantly to love and serve Him. Yet I am daily conscious of indwelling sin. Oh to be delivered! Jesus Christ is indeed "the chief among ten thousand and altogether lovely." Perfect freedom from sin constitutes one of the chief attractions of heaven. The interest in the subject of religion, which is now manifested more or less in every part of the country, is exhibited to some extent in this place. — A number of persons have professed conversion in the Baptist, Lutheran and Methodist churches. No unusual meetings have been held in our church, but I hope the members are somewhat aroused.

Kate expects to go to Waynesboro in the morning, where Presbytery is in session — There was an appointment for prayer meeting to-night, Mr. Baker being in W., but Mr. Thomas was present and preached

After we came up to our room to-night Va brought out some old letters and we looked over some of them.

Thursday night, April 22, 1858. —

A union prayer meeting was held in Union Hall yesterday at 12 o'clock. All denominations and both sexes attended, and the Hall was well filled. Mr. Baker conducted the meeting. The services consisted in singing, reading the Scriptures and praying. Mr. Baker called at the office before hand to obtain my consent to lead in prayer if called upon, but I declined. I do not know how for the feeling which influenced me was a proper one. I think it was not that I was ashamed of Christ — No, Divine Redeemer! I am willing for all the world to know that I revere + love thee. But a general indisposition to be forward in public enterprises, arising from a fastidiousness which is often excessive, and sometimes a great hindrance to me, seems to have been the chief cause of my disinclination.

Mr. John Baker preached last night in our Lecture room, and also to-night — Quite a crowd to-night. He is an admirable preacher, but there must be more than usual interest in religion to bring the people out in such numbers.

May 1858

Thursday night, May 27, 1858. —

Election day — County officers — Clerks, Sheriff, Commissioners of Revenue, Surveyor, and Constables were elected. The contest was chiefly over the Clerkship of the County Court. — Jeff. Kinney and J. D. Imboden the candidates. I voted for the latter. He is elected in all probability. In thinking over the occurrences of the day I feel the greatest loathing after these election scenes. The intoxication, profanity, rowdyism +c fill me with shame. Poor, miserable human nature! On such occasions a large class of people musters in town, that we never see at other times. The ignorant and disgustingly besotted swagger about with all the self-importance of sovereigns, although many of them are led up to the polls like sheep to the shambles, with no more intelligence or free will

Soon after I went down from dinner I observed the crowd pressing into the vacant lot opposite the Courthouse lot, and went to ascertain the cause. Pete Kuntz and a set of degraded females were exhibiting themselves for the amusement of the multitude, that such a scene should be witnessed in a civilized community! I hurried back to send a police officer to arrest the proceedings. Pete was bound over; another man there was taken to jail.

Subsequently I got mixed up rather ridiculously in the arrest of a disorderly fellow named Cox.

The Rev. S. Brown, of Bath, sent me to-day, by his brother Williams, a box of geological specimens +c.

Corny Stuart35 is with us having arrived on Monday last. Janetta Alexander is also on a visit to Staunton.

Last Sunday two weeks ago I was elected an Elder. — I feel humbled. Know not whether I shall accept.

June 1858

Tuesday night, June 15, 1858 —

Addison Alexander in town. After dinner I called at uncle Lyttelton's,36 where he was, and he went down to the office with me. Then we took a long walk — went up main street, to Newtown, turned to the right and passed over the hill opposite our house. He thought the view very fine, but had considerable difficulty in crossing the fences, which seemed to amuse him — called me his, "master of fence!" I brought him home with me, and he remained till after dark. He was in fine spirits — walked in the garden, and when supper was over sat in the front porch for about an hour amusing himself with the children, and amusing them by talking in some unknown tongue.

Kate went to a party at Jeff Kinnys and after A left Va + I walked with her to Alick's.

The trial of Downey has occupied a large share of public attention for nearly two weeks passed. Closed to-day, but the jury have not yet given a verdict.37

Wednesday night, June 23, 1858. —

Dr Alexander (Addison) is staying with us. He came up last Saturday afternoon, and has spent every night here since. Seems to enjoy himself when the weather is fair very much. This morning it was quite cloudy, and remained so during the day. He complained of great drowsiness, appeared low spirited, and said the weather affected his respiration. When I left house this morning he had the children around him, amusing them and himself in the usual manner. He was teaching Kitty to write in an "unknown language." After she succeeded in getting a correct sentence, he called for a piece of paper to write a certificate for her, and wrote something in Arabic. (So he told them.) He related a story of his own invention, mimicing the various characters, and the children shouted so loud as to be heard over the neighborhood. Corny Stuart had a question to propound to him, which I fixed up in rhyme for her —

If Adam had'nt eat the apple and Eve had, would all the men have been good, and the women bad? She submitted it yesterday, and he "took time to consider." This morning he worried her with it till she was tired out — wishing to know what she conceded in the premises — and whether she desired a transcendental or empirical answer (!) She at last told him he was "very foolish!"

I have arranged to take him to Augusta church next Sunday — to preach.

Va and Mrs Lyle went up to Mrs. Walters' this morning, by R. R. and returning this evening.

Va + I attended a party at D. Kayser's last night. Kate called at the Seminary to- night after meeting, where Kitty was practising for the Concert Friday night.

We are printing the testimony in the Downey case in pamphlet, and are crowded with job work.

July 1858

Thursday, July 1st 1858 —

(at the office) Kate and Cornie left this morning for Christiansburg, and Kitty for Fredericksburg. The former travel with a young Preston, who came for his sister; and Kitty a Mr. Moncure and a Miss Goodwin. We were up be-times, getting them off. Va went into the cellar to get some pickle for Kate, and slipping on the wet floor got a fall. She came up and told me of the accident, but complained of no pain. As she was very muddy she went up stairs to wash, and I sent Drusy to bring water for her. After a few minutes I went up myself, and found her sitting in a chair, very pale and with the countenance of a corpse. She said to me that she was very sick, and I proposed to help her to the bed; but she objected on account of the mud. I then placed a pillow on the floor and laid her down. She said she was unconscious for a short time and recovered just as I entered. I sent for Kate to go up, and Va soon revived sufficiently for me to come to the Depot with Kate + the children. When I got back she seemed quite well.

We are all relieved that Cornie has got off — she suffered so much with homesickness — Kate went with great reluctance. She expects to remain in C. about two months. Kitty will stay in F. till her father can go for her. She will travel as far as the Junction with Kate.

On Sunday last I drove Dr Addison Alexander in a buggy to the Stone Church. We stopped at Mrs. Nelson's, and took dinner there after preaching. Dr A. preached a sermon somewhat adapted to the place and the people. — Alluded to the fact that his father preached his first sermon in that house, and, also spoke of the present harvest season. We visited the burying ground to see the graves of three pastors. Got home about five o'clock. He left us on Monday morning.

The Downey pamphlet is out — some demand for it.


Tuesday afternoon, Oct. 12, 1858. —

(At the office) A rainy day — but rain much needed — It is now just a week since I last used tobacco — feel a great craving for it at this time, but, on the whole, have been better without it. The "old lady", who has been with us for some weeks, expected to leave this afternoon for Mr. McC's, but the rain has delayed her departure.

I have just written to a gentleman in the town of Little Falls, N. Y., to obtain some information relative to gas works. Our project is at a stand — we have called a meeting of the stockholders for Saturday week.

November 1858

Wednesday afternoon, Nov. 24, 1858. —

Young Lilly has brought his surveying instrument to the office for our inspection, and Lyt is now writing a testimonial in his book. Wright killed the hogs this morning — two his and one mine — price of pork $5.75 per hundred.

Since my last date I have attended Synod in Charlottesville. Went Wednesday and returned Saturday. Had quite a pleasant time. Staid at the Farish House, — Mrs. Sarah Kayser under my care. When I came home found that John, hired at the Va Hotel, having been accused of stealing money, had run away. He did not make his appearance till Wednesday night following, when Moses brought him to me. I took him down the next morning + had an investigation. - - He was looking to escape with a whipping. Aunt Sally's Archy, after a long course of misbehavior, broke into R. G. Bickle's kitchen on the night of the 12th inst., and made an assault upon a negro woman. Capt Peck found him on the street afterwards and took him to jail. Before I came down street Saturday morning Alick + Lyt had sold him to go South. There seemed to be no alternative, as he appeared incorrigible, but the matter was distressing to me.

Henry C. Alexander left us Monday, for Lexington, after a visit of some days. When first here on this occasion, before going over to Synod, he was reluctant to preach in Staunton. I took him to Hebron, on Sunday, the 30th ult., when he held forth. By accident he had left his sermons in N. Y., and he had prepared, or written out, part of a discourse only for Hebron, intending to extemporise at the close. He professed to feel greatly embarrassed, and I was as much so. In one place he he began to remark — "As Job says" — and then hesitated as if he had forgotten, but finally concluded — "As Job says, 'Lord; thy hand is heavy upon me.'" Riding home he told me that Job had said nothing of the kind so far as he knew, but he had to say something or take his seat (!) I comforted him by the assurance that I, and probably no one, had detected any blunder. Last Sunday morning and night he preached in town, two very good sermons.

There is a rumor that Jas. McClung is about selling the Hotel — I have no certain information about it.

Yesterday afternoon we had a meeting of the Directors of the Gas Company, after vast trouble. The action will amount to nothing, I fear.

Downey was convicted on his late trial. The jury found him guilty of murder in the second degree, and fixed his term in the Penitentiary at 8 years.38

December 1858

Wednesday afternoon, December 8, 1858

Rain! Rain! Rain! Since the 1st of November last, with the exception of a few days. — Settled with Sheriff for taxes to-day.


April 1859

Saturday, April 30, 1859 —

General muster day at Spring Hill — a number of persons gone from town. Lyt went to Lexington on Wednesday, with Waterhouse, to see about getting up Gas Works there — has not returned yet. The Staunton Gas Works are progressing finely - - most of the main pipes laid. Not enough money subscribed yet, however. The community very much interested since Tuesday last in the case of Baldwin Stuart, who was blown up on a steamboat below Memphis, on Sunday. He was on his way to Louisiana, to be married. Frequent telegraph dispatches have been received — His father + mother started Tuesday afternoon. Last dispatch says he was improving.39

May 1859

Wednesday, May 11, 1859. —

Feel rather dull to-day. No special cause, except that I am not entirely well — some Spring ailment. Went over to the Hospital this morning with Norb. Brooks — saw Hamilton's microscope — but found nothing particularly interesting. The "Goggin Club" met Monday night for the first time. — remarkably lively — short speeches by D. S. Young, Wm Grey, P. Harrison, Geo. Imboden + B. Christian.40 Alick is in Charlottesville as a witness on the Downey trial.41 The remains of Baldwin Stuart are expected to-morrow — he died on Monday.

June 1859

Monday night, June 6, 1859 —

Heavy frost yesterday morning — tender vegetables nearly all killed and corn fields considerably injured. Still cool. Va went to Rockbridge this morning to visit Lizzie McClung (Mrs. McBride) who is dying with consumption. Jim took her up. Will return to-morrow. - - The election excitement has subsided. For several days the Whigs were sanguine of Goggin's election, and very jubilant. But as usual we are defeated. Feel somewhat unwell to- night, and decidedly dull. Kate is in Princeton — seems to be enjoying herself.

August 1859

Sunday night — August 7th 1859 —

On Friday morning, the 29th of July, we learned that James McClung, the night before, had received a letter from Dr Cabell at the Red Sweet Springs, stating that Dr Jas Alexander was very ill and could not survive. He wished dispatches sent to Princeton + New York, and expressed a desire for Alick to go out. Alick started Friday afternoon. Henry C. + James arrived Saturday and went on immediately, Lyt + Mr. Cook and I going out with them as far as Buffalo Gap, where we rolled ten-pins till the time for the down train to arrive, in which we returned to town. On Monday Sam Alexander arrived from N. Y. At Millboro, however, he met Alick, and H. + J. Alexander in charge of his brother's corpse. That night, I went to the Depot to see the body transferred to a metalic case. It was not a pleasant duty, but I thought some friend ought to be there, and no one else was at hand to go. The body was dressed in a suit of black, with white cravat the face had changed very little. The next morning Sam + Henry went on with the remains and Jimmy returned to his mother at the Springs. Alick arrived there Saturday + gave concern J die Sunday morning. He had an interesting + gratifying interview with him. H. + J. got there too late.

Friday evening last we had a visit from Rice Austin, who I remember as visiting our house when I was quite a child. Sister went with him to the Hotel, after supper, to see his daughter, and Va + I went down for her about 9 o'clock. Found Dr Thomwell of S. C. there + was introduced to him. He conversed very familiarly, but dropped some expressions which struck me as rather unrefined. Kate arrived yesterday, in company with uncle Lyttelton, who has been to Philadelphia to be operated on for cataract. He is very much prostrated, but the operation is said to be successful. Has not tried his eye much yet. Kate seems highly gratified to get back. Dr Thomwell preached this morning + to-night to large congregations. Sister + family have been with us four weeks on Friday last. She expects to leave next week. The visit has been very pleasant to us. William C. Alexander, of Princeton, was lately with us some days. To-day William D. Alexander of Georgia, Va's cousin, returned with us from church and took dinner.

November 1859

Wednesday night, Nov. 9, 1859. —

Jas. S. Wright came in yesterday morning, to inform me that John had visited him when he undertook to chastise him for some impudence — that he indulged in threats against him and the family, kept a pistol, went to bed with two hickory sticks +c +c. He said John must leave his place — that their lives were in danger. I promised to go out if possible in the afternoon, but failing to procure a horse, wrote to Legh asking him to ride up this morning. About noon to-day I received a note from Legh. He had been up — found Wright quite excited — had made arrangements to have John tied and brought to town for trial. He thought W. had been too exacting, requiring too much work, and that the fears of the family had been unnecessarily aroused by the idle tales of the female servants about John's talk and conduct. I went up on a horse which Legh sent in for me, and he accompanied to Wrights. The family seemed rather nervous and John more alarmed, apparently, than anybody else! As they were afraid to keep him and wished to send him off, I brought him down to Legh's and left him there. Wright had heard John make no threats, but the negroes had told him; he had seen no pistol and could fine none, but the negroes had seen it. He, however, produced a stout cudgel which had found in John's bed, and kept hid under the porch, as proof positive of the boy's "mischievous" intention. John denied that he had made any threat, or ever had a pistol. He acknowledged that he had cut the stick — he was going to a corn husking in the neighborhood, and having heard so much about bears, he wanted some means of defence. — Some one else, he said, had put it in his bed. The whole affair became extremely ludicrous. The Harper's Ferry affair has certainly bewildered the Wright family.

1861Joseph Addison Waddell, Annals of Augusta County, Virginia, pp. 459-468

July 1861

Saturday, July 20, 1861. —

We have had a horrid view of war since my last. On Thursday evening two wagons full of sick soldiers arrived from Monterey, Highland county. Before these could be provided, others were brought in. The sick men were taken out of the wagons and placed in the sheriff's office and court-house, many of them on the floors. The sight was a sickening one — one man gasping with asthma, another burning with fever, and another shaking with chills. There are now at least one hundred and fifty sick soldiers in town. The citizens are doing what they can for them. * * * The Arkansas regiment left for the northwest yesterday. Two other regiments left for the northwest yesterday. Two other regiments left this morning, and a fourth will go to-day. The men of one of the companies sang as they moved off: "We'll stand the storm," etc. * * * George M. Cochran, Jr., arrived from Winchester yesterday evening, and says General Johnston has gone across the Blue Ridge to reinforce Beauregard at Manassas. * * *

Evening. — The sick soldiers have been coming in all day in crowds, and are lying about in every place, suffering for food, etc.

On the 19th we heard by telegraph of some fighting in Fairfax county, which was the beginning of the "First Battle of Manassas."

Monday, July 22. —

The telegraph reported yesterday that the fight near Manassas Junction had been renewed, and this morning there is intelligence of a great battle, lasting from 8 A. M. till 6 P. M. The victory is attributed to our side. The enemy were said to be retreating, pursued by our cavalry. Total loss (on both sides, it is presumed), ten thousand to twelve thousand. Most of the volunteers from this county were on the field, and we know that at least a part of General Johnston's command was in the engagement. The utmost desire, not without apprehension, is felt to obtain full particulars.

At night the telegraph announced that one member of the Staunton Artillery and two of the Guards, (William H. Woodward and Joab Seely), had been killed, and that seven men in both companies were wounded.

Tuesday, July 23. —

The town is overflowing with sick soldiers and stragglers from the Northwestern army. There are probably three hundred in hospital. No arrangement yet for their comfort at the Institution.

The State Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind had been occupied as a hospital for sick and wounded soldiers; but some time was required for making suitable arrangements.

Wednesday, July 24. —

The streets are full of soldiers, many of whom are lying against the houses and on store boxes. A free negro woman took three of them home with her to get something to eat and a place to lie down. They had arrived from Monterey, broken down and destitute.

Thursday, July 25. —

A letter was received last night from Lyttleton Waddell, Jr., [of the Staunton Artillery.] He began the letter Sunday morning (21st), and in the first part gives an account of the march from Winchester and the arrival at Manassas. In the midst of a sentence he breaks off to say that he heard the report of cannon and must go to his post. At 5 o'clock P. M. he resumed and told about the battle; but at the close of the letter could not say definitely what was the result. On a separate piece of paper he states that General Johnston had come along and announced a victory! More troops arrived last night, and a second North Carolina regiment this morning. Others are still here.

Friday, July 26. —

The booty captured after the battle near Manassas is said to be immense. The Federalists seem to have anticipated an easy march to Richmond, and were provided with all sorts of conveniences and luxuries. Many females and children accompanied their army, and female apparel and even children's toys were found scattered over the ground.

Monday, July 29. —

Two railroad trains arrived yesterday with troops, Tennesseans, I believe. Part of them went on immediately by way of Millborough to the Northwestern army. * * General Lee arrived in the mail train late this evening, and was saluted by a Georgia artillery company stationed on the left of the Middlebrook road, half a mile from town.

Tuesday, July 30. —

A Tennessee regiment went off last night. There are still, however, many soldiers about town. The drum is beating nearly all the time. The camp fires on Garber's hill Sunday night were very beautiful. * * No paper has been issued from the Spectator office for two weeks. Mauzy and all his hands being in the militia. A long line of cavalry came in just before dinner from towards Winchester. There seemed to be three or four companies. McDonald's Legion they call themselves. The Georgia artillery company left town late this afternoon. More troops passed to- day on the railroad, — two trains. I cannot keep count of them.

Wednesday, July 31. —

* * The militia have been greatly exercised for more than two weeks past. The number of men remaining to be furnished by this county, to make up the ten per cent. called for, was, on yesterday, three hundred and fifty. * * One or two more cavalry companies belonging to McDonald's Legion came in last evening. The whole number is said to be seven or eight hundred.

August 1861

Friday, August 2. —

Troops! troops!! They have been pouring in yesterday and to-day, principally from Southwest Virginia and Tennessee. They are rough-looking fellows, very free and easy in their manner, but generally well-behaved. The Rockbridge militia, some eight hundred strong, arrived day before yesterday. They have arranged to furnish their quota of volunteers, and the remainder will return home. The militia of Augusta, outside of Staunton, have also raised their quota, I believe; but the two town companies are still wrangling. * * There must be from one thousand to twelve hundred volunteers at this place, recently enlisted, besides regiments stopping in transitu

Wednesday, August 7. —

The soldiers passing through town make themselves very much at home, and sometimes make ludicrous mistakes. A party of them called at Mr. S's the other day and asked for food, which was given to them. An officer afterwards made his appearance, called for a room and dinner, and announced that he would be back to supper, leaving directions as to what he would have prepared. On taking his departure at night, when pay was refused for his entertainment, he discovered that he was not in a boarding-house, and expressed great mortification. He saw so many going there to eat he was sure it was a house of public entertainment.

The Augusta militia was discharged on the 7th of August, the quota of volunteers called for having been made up. The Fifty-second Virginia regiment was organized at that time. The field and staff officers were, John B. Baldwin, Colonel; M. G. Harman, Lieutenant- Colonel; John D. Ross, Major; Dr. Livingston Waddell, Surgeon; George M. Cochran, Jr., Quartermaster, and Bolivar Christian, Commissary.

On August 20, the price of salt had gone up to $10 a sack, and on the 24th the price of coffee was forty cents a pound.

Thursday, August 22. —

It was rumored in town on yesterday that St. Louis had been burnt, and that our troops in Northwest Virginia had captured fourteen hundred of the enemy with the loss of General Loring. Neither report could be traced to any reliable source.

Monday, August 26. —

Yesterday afternoon the Rev. Dr. Armistead of Cumberland county, preached to the soldiers camped on the Institution grounds. There was no pulpit, but the preacher stood under the trees or walked about, while the soldiers and others stood, or sat, or lay at full length in the grove. * * The ladies are bent upon nursing at the hospital. Perhaps they agree with the Spectator, (No. 193), "that there is in military men something graceful in exposing themselves naked." I hear some ludicrous stories of their performances. Mrs. ——- was very anxious to "do something," and went fussing round till she found one of the doctors. He gave her two prescriptions, which she hastened to administer, but was alarmed afterwards upon discovering that she had given a dose of calomel to a typhoid fever patient. It is said these ladies rub the fever patients and dose the rheumatics. One man had his face washed by one lady after another till he was perfectly clean, or very tired of it.

This extract refers to a few good women who were entirely unfitted for the business of nursing; many others proved "ministering angels" in the hospitals here and elsewhere.

September 1861

Tuesday, September 3. —

About one hundred Federal prisoners arrived last night from the west by railroad. They were taken in the affair at Gauley river between our troops under Floyd and the Federalists under a Colonel Taylor. Most of them are from Ohio.

Friday, September 6. —

The regiment lately organized here, (Baldwin's), is preparing to start, but there is some trouble in the ranks. Moreover, many of the men are absent without leave. * * * The jailor of this county informs me that the Union men brought from Beverly when our army retreated from that place, and since then confined in our jail, are a miserable plight, — some of them half naked. There are twenty-one of them. We continue to hear sad accounts of the sickness at Monterey. Eight deaths there yesterday or the day before.

Clothing and other necessaries were soon provided for the prisoners referred to above.

Saturday, September 7. —

* * * Last night sixteen prisoners were brought down on the western train, most of them Ohio volunteers. One of them had neither hat, shoes, nor stockings, and his feet looked white and tender. I sent him a pair of shoes and a pair of stockings, somewhat worn, but better than none. * * We had an illustration yesterday evening of the difficulty of getting true accounts of military operations. On the arrival of the western train the baggage master told A. F. Kinney that Wise's troops had recently killed four hundred of the enemy, with only a small loss on our side. I did not believe that, but on my way home I encountered Richardson, who came down on the train, and he informed me that John H. McCue, just from the region where Wise is, had come in with him and told him that Wise had a fight in which fifty of the enemy were killed, with no loss on our side, and that the sixteen prisoners brought down were taken in that affair. I have learned this morning that there is no truth in either story, yet neither of the persons mentioned would tell a falsehood. The prisoners were taken by Floyd.

Wednesday, September 11. —

The Fifty-second regiment left town about 2 o'clock yesterday. Main street was lined with people for an hour or two beforehand. One of the soldiers, who was detailed as wagon-guard, sat on a stone by Morris' corner, and his wife clung to him to the last. She was greatly distressed, but he appeared unmoved. Seven of the companies are from this county, viz: Skinner's, Long's, McCune's, Lambert's, Hottle's, John Lilley's, (late Mason's), and Dabney's; and three from Rockbridge, viz: Miller's, Morrison's, and Watkins'.

Monday, September 16. —

We have been agitated for several days past by rumors from General Lee's command, without being able to obtain any definite information. The express has not come in since Friday morning. Saturday night one or more persons arrived with the corpse of a Georgia soldier, and stated that an attempt made by our force at Greenbrier river against the enemy on Cheat mountain had failed.

Wednesday, September 18. —

Many rumors from the northwest current for several days past — one, that General Lee had reached Huntersville; another, that he had captured fourteen cannon, and afterwards lost six; another, that four hundred of his men had been killed; another, that the enemy had routed a body of our men at Petersburg, in Hardy county. None of these are authentic. * * Twenty-six wagons were sent out on yesterday, six to-day.

Friday, September 20. —

A train of wagons has just arrived from Greenbrier river, bringing the remnant of Captain Bruce's company, Twentieth regiment. Thirty odd men are left of about ninety who went out a few months ago. The regiment was at Rich Mountain when the disaster occurred there, and is completely broken up. Many of the men were captured by the enemy, some disabled by wounds, many died of disease, and some, I presume, killed. Most of the men left of Bruce's company go into the hospital.

The Confederate army operating in northwest Virginia depended for subsistence almost entirely upon supplies collected at Staunton, and transported thence in wagons. Most of the wagons thus employed were hired, or "pressed," for the purpose, the owners being paid $4 a day for a four-horse team and driver, and $2.50 for a two-horse team, etc. The government, however, owned a large number of horses and wagons, and for these drivers only were hired. On September 24th, thirty-two wagons were sent out, and thirty-six on the 25th. Thirty wagons went out on the 28th, loaded for Monterey and Huntersville.

October 1861

Friday, October 4. —

An express boy, riding in great haste, arrived to- day at the Quartermaster's Office. He brought news that 5,000 of the enemy attacked our force, 2,500 to 3,000, at Greenbrier river [on the Staunton and Parkersburg turnpike, in Pocahontas county], yesterday morning, and were repulsed with heavy loss, after a fight of three or four hours. The Fifty-second regiment did not get up in time to participate in the battle.

On October 17, there were seven hundred and fifty patients in the Staunton hospital, and notice had been received to prepare for five hundred more from Greenbrier river.

Thursday, October 24. —

The Fifty-eighth Virginia regiment has at last started west. It has been here for many weeks. Most of the companies are from Bedford county. The ranks are thin from sickness, etc.

Eighty-one wagons with army supplies were started to Monterey on October 21, and others on the 2d of November.

November 1861

Thursday, November 7. —

Yesterday was election day for president of the Confederate States, members of Congress, etc. There was no opposition to Jefferson Davis for the presidency. The refugees from the Wheeling district, who voted here for congressman, under the Governor's proclamation, seemed more interested and excited than any other persons. At the courthouse they gave Russell three votes and Kidwell two.

November 11. —

Salt is now held here at $18 a sack. Baldwin was elected to Congress in this district. Have not heard the result in the Wheeling district. John N. Hendren was elected a member of the State Convention in Baldwin's place.

Thursday, November 14. —

The North Carolina regiment, Colonel Lee, which passed through Staunton some months ago, returned to-day on the way to Manassas. The men generally look rather soiled and badly. The ranks, however, are not as much reduced as I would have expected. From the matter in which the men ran over the town to procure bread, I presume they were suffering from hunger. They carried their bread, cakes, etc., in very dirty hands. They came down by railroad, and went on after a delay of two or three hours. Other regiments from the west are expected in a day or two to go to Manassas or Winchester.

During the latter part of November, Staunton was crowded with soldiers, generally stragglers from the northwestern army. Many regiments were moving from the mountains, and officers and men seemed to think it not improper to come on in advance. The diary remarked on the 28th: "The whole northwestern army seems demoralized."

December 1861

Monday night, December 2. —

After vibrating on the road near McDowell, Highland county, — one day ordered forward, and the next back, — the troops lately at Greenbrier river, or a party of them, have proceeded towards Manassas by way of Harrisonburg. Last Saturday it was reported that a large body of the enemy was advancing this way from Cheat Mountain, and another approaching Monterey from Petersburg, in Hardy county, while a third force was marching upon Winchester. * * We are sending large quantities of supplies to Monterey and other points, for the troops left in that region.

December 11. —

Several trains of empty wagons have gone out to bring away the army stores which have accumulated at various points in Highland county since last spring. War is a costly business. Five teams from the lower part of Rockingham cost more than $250, eleven days' hire, probably more than the lading was worth.

Saturday night, December 14. —

The town was startled this morning by the news of a battle, yesterday, on the Alleghany, an express having arrived during the night. It is stated that two deserters from our side informed the enemy of the very small force (under General Edward Johnson) we now have on the mountain, which induced the Federal general to collect all the men he could for an assault upon our camp. The enemy had, it is said, 5,000, while we had 1,200 effective men. The former were repulsed with a reported loss of eighty killed. Our loss is given as twenty killed and eighty wounded. The fight last several hours. * * Notwithstanding the Yankees are thus aggressive, the movements still indicate that all our troops are to be withdrawn from Pocahontas and Highland. The town was full of wagons to-day, — some having arrived from the west with supplies taken out heretofore with vast labor and expense; and others going out empty, to bring back similar loads.

Monday night, December 16. —

The streets as full of soldiers to-night as ever. Guard with fixed bayonets constantly walking about. * * Teams going and coming all the time, and a constant rush of team- owners, wagon-masters, teamsters, etc. Old or broken down horses are coming in from the army in droves nearly every day, and better ones are sent out as fast as they can be procured. Since dark a crowd of worn out artillery horses arrived from Huntersville.

The Virginia Hotel stables, in Staunton, were destroyed by fire on Wednesday morning, December 18, and forty-seven or forty-eight horses were burnt up, — most of them belonging to individuals, and the remainder to the government.

By the 25th of December, army supplies were going by wagon from Staunton to Winchester. Many teams from Buckingham and Appomattox counties had been pressed into service.

December 26. —

Money was never so plentiful. Confederate States treasury notes, State treasury notes, bank notes of all sorts and sizes, and "shinplasters" issued by corporations and anybody who chooses. Gold and silver coin are never seen.


January 1862

Friday night, Jan. 3, 1862.

(continued from Letter Sheets)

We have exciting news from almost every quarter to-day. At 2 o'clock, an express arrived from Allegheny mountain, beyond Monterey, with intelligence that the Federalists in large force were at Greenbrier River, and also at, or near, Huntersville. An attack from there was anticipated, and reinforcements were requested. — We hear that large reinforcements have been moving up to-day from Richmond towards Centreville, beyond Manassas, in anticipation of an attack from the enemy in that quarter. Gen. Jackson has moved with his division from Winchester towards Romney, and we hear of skirmishing in that region. — One or two Regiments passed yesterday evening by Railroad, for the Greenbrier region, from which our troops were lately withdrawn. — The weather has been more favorable within the last month for military operation, than it had been for the previous eight or ten months, and Federalists have taken advantage of it. — They have occupied a large portion of the Kanawha country, vacated by our troops, and are committing great depredations. The people are calling loudly for help. Some persons in Lewisburg have prepared to send off their movable property. There is danger of their being overrun and permanently subjugated.

It is now ascertained that Mason + Slidell have been surrendered on the demand of England! This after all the Yankee bluster as to what they would do to John Bull!42 Tate + Frazier came down to-night, on their way to Richmond. The latter came up to supper, and Tate before we had left the table. We had a bowl of oysters.

Saturday night, Jan. 4, 1861.

No news to-day from any quarter, of special interest. I have read the correspondence between the British and U. S. Governments in reference to the Mason + Slidell capture. — Seward's letter to Lord Lyon's must excite the contempt of the world. After accepting the Confederate Commissioners at the hands of Capt. Lynch and holding them as prisoners, applauding his conduct +c, +c, the Yankee Government now surrenders the Commissioners to Great Britain, because, says Seward, it is right and proper to do so? If the liberation surrender had been made before the demandcame across the waters, the Washington Cabinet could have pretended to be influenced by right principle; but as it was made afterwards, it is apparent that the demand, and not regard for reason and justice, brought about the result.

Monday night, Jan. 6, 1862.

Nothing of special interest to-day. We hear that the enemy have left Huntersville. Yesterday news came that they had possession of that place.

Tuesday night, Jan. 7, 1862.

It is reported to-day that Gen. Loring has possession of Romney, the Federalists having fled before him, and that Gen. Jackson has gone on to Bath, in Morgan county. There is a rumor also of a fight near the latter place, in which our arms were successful. There has undoubtedly been some skirmishing in that quarter, but we have no authority or detailed account of it. My old friend James D. Armstrong, of Romney, who came up with me to supper, discredits the report as to Loring's whereabouts. He gives a sad account of the depredations and oppressions practiced by the Yankees in Hampshire county, but says the outrages are having a good effect upon the people, in ridding them of all remains of sympathy for the Yankee Government. A letter from Lewisburg says the people of that region are in arms against the invaders, and intend to resist them to the last. The militia was out, waiting for the arrival of the 22nd Regiment when they contemplated a movement against the Federal troops in an adjoining county. The Southern rights men of Braxton Co. have rallied + burnt Sulton, the county seat, where the Federalists had located themselves. — After Armstrong left to- night, Arch Alexander came up, and is spending the night here. He is on his way to Richmond. I saw a beautiful pair of gloves to-day knit from the wool of rabbits! They were as smooth as fine lamb's wool, and undied — a dove, or lead, color.

Thursday night, Jan. 9, 1862

During the year just past I kept an account of my cash expenditures. The amount was $874.13. Of this sum, $139.30 was costs of the new office which I built during the year — leaving $734.83 as costs of living +c. Part of the above, viz $129.45, was expended by Va. I purchased tobacco during the year, amounting to $3.81. Am surprised to find how little I contributed to religious and benevolent objects. I should add to the above $20 loaned to Legh in the summer. No news to-day. The Northern papers are again publishing reports of widespread disaffection in the South — multitudes anxious to return to the Union, and waiting opportunity — great suffering at Richmond. Not one word true — With such stories the feelings of their people were inflamed and kept up to a war heat. The rumor of our occupation of Romney is not confirmed. Mores made a second payment to- day on the lot.

Monday night, Jan. 13, 1862.

Little or no news to-day. The Yankees have another great expedition on hand, known as "the Burnside expedition," which is about to make a descent upon some part of the Southern coast. The papers of to-day intimate that it is destined for the Rappahannock, and intend to outflank our army near Centreville. The New York Herald crows lustily over the forlorn condition of the "Rebels" — The government of Jeff. Davis is on its last legs, there is great suffering in the South, and thousands anxiously awaiting the approach of a Union Army. So says the Herald. The last two assertions are positively false, and I am aware of nothing to justify the first. Is the Herald crowing to keep up the courage of the North? It admits to a great want of funds by the U. S. Government, and the danger of a general financial crash. I do not keep posted as to the state of affairs in Missouri and Kentucky, nor indeed anywhere. But things do not look particularly encouraging. — I had a visit Saturday night from Tucker who lay sick at the Academy so long last summer. He has fattened so that I should not have known him. I am kept very busy in the Q. M. office. Peyton, who has the Commission, knows little or nothing about the business, and looks to me for nearly everything. Legh sent my sow + pigs in on Saturday afternoon — Pigs were that day a month old.

Tuesday night, Jan. 14, 1862

Notwithstanding the blockade, and all the efforts to prevent communication with the South, Northern papers are still received every few days by the Norfolk + Richmond editors. From the Washington correspondence of these papers, as copied by the Richmond Dispatch, it seems that a general movement is about to be made against us with more than 400,000 men, along the whole line, from the Potomac to the Mississippi. The Burnside expedition is to have an important part in the programme, but its destination is still involved in mystery to us. The vessels were in Hampton Roads at last accounts. — The U. S. papers report that 22,000 of their soldiers had died of disease from the beginning of the war to the 22nd Dec., the number killed 11,000, wounded 17,000, and taken prisoners and deserted 6,000.

Saturday night, Jan. 18/62

The destination of the Burnside expedition, which sailed from Hampton Roads several days ago, is not yet known. I am inclined to think, however, that it is the mouth of the Mississippi or to some point from which it can co-operate with the Federal army preparing to move from Cairo and thereabouts. — It is probably a part of the scheme to open the navigation of the Mississippi to the North West, a matter of almost vital interest to that section. The Federalists have undoubtedly made formidable preparations for this enterprise. How far we are ready to meet them, I do not know. Cameron, Lincoln's Secretary of War, and, it is reported, other members of the Washington Cabinet, have resigned. I am kept very busy in the Q. M. Office, and enjoy the occupation highly. Lyt is there and Blackley, as Clerks, the former having a good many spare minutes, which he generally employs in relating the incidents of his life in camp, on the march and at the battle of Manassas. The Capt (Quartermaster) knows little about his business and leaves matters pretty much to Blackley and me. B is a competent clerk, but very slow. Little Mary, Alick's child, is very sick with qunizy.43 Kate is staying there to-night. It is extremely painful to see the little thing suffering. Some days ago we heard that the Federalists had abandoned Romney, upon the approach of our troops, who now occupy the town. Gen. Jackson's recent expedition to the Potomac from Winchester has used up his army, from all accounts. The soldiers are said to have suffered terribly, having been out without tents, or blankets, in the snow, and even without food for two days, if I remember aright. Joe Ryan, who was at home on furlough, came up to see his company. There was a rumor to-day that the Yankees had burnt Lewisburg — not believed. From the vigor and extent of their preparations it seemthat the North really hopes to conquer the South. The teachings of history are all lost upon the infatuated people of the former section. Philip II of Spain endeavored for long years to subjugate the little republic of the Netherlands. Spain being then at the zenith of her power. The Netherlands became a flourishing State, while Spain soon afterwards began to decline, and finally sank into a decrepitude, from which she has only of late years been emerging.

Monday night, Jan. 20, 1862.

Little Mary still very sick — Addy taken also in the same way. Received a letter from Davy Strasburg to- night. He is near Romney, with his company. Gives a fearful account of their sufferings, while on the expedition to the Potomac, opposite Hancock, Md. They were two days and nights without food. No shelter except their blankets. One night they were exposed thus in a snow storm. He and Ed. Waddell spread a blanket on some rails, next a fence, and slept under it. The Burnside expedition is reported to be at Cape Hatteras, N. C. No other news to-day. The weather is warm and wet. Several showers to-day, accompanied by thunder and lightning. This on the 20th January! Emma Frazier has the mumps. Busy as usual to-day in the office.

Thursday night, Jan. 23, 1862.

Va is staying at Alick's to-night. Both of the little children, Addy and Mary, are very sick, to all appearance they are suffering from that terrible scourge dyptheria. Alick has almost entirely given them up, and seems crushed to the earth. Mary looks very ill to-night. In addition to this affliction, they have had "old uncle Bob," a free black man, there, dying by inches from gangrene. Alick took him in as an act of charity, but his room being in the basement, a most offensive odour was diffused through the house, which became intolerable. He was therefore removed to the army hospital to-night. I feel so greatly depressed that I can hardly allude to other matters. It would seem that the Federalists were about to move from all points, with overwhelming numbers, with the expectation of crushing out "the rebellion" in a short time. Nothing definite in reference to the Burnside expedition. It's object is probably to get possession of the Weldon + Wilmington Railroad, N. C.

Friday night, Jan. 24, 1862

Bad news! Yesterday we received a report that our General Zollicoffer had been killed and his army defeated, in Southern Kentucky near the Tennessee line; but as the news came through a Philadelphia paper received at Norfolk, and we had no such intelligence through channels open to us, it was not credited. This evening, however, we have a full confirmation from Richmond. The battle was fought near Somerset, Pulaski Co., Ky., Maj. Gen. Crittenden commanding on our side. He made the attack, and the battle lasted till Brig. Gen. Zollicoffer fell, when our army became demoralized and left the field. It is said we lost five hundred (500) in killed and wounded, cannon; army stores, +c, +c. In a word, that it was a complete rout, and that Crittenden was in full retreat to Knoxville. The news has had a very depressing effect, particularly as it was believed that, without some such signal success, the Northern people would soon give up the war. There is still reason to believe that the Federalists are about to make a general assault at all points.

Little Mary has seemed better to-day, and Addy is at least no worse. His father has been somewhat relieved from his depression of yesterday and last night. Addy is a wonderfully smart boy, but very bad and unmanageable. He wished to know last night where he would go, if he died. He is between four + five years old. We have had a terribly stormy day — snow, sleet and wind.

Saturday night, Jan. 25, 1862.

Va. at Alick's again to-night — The cheerfulness with which she undergoes such labors is admirable. I would not have consented for her to sit up anywhere else. The children seem in about the same condition. The war news is not encouraging for us, the enemy's forces outnumbering ours vastly, and pressing in on every side. The last report in relation to our defeat in Ky. is that we lost 300 men — that Crittenden with 6000 attacked the Federalists, supposing them to be 1500 in number, but they turned out to be 14,000, strongly posted and fortified at that. There was a report to-day that a large body of Federalists (15 regiments) were approaching Lewisburg.

Monday night, Jan. 27, 1862.

Little Mary is again very ill, with every probability that she will not survive. I cannot think of her without experiencing very painful feelings. But "doth God care for sparrows?" and does He not order whatever concerns this child?

H. W. Sheffey came up from Richmond yesterday, and reported that nine vessels of the Burnside expedition had been lost, and that the whole fleet was probably destroyed by the fierce storm which prevailed, for several days last week. There is no confirmation, but rather a denial, to-day, of the report Mason has arrived from Romney. He reports the ravages of the Federalists in that region as shocking to the civilization of the age. A party of them were killing the cows or pigs of an old man, who came to his door and remonstrated with them. They charged him with aiding the "rebels," and upon his replying that he was a poor man and had to work for whoever paid him, they shot him down and set fire to his house. Mason saw a part of his body, not consumed, and it was riddled by bullets. He seemed to be about 80 years of age. The Federalists killed hogs, and piling them together left them to rot. Surely the name of Yankee will be execrated for generations in the Southern country. The spirit of enormous malignity which possesses them is utterly fiendish. Simon De Montfort and his crusaders were not more bloodthirsty and remorseless than many of the Northern people seem to be. The U. S. Government is now endeavoring to destroy the part of Charleston by sinking old hulls off the mouth of the harbour! A Northern journal complacently says that the contemplated advance of McClelland's army, "will spread weeping and wailing through many a Southern household."

Tuesday night, Jan. 28, 1862.

Poor little Mary very ill. She breathes with great difficulty, and I shall not be surprised to hear of her death during the night. Va is there again, although sitting up at night affects her eyes very severely. No war news to- day.

Friday night, Jan. 31, 1862.

When I left Alick's this evening, at supper time, little Mary was sitting up, feeding herself with a spoon! It was delightful to see the little thing with a placid countenance and free from suffering. She appeared to get better yesterday morning or the previous night, although she may not now be out of danger. Cloths soaked in hot water were applied to her throat + chest during the night and on yesterday, and to-day they discovered that she was severely blistered. There was also a discharge from her ear, which has probably contributed to her relief. Addy is thought to be doing well — very bad and unmanageable — He could be a very interesting child if he were not so impracticable. Kitty is laid up with some thing, but not much sick, apparently. She imprudently sat in her room with a window hoisted, day before yesterday, when the weather was mild and the sun shining. During the whole of January, with the exception of that day only, I believe, we have had rain, sleet, snow or at least clouds. The bad weather, and consequently impassable roads, has probably prevented the long anticipated advance of the enemy at various points of invasion. There was a rumor both yesterday and the day before, that the Federalists had received a great overthrow at Bowling Green, Ky. It came from Washington to Norfolk. No confirmation of it. We have at last something authentic from the Burnside expedition. Gen. Burnside has reported to Washington that thirty or forty of his vessels are missing, and he fears they are lost, or several of them certainly and the remainder, a large fleet, were on the coast of North Carolina. I have finished the reports of our office, for the last quarter, and have some expectation of going to Richmond with them next week.

February 1862

Monday night, Feb. 3, 1862.

Alick's children — Addy + Mary — much better. Kitty, also, improving. No news of special interest for several days. Webster, the Tennessee soldier who killed Snider some two months ago, was discharged, on Saturday, by the examining Court, after a protracted investigation and discussion of the call. It is said that the testimony tended to show that the killing was accidental. Another snow storm to-day.

Monday night, Feb. 10, 1862.

Distressing intelligence to-day. The Federalists (Burnside expedition) have taken Roanoke island, N. C. capturing about 3000 of our men, after two days' fighting, on Friday and Saturday. We have no detailed account. It could not have been expected that 3000 men could hold an island, assailed by a vastly superior military and naval force — Following closely after further bad news from the West, the disaster has had a very depressing effect. While I was in Richmond, on Friday, news came that the enemy had taken Fort Henry, on the Tennessee River, our small force there being compelled to abandon the place, leaving their artillery behind. There is a universal feeling of discouragement and depression. Some men say that we may as well give up, but, of course, we are not yet prepared for that. The military bills pending in the Legislature cause much anxiety as they contemplate a draughting, to raise a force of 65,800 men. The bills were probably passed to-day. I went to Richmond on Thursday, and returned on Saturday. Had an unpleasant trip — the city full of people, principally soldiers. Staid at the American Hotel, and had a room with an elderly merchant from Norfolk and a young man from Georgia who belongs to the army of the Potomac. The Hotel crowded. I could not induce the clerks at the Quartermaster's Department to look into my papers. They would probably not reach them for six months. Crowds of people connected with the army at or near Centreville, going and coming on the Railroad between Gordonsville and Richmond. On my return I found Va suffering from very sore eyes.

Tuesday night, Feb. 11, 1862.

Another dreary day! The intelligence of yesterday is fully confirmed, with the addition that the Federalists have certainly ascended the Tennessee river as far as Florence, Alabama. Just before the cars arrived the news flew through town that a dispatch had come, stating that only 100 of our men were captured at Roanoke Island, and the cars immediately brought word that England and France had acknowledged our independence. But alas! the dispatch was soon corrected at Richmond, only 100 had escaped. The other item is not sufficiently authenticated to be fully credited. Several young men from Staunton were with Wise's Legion at Roanoke, and their friends are suffering great solicitude on their account. The military bill passed the Legislature yesterday.

Wednesday night, Feb. 12, 1862

The batch of news by to-day's train was not more cheering than that received yesterday. After the arrival of the cars, there was, or seemed to be, a general feeling of discouragement as to the issue of the contest, but no disposition was manifested to submit to Northern domination. There was a report that an immediate attack at Centreville was expected, and another that 75,000 of the enemy were marching upon Winchester. The latter is not credited. It is now said that we lost 1700 men at Roanoke Island, and that 400 escaped. Capt. Wise is said to have been murdered by the Federalists after he was taken prisoner. This is doubtful. The Richmond Dispatch of to-day does not give a flattering account of things generally. Every man subject to military duty is anticipating the draught and many persons, especially those having families dependent upon them, are full of anxiety.

Friday night, Feb. 14, 1862.

Intelligence this afternoon of fighting at Fort Donelson, on the Cumberland River. It had been going on for two days, and so far the enemy had been repulsed. Shall we hear to- morrow that the Fort has fallen, or that the final success is ours? Oh God, let not our enemies triumph over us! There are other reports from that region, but not sufficiently reliable to be mentioned. The Federalists have taken several of the towns in the vicinity of Roanoke Island. They seem to have full success now in that quarter. There is a report that the Emperor of France declines to interfere in American affairs. This is discouraging. The price of cotton in England has gone up, which indicates that the expectation of getting supplies, by raising the blockade of our ports, has diminished. I have felt somewhat relieved this evening of the depression which has afflicted me, in common with others, for several days — perhaps going to prayer meeting helped me. A constant purpose of business in the office had prevented my going since last August. The militia are to be enrolled immediately, and a portion of them draughted, unless a sufficient number of volunteers offer.

Saturday night, Feb. 15, 1862.

The last report we have from Fort Donelson is that the enemy were repulsed on the 13th — fighting probably received yesterday. The Richmond train did not arrive till after dark. Legh remained in town to hear the news, and came up with me. After supper we went down street. I went to Mrs. McClung's room to wait for the opening of the mail.44 Learned there that Frank Wilson had come up from Harrisonburg and reported that apprehension was felt that the enemy might make a sudden inroad with cavalry from Moorfield, Hardy Co. There was no powder in the town, but two of our cavalry companies were expected to-night. The enemy are said to be 30,000 strong at Romney. They have pushed forward a force to Moorfield. Very few of our men killed at Roanoke Island, and I suspect, not a great many of the enemy — the last report says about 200. A few nights ago, as Kate and I were sitting in the dining room, we heard what seemed to be the shouting of a crowd in the lower part of the town. We rushed to the front porch, both of us supposing that some good news had come by telegraph. To our great disappointment, the noise was not repeated. Kitty heard the same sound, and went to window to listen, telling Kate as she entered the chamber, that maybe some good news had come. Alas! there has been nothing yet to cause a shout.

Sunday night, Feb. 16, 1862.

Every face is bright and cheerful to- night. Passengers from Richmond repeat that Gen. Sidney Johnson telegraphed last night that our troops at and near Fort Donelson had achieved the most decisive victory of the war. At Charlottesville, the cars met rumors, said to have been received by telegraph, giving extravagant accounts of the victory. — that the enemy were 50,000, and we 20,000 in number, that we took 10,000 prisoners and captured 100 cannon! These stories are not credited, but there seems to be no reason to doubt the report as to Gen. Johnson's dispatch. Gen's Floyd and Buckner are said to have been in the fight which lasted for three days. They were at Russellville when heard of before. The cars arrived this afternoon at a quarter past 4 o'clock, while I was walking in the yard in the snow. Va was at the colored Sunday School and I hoped she would bring some news when she returned. She entered the dining room, where Kate + I were, about 5 o'clock, looking gloomy, I thought, from which I infered that the news was bad. But she had heard nothing! I then went out to see if any were passing could tell me anything. A young man, whom I hastened to intercept at our stable, had been at the American Hotel, after the arrival of the cars, but had heard no news! Surely, I thought, the man is stupid not to have inquired. Albert Garber and Col. Lilly passed along the McAdamized street — too far off for me to speak to them. They looked gloomy too! At last Tom Bledsoe appeared in view, coming towards his house — the Academy. I ran to ask what he had heard, and from him received the intelligence brought by the Railroad passengers. At church, to- night, before preaching, we had it in full. To God the praise of our success.

Monday night, Feb. 17, 1862

Our rejoicing was soon over. This morning it was rumored that the telegraph operator at Gordonsville had sent word that the enemy had defeated us at Fort Donelson and taken Nashville! Although not credited, it set us to thinking that the Federalists had greatly the advantage in numbers in the neighborhood of the battle field; and in the means of bringing up reinforcements; and therefore that the battle of Saturday was probably not decisive and final. The cars brought us precisely this intelligence. The Federalists were reinforced Saturday night, and our army also, it is said. Gen. Johnson had abandoned Bowling Green, and it is evident that, notwithstanding the fighting on Thursday, Friday and Saturday, the great battle in that region had not taken place. Dispatches received at Richmond yesterday by the authorities were not made public in time for the cars, and we can hear nothing by telegraph. — So we are in a state of anxious suspense. The course of the enemy down the Valley is threatening. Dont know what they propose. Kate contemplated going to Richmond, to the inauguration, which is to take place next Saturday, but the sombre views of last week caused her to discontinue her preparations. — This morning she began again, feeling cheerful on account of yesterday's intelligence; it depends upon circumstances what she will do to-morrow.

Tuesday night, Feb. 18, 1862.

H. W. Sheffey telegraphed from Richmond this afternoon that Fort Donelson had fallen, that Buckner + his force were captured, and that Pillow + Floyd "and some forces" had escaped! Sad, sad news. The cars which arrived an hour afterwards, brought nothy more, nor indeed so much, only reporting the capture of the Fort. I am suffering from head ache.

Wednesday night, Feb. 19, 1862

No particulars yet from Fort Donelson. Most of the intelligence we have received is from the North, via Norfolk. It is reported that we lost 15,000 men, and Gen's Pillow, Buckner + Johnson! Floyd, with 1000 or 1200 men escaped to Nashville. The enemy were expected at that place very soon. There is a report from Augusta, Ga., that Gen. A. S. Johnson had offered to surrender the city if the Federalists would agree to respect private property. Kate has given up her trip to Richmond. It is impossible for me to describe the state of feeling in the community — the depression and feverish anxiety. Union with the North, however, on any terms, is not thought of. The Richmond papers give us no news directly from Nashville or that region. The enemy's force at Fort Donelson is said to have been 50,000 — ours 15,000. They had transportation by water.

Thursday night, Feb. 20, 1862.

Faces much brighter to-day. First there was a telegram from Sheffey stating that our generals were safe, and that seven Federal regiments were nearly annihilated. Then came one to Mr. Phillips from Lynchburg, saying that our total loss was 1000 — that Floyd, Pillow and Johnson (not A. S. it presumed) were at Nashville. It was feared, however, that as the number was reported in figures, it might be 10,000 instead of 1000. Upon the arrival of the cars, we received the Richmond reports, stating our loss as 1500 — Thus the Northern account of yesterday was a 0 too many. A rumor came with the cars, also, that Gen. A. S. Johnson had re-taken Fort Donelson. This is not credited. The latter General was reported by the papers to be at Nashville, entertaining no thought of giving up the city. Kate goes to Richmond to-morrow. —

Saturday afternoon, Feb. 22, 1862.

The cars did not arrive last night till near 8 o'clock, and Va + I walked down to the Post Office to get the paper, the children having gone to a Sunday School exhibition at the Baptist Church. The terror of the news was discouraging. Great uncertainty as to the truth of reports received the day before. No communication with Nashville. Why or wherefore, no body could tell. There is a mystery about the disaster at Fort Donelson, and the state of our affairs in that region, which is inexplicable. — Yesterday we were all cheerful — to-day things look gloomy. It is rumored that four or five French vessels of war are in Hampton Roads, and that President Davis had received a communication from the Emperor, not to be opened till to-day — inauguration day. Not very probable. Kate went to Richmond yesterday. Kitty + I accompanied her to the cars. A young woman was pointed out to me in the ladies' car, who, it is said, came to Western Virginia from Ohio or Michigan, with the Federal troops — some said in command of a company. She deserted to our side. Was a hard- looking, Indian-like person. A good many persons have hired substitutes for the war, in anticipation of the draught. Great anxiety felt by many who, from one cause or another, do not wish to enter the army. The last foreign news is discouraging. Salt very scarce and high-priced — None in town for sale. Persons going round to borrow a little for table use. I have none — about a spoon full on the table at dinner. Legh is out and his stock are suffering. A supply for sale is expected soon. Cars just came in — have not heard the news. —— The report is, no news. Sheffey has arrived, and says Richmond is as much in the dark as we. What does it mean that can get no tidings! Possibly the Union men in East Tennessee have possession of the Railroads + Telegraphs. Possibly the Government is suppressing the intelligence. — These are specimens of the surmises indulged in. But, if the Unionists have risen as supposed, there are still avenues of communication to Augusta, Ga., and other points South; and, moreover, we should hear of it from Bristol, Tennessee. And the Government is not suppressing intelligence — 1st because they could not, and 2nd one of the Richmond papers states that the War Department knows no more than the public. Rumors that Gen. Price has gained an important advantage over the enemy in Arkansas. The Federalists had a report on the 17th that Savannah had been taken by their troops. No so, of course. The general impression is that they can come up James River and take Richmond, whenever they choose.

Monday, Feb. 24, 1862.

I have had a talk with Va, as to my going into the army. She, very naturally, does not wish me to go, and thinks I ought not; but I am doubtful as to my duty. It is very unpleasant to me to reflect that others are encountering dangers and hardships, while I am safe at home. I earnestly pray that God will guide me and dispose of me for his glory. Alas! What can I do for the great and holy God? Blessed be his name! in his infinite mercy, through Jesus Christ, he condescends to make such weak and sinful worms as I, his instruments for good.

Wednesday night, Feb. 26, 1862.

Another heavy day. General feeling of depression, as to the war, but no idea of our final subjugation by the enemy. Lyt (who is no longer a clerk) and Legh come into our office every day — both gloomy to- day. Rumors from Winchester, but no reliable, intelligence of any importance from any quarter.

Friday night, Feb. 28, 1862.

Fast Day, in pursuance of President Davis' proclamation. A large congregation at our church this morning. Mr. Baker + Mr. Campbell officiated. Mr. Junker, of New Providence, preached to-night, Sunday next is communion day. Frazier came up from Richmond this evening. He says our recent disasters have encouraged many Northern sympathizers in Richmond + Norfolk to show themselves. Martial law has been declared at Norfolk + Portsmouth, and will be at Richmond soon, perhaps. There seems to be no doubt that our military stores have been brought from Winchester to Strasburg. It was reported yesterday that our troops were evacuating Centreville + Manassas. This is denied, but there is probably some ground for the rumor. The papers of yesterday stated that our loss in prisoners at Donelson was about 7000. There is a general feeling of distrust in the community. No volunteers offering in this region — nothy but a draught will bring the people out. Confidence in our leaders is impaired.

March 1862

Monday night, March 3, 1862.

Martial law declared in Richmond, and a number of persons arrested there on the change of hostility to our government — among them I. M. Bolts. I cannot believe that Bolts has been engaged in any dishonorable enterprise. The steamer Nashville has arrived at Beaufort, N. C. When last heard of she was in an English port, blockaded by one or more U. S. vessels. I received a letter from Tate to-day, saying that Ruffin offered me a situation in the Commissary Department at Richmond; with a prospect of promotion. I wrote to him on the subject. Yesterday + to-day miserable weather.

Tuesday night, March 4, 1862.

Alick has been expected from Richmond to- day — he went down on Saturday — but the cars have not arrived yet — past 10 o'clock. The telegraph wires are down beyond Waynesborough, so that we cannot learn the cause of detention. The recent heavy rains may have injured the Railroad track. Of course there is no news to- day from abroad.

Wednesday night, March 5, 1862.

No Railroad train yet, and no communication by Telegraph. The public are at their wit's end to know the cause of the detention of the cars. It is said that a number of trains are kept "fired up" at Manassas, ready to start at a moments warning, and it is presumed that some important movement is on foot. The train which should have arrived here yesterday has no doubt been employed for the same purpose. For a week or two past we have had rumors that our army stores were to be removed from Manassas, Centreville +c., to Gordonsville, where, we learn, extensive store houses have been erected. Many wagons, moreover, have been impressed in Albemarle and other Eastern counties, to go to Manassas. This morning forty 4-horse government wagons started from here for the same place, in pursuance of orders received on Monday. What does it all mean? There was a rumor this morning that Winchester could be evacuated in a day or two by our troops, but stage passengers, who arrived afterwards, contradicted it. Tom Preston and Lucy are here to-night.

Thursday night, March 6, 1862

Before I was up this morning Va informed me that Alick had arrived in the cars during the night. When I went in to breakfast, I was surprised to find Kate sitting in the room. Alick started from Richmond Tuesday morning, but at Gordonsville the engine was detached from the train to go to Manassas, and the passengers were left to get on as they could. They came to Charlottesville in the Lynchburg train, and had to remain there till yesterday. Kate started yesterday morning, but the engine being very indifferent the train did not get in till 2 o'clock this morning. Instead of coming home upon her arrival she went to Dr Edmondson's. Dr E. and Lucy were returning from a trip to Richmond, he having taken down a model of a floating battery, which he had invented! Kate has had a great deal to tell about her visit. She and others who came up report that there are vast quantities of army stores at Gordonsville — brought from Manassas. Our army, it is said, it to fall back to the Rappahannock River.

Sunday night, March 9, 1862

Dr. Foote, of Romney, in town to- day, and preached this morning and to- night — if his discourse to-night can be called preaching. It was an account of the ravages of the enemy in Hampshire county, and an appeal for volunteers. The congregation was large. News came last night by telegraph that the Merrimac, ironclad +c, and now called the Virginia, made an assault yesterday upon the Federal shipping at Newport News, and did considerable excavation. The intelligence is confirmed by the Railroad passengers this evening. One Federal steamer was sunk, with all on board, and several others captured — we presume from the account. It is said also that Gen Magruder was shelling Newport News. The dispatch of last night stated that Gen. Price had gained a victory at Boston Mountain, in Missouri or Arkansas, killing two thousand of the Federalists and taking four thousand prisoners. No confirmation of the report to-day. A skirmish on Friday very near to Winchester. Report a few days ago of a victory near Leesburg presumed to be untrue, as we have heard nothing of it since. Last night I was quite sick — suffering from pain in my head, an unnatural action of my heart.

Monday night, March 10, 1862.

Further accounts from Richmond confirm the reports as to the exploits of the Virginia, at Newport News, but we have no authentic particulars. The Richmond papers bring a Proclamation from the Governor calling upon the militia to go at once to various points named and report to our Generals. The forces of this country to report at Winchester. The Confederate authorities have called for 40,000 men from Virginia, and cannot wait the operation of the law lately passed by the Legislature. All around the horizon our affairs look gloomy. Immense numbers of the army are threatening us at every point. The Winchester stage brought word this evening that things were quiet at that place on Saturday afternoon, but three large bodies of the enemy were approaching from different points, and we have no force adequate to meet them.

Tuesday night, March 11, 1862.

Legh seemed quite exhilerated to-day at the prospect of joining the army so soon. His near-sightedness would probably exempt him, but he expects to start with the others on Friday. The Richmond train have not arrived yet, not being able to pass a large number of cars on the track at or near Gordonsville. It is stated that they extend ten miles — probably an exaggeration. The telegraph reported to-day further triumphs of the "Virginia" near Norfolk. Four steamers of large size and three gunboats destroyed, and three gunboats captured - - this is the report. The last intelligence from Winchester is that when the enemy were advancing on Saturday (?) Jackson had his force drawn up and Ashby attacked them with his cavalry. They ran, or at least retired, and according to one report have gone beyond Charlestown. Our army are reported as in fine spirits. — Northern accounts state that our loss in prisoners at Fort Donelson was six thousand, instead of from 12000 to 15,000.

Wednesday night, March 12, 1862.

A telegram this evening reports that Gen. Price has gained a decisive victory in Missouri — Gen. Ben. McCulloch and Col. (or Gen.) McIntosh killed, and Price wounded. Whether this is the affair reported several days ago, we do not know. — I saw Ben McCulloch in the summer of 185- (I forget the particular year). He was then an indifferently dressed, melancholy-looking man, not at all soldier like. He was distinguished as a Texas Ranger. The Railroad train arrived at 9 o'clock to-night, as we were returning from meeting. Jimmy Tate went down to get the paper, but came back without any as the cars brought no mail.

Thursday, March 13, 1862.

Intelligence came last night that the enemy force occupied Winchester, Gen. Jackson withdrawing his army. The force of the enemy is not known — Dr Joe McClung, who came up in the last stage, says Jackson has not more than 4500 effective men. He will probably continue to fall back in the direction of Staunton. Our troops lately at Manassas have retired to the Rappahannock, and the Federalists now have the Manassas Gap Railroad. Two engines from that Road are coming up the turnpike to this place. It is reported from Richmond that the Va. Central Railroad is to be our line of defence. — Before our troops left Winchester, they arrested several of the citizens suspected of sympathizing with the enemy. Soon after going down street this morning, I perceived that there was bad news, before I heard a word on the subject. The various groups of persons on the streets indicated by their appearance that something untoward had happened. There appeared, also, to be an unreasonably large number of business hours closed. I am at a loss to know what has become of all the soldiers we were supposed to have in the field. Joe McClung says that regiments enrolling 800 men can muster only 200. We have now to organize our army in the face of the enemy, the terror of service of most of our troops having nearly expired. Legh proposed to volunteer to-day, but was told that he would not be received, as he has to wear glasses from near-sightedness.

Friday night, March 14, 1862.

Nothing further from the battle in Arkansas. The North claim a victory, and we fear it is so. At at last accounts the enemy were advancing upon Newbern, N. C. It was thought that a battle was going on at Fernandina, Florida. A great battle is expected soon at New Madrid, and Island No. 10, on the Mississippi, to which our army retired from Columbus. A number of fugitives from Winchester have arrived in town. Our army, when last heard from, was sixteen miles from Winchester. The militia were in town to-day, and expect to start down the Valley to-morrow.45

Sunday night, March 16, 1862.

We were home from Church to-night, cast down, having heard a report brought by the cars that the Federalists had surrounded 6000 of our troops at Newbern, N. C. Last night we heard that the town had been shelled by the army — now it is said they have possession of it. The whole day has been one of suspense and anxiety to us. Our community begins to anticipate the appearance of the enemy here in the course of a few weeks, and it is a matter of frequent conversation as to whether the women and children shall stay or fly, and if the latter where they shall go. Jackson's army, when last heard from, was at Woodstock. A portion of the rolling- stock of the Manassas Railroad arrived yesterday and last night, over the turnpike. Our militia did not get off yesterday, but expect to start to- morrow. The times are very dark. The only cheering thought is that God still lives + reigns. Oh for pardon of sin, for deliverance from it, and for a strong faith! Hebrews IV-16. An intelligence from the battle in Arkansas.

Monday night, March 17, 1862.

The militia got off to-day. Legh and Wm Waddell going. It was a poor time out — a great many officers and baggage wagons. When "Company A, 160th Regiment" were ordered into line. Wm marched out solitary and alone, but was afterwards joined by several other members. He and Legh went off in good spirits. There have been between 400 + 500 volunteers in this county, recently — so said. No tidings to-day in the least cheering. Nothing definite from Newbern, and nothing whatever from Arkansas — The Valley stage brought word this evening that the Federalists were coming on this way, at which John C. Bowyer professed great pleasure, as he said they would be caught by a division of our army from Manassas, now lying in wait on the Shenandoah. There have been so many reports about our leaving a force in that region, that I begin to think it possible. Commissary supplies forwarded a few days ago to Camp Alleghany, have been brought back, by order of Gen. Johnson. Is he going to break up them? I see that the quota of troops to be furnished by South Carolina is something over 12,000, and part of them have to be raised by conscription! Yet South Carolina was willing, apparently, at the outset, to fight the whole battle by herself. Judge Thompson came in this morning and gave me a long talk. Very much cast down — Says we are a ruined people.

Tuesday night, March 18, 1862.

The cars just came in — half past ten o'clock. There were reports this evening by telegraph and the freight train that the result of the recent battle in Arkansas was favorable to us — that we lost 2000 men, killed 3000 of the enemy and captured 2000, with quantities of arms +c. All this may be contradicted to- morrow. Jas. L. Ranson, of Jefferson, whose home and family are in possession of the enemy, told me this evening that the Federalists had not yet come this side of Winchester, except their pickets; that they would not, probably, at least for some time; that our generals were only anxious for them to come, as our army is so located as to catch them if they do. The Appomattox company of the 44th Va. Reg. came in from Highland to-day, on their way to Richmond. The men look remarkably hearty. A number of them were patients in the hospital last summer, among them Cralle, whom I scarcely recognized. I called to see Judge Thompson to-night — found him very hopeless as to the prospect before us. Tried to comfort him — told him about the sufferings and defeats of our people in the Revolution of '76. He would admit no analogy, but I think I got the better of him.

About one o'clock to-day I was aroused from my table by a noise in the street, and upon going to the door discovered a man bending over the gutter on the opposite side, and another on the pavement with several persons struggling over him. A voice said "He killed him" — Some cried, "Take the knife from him!" The prostrate man was "Alf Shiflet," of a notorious family, and the other man, said to have been killed, was named Patterson. Fisher, Provost Marshal, secured Shiflet and let him off — Patterson was struck by a stone thrown by Shiflet. Presently the cry arose that Shiflet had broken loose and was escaping. He ran down the Railroad - - I joined in the hue-and-cry, but soon gave it up. Taking refuge under Art's slaughter-house, he was soon captured and brought up to town. It turned out that Patterson was only stunned.

Wednesday night, March 19, 1862.

[deleted: Thirty-nine years ago, this day, I was born.] The cars arrived just now. We have had no news to-day, not even a rumor. About 2 o'clock seventy-odd men were brought in who were captured by our cavalry scouts in Pendleton or Hardy, while endeavoring to escape from militia service or the draught. Ten or eleven of them are from this county, and the remainder from Rockingham. They were endeavoring to make their way, in small parties, to Ohio. Some, if not all of them, are simple-hearted, inoffensive people belonging to the Drunkard Church. They will be sent to Richmond to-morrow, and are confined to-night in the Court house, every door and window being guarded by a sentinel. It is reported that altogether they had several thousands of dollars in specie. Thirty-one houses, 28 saddles and 29 bridles belonging to them were turned over to the Quartermaster here. I will take a descriptive list and appraisement of the property to-morrow. It was, of course, necessary to arrest and bring back the deserters, but there is something pitiful in their fleeing in this manner and being taken like partridges on the mountains. The whole crowd had a pocket pistol between them, and one soldier arrested twenty of them. I believe that most of them, and perhaps all, had no hostile intentions towards us. Two of them are Drunkard preachers.

Thursday night, March 20, 1862.

A stormy night — rain and sleet. I fear that Legh is exposed to the weather, without a shelter. He probably arrived at the army to-day. The cars came in this evening, comparatively early. Literally no news from any quarter. Nothing in the papers of yesterday or to-day of the famous victory in Arkansas. The last [deleted: intelli] flaming report seems to have been a Charlottesville sensation. Several heavy pieces of cannon from Winchester arrived to-day; also one or more steam saw mills from the lower Valley. This morning early I met Sam Baskin, just returned from Jackson's army. He said the enemy had been 70 000 strong at Winchester, but had gone off, leaving only 8,000 behind, after laying a double-track Railroad to Strasburg [18 miles this side of Winchester.] Soon afterwards I encountered Sandy Garber, just arrived also. He said the enemy had seventeen regiments at Winchester, and has never been out of the town, in this direction, except their pickets, and that of course they had not laid the Railroad to Strasburg. Such are the contradictory reports which constantly come to us.

Friday night, March 21, 1862.

The first news I heard this morning was, that the Federalists were in force at Woodstock! I did not believe it, but still the report was repeated. Finally Peyton told me that it was actually so, official information having come. Afterwards Alick came by the office + informed me that an army surgeon, just from Jackson's camp told him the Federalists were really at Woodstock and that a battle would certainly soon come off. Jackson had 7000 men. The sick, commissary supplies +c, were on the way to Staunton. When I came home with the news, there was a general consultation as to where Va., Kate +c should go, if the Federal army came to Staunton. Va. Decided at once that she would stay at home. Kate was at a loss to know what to do. The children appeared very hilarious. After dinner I rode up to Legh's, to communicate what I had heard, to save them from fright should they hear the report. Bell and her mother were very calm and contented apparently. They are to come to our house upon the first alarm. Legh wrote to Bell from New Market, in good-spirits. He said he suspects militia numbered six hundred. It is said the number will be increased to 800 to 1000. Some 8 or 10 stage loads of sick soldiers arrived this evening. A large number of wagons with supplies from the army, also arrived to-day. The wagon on which a large cannon was drawn, broke down opposite the Valley Hotel, and the piece was lying there at 3 o'clock this afternoon. A train of wagons went down the Valley this morning to aid in bringing up the stores, + a large party of volunteers from Roanoke went along. The ten stages take down others in the morning. For the last week or more, two or three stages full of recruits have left here every day. Frank Preston took supper with us to-night, and will probably come back to sleep.

Saturday night, March 22, 1862.

Persons who arrived from Jackson's army this afternoon, report that the Federalists have gone back from Woodstock, and that Jackson, reinforced by 6000 men from Johnson's command East of the mountain, had started in pursuit. There is some doubt as to the reported reinforcement; but none as to the other. There has been a rumor for several days that an outbreak had occurred in Maryland, which had caused a backward movement of Federal troops — not credited. It is asserted also that a Maryland regiment in the Federal army had refused to cross the Potomac, till they were forced over. No news of interest in the Richmond papers. Our magnificent victory in Arkansas has been whittled down to a point. Frank Preston returned last night with John Alexander, and they spent the night with us. Va gave them an early breakfast this morning. A petition was circulating to-day, asking for martial law in Staunton. I oppose it.

While at Legh's yesterday, and on the road, I could but observe the quiet aspect of the country. The cattle in the barn-yard and the sheep in the field and all nature seemed perfectly composed. Oh if the rage of man could be lulled to rest! Returning home I met a man and asked him the latest news — "Nothing special," he replied, "not many getting off, but I did." The ruling thought with him was in reference to the Board of exemption from military duty. The upper regiment from Rockbridge passed through to-day, John Graham, John Barclay +c with them. I had a talk with Moses to-day about the state of affairs.

Sunday night, March 23, 1862.

Legh walked in this evening, to our great astonishment. As soon as we could recover sufficiently to enquire how he happened to come, he told us that when the men were inspected to be "mustered in," he was rejected, on account of his defective vision. He gave us a glowing account of his adventures on the way and with the army. The trip was very exciting and pleasant to him, and he would have been glad to stay for a short time, but was of course gratified that he was not taken in for three years. The army, he says, seemed to be in a high state of enjoyment, but glad to receive the reinforcement from this county. The volunteers were dressed in every imaginable style — some wore slouched hats, some caps of their own manufacture, and others the old-fashioned high-crowned beavers; the only thing uniform about them was the dirt. When he arrived at New Market a large number of wagons were engaged in bringing the stores from Mt. Jackson. The loads were emptied in great haste and the teams hurried back for more, as the enemy were approaching. The people of the neighborhood were flying with what property they could carry off — some apparently poor persons having their chickens tied on the wagons. The men, however, old and young, were coming into the army with their guns. The hurry + tumult were kept up nearly all night. The next day the Augusta troops were marched down near Mt. Jackson, meeting the army coming this way, and were quartered on the Wren farm. The cavalry were between them and the enemy at Woodstock, and a battle was regarded as certain. — The next morning the army suddenly put in rapid motion towards Woodstock, and it turned out that they were pursuing the retreating enemy: The people Lyt encountered appeared greatly relieved when they learned that the Yankees had gone back. He brings no certain intelligence as to affairs — only the rumors we had heard before — Jackson, however, had received no reinforcements from Johnson's army. A Lieutenant of Legh's regiment was engaged to do the washing for some of his men!

Monday night, March 24, 1862.

Various rumors to-day, scarcely worth mentioning — One said that 40,000 troops raised by Lincoln in Maryland had rebelled, and then that the whole Federal army East and West of the Blue Ridge, had retired across the Potomac — probably on account of the Maryland "rebellion." No news from the papers. For several days past the cars have come in quite early in the afternoon. Brown sugar is now retailing at 33 1/3 cents per pound — two shillings. I bought a barrel in Richmond when there, at 13 1/2 c, I believe it was, I cannot enjoy the possession of it, for thinking of other persons who must do without any. Salt is not to be had at any price — Wood is extremely difficult to get. After burning up all his bean poles, Mr. Baker had to cut down a shade tree to-day, for fuel. We were fortunate enough to get three loads last week, one of them very small. Supplies are again going out to the army on Allegheny mountain.

Tuesday night, March 25, 1862.

Soon after I got to the office this morning, Ally came in and told me that he had met a Captain at the breakfast table, who gave him an account of the "rising in Maryland." Part of Baltimore and other towns had been burnt by the Federalists, while the people had destroyed Railroad bridges +c +c to retard the progress of Federal troops. A woman from Frederick City had brought the news to Jackson's army, from which the Captain had just come. I did not believe three reports, but still could not help being somewhat elated by them. Shortly afterwards I encountered Judge Thompson, who informed me that news had just come by Express, that Jackson had received a serious repulse near Winchester, nothy but the approach of night saving his army from total rout. I insisted that it would not be so, but soon found that such intelligence had really come by letter, and was probably true. Our loss in killed and wounded was said to be 200. During the day, other reports were put out — one that Jackson claimed to have come off best in the fight — another that both parties withdrew — but it is useless to relate all the rumors which are constantly circulating. A tremendous battle will take place before long near Memphis — For the first time for many months, I worked a little in the yard to-day — cleaning the grass from the grapevines +c. Not well to-day — have been frequently ailing of late.

Wednesday night, March 26, 1862.

The first intelligence this morning, communicated to me by Blackley, was that a young man wounded in the battle near Winchester, had arrived during the night or early in the morning. His account was that we had lost 350 killed, wounded and missing, and that the enemy's loss must have been much heavier, as they presented dense masses to our guns. It was rumored afterwards that Stafford, of this place, a Lieut. in the 5th Regiment, was among the killed. We heard nothing more till late in the afternoon, when a large number of wounded (160 it was said) arrived in stages and ambulances. The surgeon in attendance reported our loss as about 400 — others said 500 — but all concurred in the statement that the enemy's loss was probably as great as the number of troops we had in the fight — variously reported from 2500 to 4000. Jackson had fallen back to Mt. Jackson, and the enemy were cautiously pursuing. Several statements are made in reference to the treachery of the enemy, hoisting white flags and taking them down again, but I am not certain that the stories are true. Va went to the Hospital to assist in providing for the wounded — She said it was a painful sight, but the patients were remarkably cheerful. Several of them remarked that the greatest trial they endured was leaving their wounded comrades in the hands of the enemy. The Federal force is estimated at 18,000. A considerable portion of Jackson's army was not in the fight, not having come up. A party of horsemen from Rockbridge — some twenty — passed through town this afternoon, going down the Valley — One little fellow, being very tipsy, fell off his horse, and there was much delay in getting him on again. As he finally rode off he tried to raise a shout, but was too drunk. And this youth is going to encounter danger — perhaps death!

Thursday night, March 27, 1862.

To-day I set out a damson tree on the east side of the wood-house. After dinner I planted, a rose bush, jasmine and honeysuckle and stuck two grape cuttings at my office, back of the stone house. Late in the afternoon I walked with Va, to the Institution (Military Hospital) to see the wounded soldiers. Young Sherrer, of Appomattox, and another one to come here to stay, to- morrow. Returning, I called at Davis Kayser's to see Col. Echols, who had just arrived, badly wounded in the arm. An Asst. Surgeon, just from the Army, came to the Hospital while I was there. He said that another battle was about to take place. Jackson having collected some 4000 men. In reply to a question, he said the lowest estimate of the Federal force was 20,000. Jackson was certainly moving down the Valley again at last accounts. Many reports are current — One, that Jackson had received orders to fight the enemy as often as possible, to detain him in the Valley; Another, that Johnson was to have been at Winchester with an Army on Sunday, but was unable to cross the Shenandoah river. It is said to-day that Stafford was not killed. What a change has come over the feelings of the people since the early months of this war! We hear of the wounded and slain, almost without emotion.

Friday night, March 28, 1862.

This morning, about 3 o'clock, I was roused from sleep by Kate calling to me that Wm. Waddell had come to tell me that Lyt's little Alick was dead! I was greatly shocked, not having heard of the child's illness. Indeed he was not really ill for more than an hour before he died. He was unwell yesterday, and supposed to be threatened with scarlet fever, but no apprehension was felt for his safety till past mid-night. Lyt was at Buffalo Gap, and aunt Sally's Tom was sent for him. I went to meet him out of town. It was most painful to me.

Many rumors in town to-day. At 10 o'clock last night there had been no more fighting down the Valley. One or more letters have come from persons in Winchester. They give the Federal loss in the late battle as 1500 to 2000 — doubtful — the number of their slain 800, doubtful. Our total loss killed, wounded (many slightly) and missing is put at 465, of which 170 are prisoners and 40 to 100 killed. Our troops composing Jackson's army are all Virginians — that is Virginia Regiments, viz: 2nd, 4th, 5th, 37th, 42nd, 48th, 21st, 23rd, + 27th 332 + Irish Brigade. These Regiments have not lately averaged 400 men, probably. The artillery is in strong force, comparatively. Echols told me that we did not have 3000 men in the fight.

April 1862

Thursday night, April 3, 1862.

On Saturday morning last, as soon as I got to the office, I met Capt. Mason to aid in the removal of the army stores from that point, Hoge having come in on account of the illness of his wife (Mason's daughter). I did not wish to go, but could not refuse under the circumstances, and started, on horseback, about 10 o'clock. From town to Mason's Shanties (22 miles) I rode rapidly, a hard-trotting horse. Changed horses, and travelled the remainder of the journey to McDowell more leisurely, but in heavy rain most of the time. As the rain froze upon my umbrella, covering it with ice which I could not knock or get off, I had a heavy load to carry. At dark I arrived at McDowell, and as there is no tavern in the village, I solicited and obtained shelter at Hull's, sleeping with the Rev. Mr. Price. A few days over seventeen years before, I had spent a night at old Maj. Hull's, there being no village there. On Sunday morning, before breakfast, I rode on to Monterey — arrived sore + weary. Met with many acquaintances, and found all hands cheerful and cordial. The Quartermaster's office was small, crowded and dirty — the chamber where I slept, very dirty. I had to get to work immediately. — Wagons from Camp Alleghany unloading, others to Mason's Shanties + Ryans loading up. Till quite late at night I was busy packing up +c. I got very little rest when I lay down to sleep upon a hard mattress with dirty sheets, spread upon the dirty floor of a room formerly used as a hall for the "Sons of Temperance." — The Churchville + Rockbridge Cavalry were at Monterey, Capt. McNutt, of the latter, being commander of the Post. Monday was, of course, a busy day — wagons going and coming — At eleven o'clock I went up to bed, weary and sleepy, hoping to get some rest even in the dirty chamber. I had an attack of dyspepsia, possibly — which effectually aroused me. I went to the office of Dr. Davis, an As. Surg., and got a prescription which relieved me. The next day, feeling still unwell, I started home, in company with Wm. Wilson, who had gone out in charge of a train of wagons. We came along leisurely, going off the road several times to enquire for maple sugar. Staid at Wilson's that night — several sick soldiers there, who had been brought on in an ambulance — the little house was full. Rode on the next day to the shanties, and came to town with Mason in his buggy. Still feel tired and invalidish.

The withdrawal of our army has caused a great panic in Highland and Bath + Pendleton counties. — Many of the people came flying to get off from the Yankees. It was really painful to me to witness the anxiety of the women. The army, it was supposed, would stop at the Shenandoah mountain, but I doubt if it stops there long. I suspect that it will move on to Jackson's aid. Last night it was at McDowell. From Jackson's army, the last news is that both sides were advancing for a fight, near Edinburg. Recruits + returning furloughed soldiers are going down every day in large numbers — 130 to-day. On Monday night there were 900 in town. A large number came up on the cars this evening and will go on to-morrow, I presume. We have a young man named Sherrer, from Appomattox, who was slightly wounded in the recent battle, staying with us. His brother came on from home to join his company Tuesday night, and staid here till this morning. — Very sleepy and tired.

Sunday night, April 6, 1862.

A report to-day was that the enemy had been repulsed at Yorktown, but were mounting siege guns. The same dispatch stated that we had gained a battle at Corinth, Miss., capturing eight batteries. — This afternoon another dispatch (from Mr. Boteler, member of Congress at Richmond,46 to Gen. Jackson, at or near New Market) was received, about as follows: "Beauregard achieved a complete and glorious victory at Corinth. But Sidney Johnson was killed. News from the Peninsula (Yorktown) favorable." The cars brought nothing later, of course. This morning A. H. H. Stuart had a letter from R. L. Doyle, who expressed the belief that Gen. Jackson contemplated retiring to Waynesborough. The army, he said, were in too large force for Jackson to contend with. Various reports as to the destination of Gen. E. Johnson's army, lately at Alleghany Mountain. I feel sure that the larger part of it will go to reinforce Jackson. Davy Strasburg came up Saturday. He looks well. Has been in three fights, since he left home on the 17th of April '61. — Hainesville, Manassas, and Kernstown or Winchester. One young man, Sherrer, is very good-natured and talkative. The London Times says truly that conquest of the South by the North is impossible, that success on either side is impossible, that peace is impossible, that a continuance of the war as at present, and a restoration of the Union are both impossible, and the only possibility is that we shall have a military dictation before many years.

A man named Weller was arrested near Mt. Sidney, on Saturday, and brought to jail, for disloyalty.47 The reason is unusually backward. The peach trees were beginning to put out, but a snow storm came on to-day, and the weather is now as wintry as January.

Tuesday night, April 8, 1862

Gen. Beauregard's dispatch to the War Department was sent up here this morning by telegraph. He claims a great victory at Corinth, on Sunday, but confirms the report of Gen. Johnson's death. No cars have arrived yet from Richmond (nearly 11 o'clock), since last evening. Blackly returned this afternoon from Mason's Shanty — He says the 12th Georgia Regiment have gone back to Monterey, a party of the enemy having appeared there on Sunday. Most of our army are on the Shenandoah mountain. Many persons from Highland are in or about town, having left their homes and families for fear of being captured and taken to Ohio. Yesterday I met a Kinkead, of Crab Bottom.48 Three (3) of his negroes had run off. — Young Gallaher, of Charlestown, a member of the 4th Va. Regiment, now an invalid in the Army Hospital, tells me that the Yankees are using the negroes very hardly down the Valley — working them severely during the day and hand cuffing them at night to prevent their escaping. The late battle near Winchester seems to grow in importance. The moral effect is as good as a victory. The North thought our men were fleeing before theirs like frightened sheep, when suddenly a mere handful turned and dealt a blow to the overwhelming force opposed to them which has exacted surprise if not consternation. Last week we had reports of several hundred Union men from Rockingham and other counties being on the Blue Ridge — Nothing since. Another wintry day — rain, snow, sleet. Four hundred recruits for Jackson's army, arrived to- day from Washington county. One of them, a plain, honest- looking young fellow, loitered about my office for some time. I thought he was suffering from hypo.

Wednesday night, April 9, 1862

No cars from Richmond yet, and not a word from that quarter, the telegraph wire being down. Reports of skirmishing down the Valley, but it is an every-day occurrence between our cavalry and the enemy. Recruits still passing through to join Jackson. The weather still stormy, — sleeting nearly all day — very cold. Davy Strasburg came up with me to supper. Mr. Tate came in afterwards. I am not well to- night. Have just finished reading "The Bride of Lammermoor."49

Thursday night, April 10, 1862

Passengers arrived from Richmond last night, but no mail. No train to-day. Our last mail was on Monday. The latest information the SW. is that at the recent battle near Corinth, we captured 5000 of the enemy, including one or two Generals, from 80 to 100 cannon +c. +c. But the large Federal army commanded by Buel was intact and marching upon Beauregard. Va, Kate, Sherrer + I have just returned from a visit at Mrs. Skinner's. I suffered a good deal this morning from pain in my head, left eye, + felt generally indisposed. Have felt much better since dinner time. A bright, clear day.

Friday night, April 11, 1862.

The first news I heard this morning was that the "Virginia" had come out again from Norfolk, and was playing havoc amongst the Yankee rebels. Next Legh came in, with a glowing face, and told me that a dispatch had come saying that we had beat the enemy again near Corinth. The dispatch was from A. R. Boteler, M. C. to Gen. Jackson, as follows: "Gen. Beauregard has obtained another glorious victory near Corinth. The Yankee army completely routed, and Gen. Buell killed." Every body was in a good humor. But in the evening a dispatch came which indicates that a two days' truce, to bury the dead, was agreed to and of course neither party had undisputed possession of the field. To-night we received the mails for the last four days. The newspaper accounts of the first battle near Corinth are not as favorable to us as first represented.

Saturday night, April 12, 1862.

Legh was with us at dinner to-day, and as he was about to return down town, I saw him, from the yard, in the porch with some one. He called to me that a young soldier was applying for quarters. I was getting some shrubbery to set out at my office, but came in, and was surprised to find Addy Stuart. He had arrived with a large party of recruits and re-enlisted soldiers from Montgomery and neighboring counties. His parents agreed to let him come this far, hoping to cool his ardent desire to join the army. He is sixteen years old, and of delicate constitution. No news to- day — no mail nor dispatch from Richmond. Twelve Yankee prisoners were brought up from Jackson's army this afternoon, and placed in the room over the County Court Clerk's Office. A drunken soldier threw a brick at them, which missed, and was put in jail for his pains. Our young man Sherrer left this morning to join his company.

Monday night, April 14, 1862.

The town was full of rumors this morning — one that 4000 Yankees — commanded by Fremont, were at McDowell; another that a Yankee army of 20,000 was crossing the mountain from Culpeper to get in the rear of Gen. Jackson at New Market; a third that we had captured the whole Federal army near Corinth, Miss. The last was brought by the Richmond RR train, which got in about 12 o'clock last night. There is nothing further on the subject this evening. The cars arrived sometime before dark. Circumstances go to show that Gen. Jackson is coming back further this way. Whether the enemy is pressing him or not, we do not know; but there is a general expectation that a Yankee army will be at Staunton before long. Waynesboro' is getting to be an important depot for army stores. Yesterday I brought Chas. Estill, of Lexington, from church to drive with us. To- night, Jim Skinner called, after supper. Betty Lyle is spending the night here. A number of children have died, as Lyt's little boy did, after a very brief illness. Addy Stuart amuses us a good deal. He is totally unlike his mother's kin in his disposition and manners. He is not forward, nor pert, but perfectly self-complacent, and good-humored — just the character to be popular. Soldiering is the ruling idea with him. He really seems to be very anxious to join the army, — we hope his visits to the Hospital will cause him to change his mind. — At present, however, his imagination is completely fired. A large number of soldiers on the train this evening.

Tuesday night, April 15, 1862.

There is every reason to expect a great battle at Yorktown at an early day. We have expected to hear of it every day for a week or more. The enemy are said to have 100,000 men there, and we 75,000. Upon the result depends the fortunes of the State. It is evident also that Gen. Jackson is about to make some important movement. He sent up last night for ambulances, and the sick at Harrisonburg are to be rumored. The general belief is that Jackson, if worsted in another battle, or pressed by overwhelming numbers, will retire to Waynesborough which can be defended — Staunton cannot. Then, upon the further advance of the enemy up the Valley, Johnson must come back from the Shenandoah mountain, and unite with Jackson at Waynesboro. These events may occur in the next week. I have had another talk with Va as to what we shall do. She will not have her mother, but wants me to go. I am at a loss, as is almost every one else — Only a small portion of the population, however, can leave home. The intelligence from Corinth is rather confused, but all accounts agree in stating that we gained a considerable success at Shiloh, on Sunday, the 6th.

Wednesday night, April 16, 1862.

The general talk to-day had reference to the anticipated arrival here of the Federal army. The Banks have made arrangements for departure upon an emergency, and boxes are ready for packing the records of the Courts. Mrs. McClung + Miss Agnes, it is now understood, are to come to our house. I called to see them this morning on the subject. Probably Legh's family will come in also. The Richmond train arrived at half past 4 o'clock this afternoon — the first time for many months that it has come so early. The North claims the victory in the South West — they lost 20,000 men and we 35,000 to 40,000. This is the statement of their papers. No news in regard to the war. Arch Alexander came in to-night, while we were at supper, and afterwards Jimmy and Emma Frazier — so we have a house full. Arch says Jackson's army is quiet. The Yankees were said to have 10 to 20,000 men facing Jackson, and 14,000 more coming up. Arch informs us that forty Federal prisoners, lately confined in the Harrisonburg jail, have been taken down to Jackson's army. I am utterly at a loss to know what the movement means.

Thursday morning, April 17, 1862.

Just a year ago to-day, the two companies left this place for Harper's Ferry. There the war began, so far as our community was concerned. What events have taken place since then! How many battles — in Virginia, Bethel, Hainesville, Manassas, Drainsville, Laurel Hill, Cheat River, Camifax Ferry, Greenbrier River, Alleghany Mountain, and innumerable skirmishes; out of the State, Springfield, Lexington, Boston Mountain, Fishing Creek, Fort Henry, Donnelson, Shiloh, Pittsburg, +c +c. — how many lives lost in battle and from sickness! At this time there are nearly a million of men in the field, on both sides; the enemy are coming nearer and nearer to us at Staunton; large portions of the State are devastated. I learn this morning that three wagon loads of intrenching tools were sent to Jackson last night — he probably intends to put the Harrisonburg prisoners to work — Most of them are citizens of Virginia who have been arrested as suspected persons. After a protracted season of cloud and rain, we have a warm, clear day.

[deleted: Thursday] Night, [deleted: Ap. 17/62]

After 10 o'clock, the door bell rang, which startled us. It was Alick who came up to tell that Jackson was attacked this morning by 35,000 men with 100 cannon, and was in full retreat towards Staunton. We were prepared for the intelligence, as since 3 o'clock, when the Express rider came in, all the rumors tended to show that retreat or defeat for Jackson was inevitable. Kate + Kitty start to Christianburg to-morrow, Addy Stuart going with them. Ten thousand Federalists reported at Monterey.

Friday night, April 18, 1862.

Another day of excitement and suspense. I have not time to relate all the rumors. Kate + Kitty and Addy Stuart got off this morning. Met Dr. L. Waddell of Waynesboro at the Depot, just in from Camp (on Parkersburg Road) Shenandoah. Various rumors afloat, received during the night. Jackson's army stopped last night at the Big Spring, nine miles below Harrisonburg. Ewell's brigade, it was said, was coming over from Orange to Jackson's assistance. This report came from Jackson's army, and also from Gordonsville yesterday. Several persons — bearers of dispatches + others — arrived during the night. About 12 o'clock, it was said that the Federal army was going back from New Market, and Jackson after them! The next report was, that Jackson was this side of Harrisonburg. Then we heard that his army was certainly at Harrisonburg, and the enemy advancing by three parallel roads in three columns of 10,000 each. In the mean time people were wondering why no orders had been sent for the removal of army stores at this place. There is clothing for 10 or 12000 men here, ammunition, cannon + other arms, Commissary + Quartermasters stores. It was generally supposed that Jackson would retire to Waynesboro'; and thence across the mountain, perhaps. The last report, before I came home for the night was, that the Federal army had started to cross the Blue Ridge from New Market, and that Jackson had taken the same direction from Harrisonburg! This afternoon wagons with sick and wounded men, stores +c came in. At dark a Railroad freight car, drawn by a large number of horses, passed along the McAdamized (Augusta) street. A train with Commissary supplies (5 days' Rations) was sent to Harrisonburg this morning. If the Federalists should arrive here as soon as we anticipate, Johnson's army, at Camp Shenandoah, will be left in the lurch. After a good deal of hesitation, vibrating one way and another as different reports came in, Va. sent Emma Frazier home with Jinny in the freight train. This afternoon Edward Waddell arrived from Jackson's army. Having left yesterday evening, he brought nothy very new. He came up with me to supper, and goes home, to Waynesboro, in the moring. Fighting at York Town on Wednesday, vehicles still passing along the street below us. I attended the funeral of Dr J. M. Baldwin this afternoon. The showers and warmer sunshine of the last two days cause the country to look beautiful — but how this fair earth is devastated by man! Every body considering what he or she shall do in regard to leaving home or staying, when the Federal army approaches. Of course, few comparatively can leave, but many seem to be perplexed. Judge Thompson has decided to stay, and advises me to remain.

Tuesday, April 22, 1862.

About 5 o'clock, on Saturday morning last, I was aroused from sleep by the ringing of our door bell. Anticipating news of the advance of the Federal army. Before I could get to the door, the messenger came through the side gate and rapped at my chamber window, telling me that Capt. Peyton wished me to come down immediately. I asked, "What's the matter?" and the reply was, "A great deal is the matter." At the Academy, I met Wm. M. Tate going to my home, who said Glendy had sent for him to see after their cattle business, orders having come during the night to remove everything from Staunton. downstreet, I found that many persons had been up all night, that many of the sick at the army Hospital had been taken off by Railroad, and that a part of the army stores had been sent to Charlottesville. There was a general bustle, but very little indication of alarm. I did not enquireparticularly as to the orders received during the night, but it was understood that they came from Gen. Jackson, and that the enemy would be on us very soon. — Jackson, it was said, had withdrawn from the Turnpike at Harrisonburg, toward the Blue Ridge, and would try to detain the enemy so as to give time for the evacuation of Staunton. Va urged me to go, as I might be arrested, and Peyton was solicitous that I should be with him; so, very reluctantly, I concluded to start. In the mean time, many persons, principally refugees from other places, had left in stages and all sorts of vehicles. Mrs. McClung and Miss Agnes moved up to our home. At 12 o'clock Peyton and I started in a buggy to Charlottesville. The road was in wretched condition and full of army wagons. The day was inclement — the county beautiful. We reached Brooksville long before night, and while looking out for Tate who was coming on horseback, I was oppressed with sadness at the condition of affairs. Tate arrived and we spent the night together. The home full — soldiers, ladies +c. The next day still raining — stopped at Timberlake's — found nearly a hundred horses missing — lost in the road. — Wondering why the Railroad trains — six or seven came up to Staunton Saturday afternoon, did not return. Could only hear of one or two having gone down. Arrived at Charlottesville about 12 Sunday. A dispatch there for Peyton telling him to send back wagons to Staunton — curious — Another dispatch to Woods to send back office furniture and papers. Then, after dinner, met persons just arrived from Staunton, by R. R., who stated that things had quieted here + there was no immediate expectation of the enemy's approach — that Jackson had been reinforced, +c. +c. Then I enquired of Peyton where the orders for removal came from, and was surprised to find that they did not come immediately from Gen. Jackson. Everybody in Charlottesville was at a loss what to do. P + I concluded to come back the next morning. — Rain, rain all night and all Monday till evening. The road between C and S. was full of wagons, Quartermasters +c, all anxiously seeking information, instructions where to go + what to do — Some teams abandoned on the road side. Everything and every body dripping wet, and the road almost impossible for loaded wagons. Turned in at Mountain Top to spend the night — could not get accommodation. Came down to the little town near the river — full there. The river full — afraid to ford. P paid a negro $2.50 to drive the buggy across - - I walked over on the Railroad bridge. Bruer's tavern at Waynesboro' too full to receive us. Dr L. Waddell took us to his house. About dark heard the RR whistle, and leaving in a hurry came home. Things still unsettled here. Johnson's army left Camp Shenandoah in a hurry, upon information received from Staunton, in Gen. J's absence and came to bully Mills, destroying stores which could not be brought away. Johnson was with Jackson, and, it is said, was engaged at the removal of his command, which cannot get back, on account of the bad roads. Nothy definite as to the position of Jackson — rumored that he has been re- inforced from East of the Blue Ridge — Supposed that the Federal army intends to go East. Staunton not thought to be entirely safe yet. Va was not surprised to see me last night.

Later — I learn that Johnson has no desire to return to the Shenandoah Mountain, and will remain for the present at Valley Mills. The Federal pickets, it is reported, are this side of the Shenandoah Mt.

The money +c of our town Banks are in Lynchburg. The records of all of our Courts were in Charlottesville on Sunday, and also the books + papers of the Post Office.

Thursday night, April 24, 1862.

Yesterday morning, upon going down street, I found another excitement in town. During the night, an order had come from Gen. Johnson to remove the sick remaining in the Hospital, +c. +c. Some 200 sick soldiers were accordingly sent off in the morning train — ladies who wished to go could not get aboard, or had to leave the car after taking their seats. I went after Legh to see him about bringing his family to Alick's — met him coming to town, but he returned home and in the afternoon Bell +c +c arrived. Alick wrote to Gen. Johnson for instructions as to a few sick men who could not be moved — whether it was his duty to remain with them +c +c. He received a verbal reply to send off no more sick till further orders. A similar order was given to the Quartermasters in town. Blackley was at Johnson's camp, at West View, and told me when he returned, that upon receiving a message from Jackson, Johnson issued a circular to stop all preparations for departure. What it all meant was a profound mystery. The Richmond train arrived about dark, and the passengers reported that Ewell's division had gone from Gordonsville to re-inforce Jackson. Judge Thompson first communicated it to me as "good news." I doubt its truth and Mr. Farich, who came from Charlottesville, insisted that the greater part of Ewell's command had been ordered to the Junction in Hanover Co. — where it was thought the great battle would be fought. The enemy, it is thought, have abandoned their intention to attack us at Yorktown, and are concentrating at Fredericksburg. Other persons gave the same account to-day of Ewell's movement as first reported last night. This morning I began to hesitate about leaving home, and have pretty well decided now not to go. The day passed off slowly, every body feeling much solicitude and suspense. Many rumors were current as to the movements of the enemy quite near town. Yesterday it was reported that fighting was going on at Buffalo Gap, firing having been heard — our men were merely discharging their guns. The enemy, however, have come as far as the top of North Mountain, and captured one or two of our pickets or videtts.50 They have appeared also at Jenning's Gap, and caught two of our cavalry, one of whom escaped afterwards with the loss of his horse. Rumors of their appearance at Mt. Crawford and Bridgewater in considerable force, are not credited. The bridges across North River, at those places, have been burnt. — This evening John McD. Alexander arrived from Jackson's camp, (at Swift Run Gap, Rockingham) via Gordonsville. He confirms the report of Ewell's having gone in the direction of Jackson's position. He is is staying with us to night. Bell, Mrs. Hill and the children with us also — came up yesterday evening. John Graham, of Lexington, was here night before last. I received a letter from Tate at Richmond, this evening. He reports that the feeling in Richmond is hopeful. Things have appeared blue to us here. Kate writes that when she arrived at Christiansburg, Sister was suffering great anxiety, having just heard that the enemy were nine miles from Staunton. Raining + snowing nearly all day. Raining still.

Saturday night, April 26, 1862.

Our community has been much more depressed to- day than on yesterday, although there was no intelligence specially calculated to have that effect. Perhaps the absence of encouraging news was sufficient to excite apprehensions. Since the apparently reliable statement of Ewell's movement to re-inforce Jackson, we have expected to hear that the Federal troops were retiring down the Valley; but this morning the first news was that a body of their cavalry was at Mt. Crawford, unable to cross the river, and anxiously enquiring for the whereabouts of Jackson and Ashby. Josiah Roler conversed with them across the river, and they pronounced the people of the neighborhood particularly dull because they could not give them the desired information. Next we heard that one or two of our cavalry had been killed near Deerfield. There it was rumored that Gen. Johnson's private baggage had gone to Afton Depot, and army stores were going in the same direction. In a word everything was in suspense. To-night the cars bring a report that the Federalists have taken New Orleans. I received a nother letter from Tate to-day. He wished me to telegraph to him at Lynchburg, the condition of affairs here. He was in Richmond, and still rather hopeful. Mrs. Hill, Bell + the children with us still, waiting to go to Alick's where they find it necessary to locate permanently. Johnson's army may move at any moment. Oh, miserable times! The country ruined in any event. May God in mercy interpose for our help. One of the Settington's reports that the Federalists in Highland are suffering for supplies. Many negroes have joined them, and some having stolen food to relieve their hunger were shot recently at Monterey — six of them, he said

Sunday night, April 27, 1862.

A calm and beautiful Sabbath — almost as quiet as those we used to have. I attended Sunday School in the morning, and felt remarkably free from the excitement which has been habitual with me since this miserable war began. Quite late in the afternoon the Rev. John Miller, Capt. of Artillery in Johnson's army, came up to see Mrs. McClung. He confirmed a report, which we had heard before, of the capture by our cavalry, in Bath Co., of twenty-five of the enemy's wagons + a hundred horses sent out on a foraging excursion and prevented by high waters from returning. Six men were captured also, and six killed. The wagons were burnt, as they could not be brought across the swollen streams. Passengers by the evening's train report that there is nothing further in regard to New Orleans. A rumor that Jackson expected to be attacked to-day, and had called Ewell across the Blue Ridge to assist him. Another report of fighting at Yorktown. If it be true that New Orleans has fallen, we have suffered the greatest disaster of the war.

Monday night, April 28, 1862.

Another bright and beautiful spring day, but the community very much depressed again. This morning we heard that New Orleans had certainly been taken by the enemy. The last report, by telegraph, is, that the fate of the city is undecided or uncertain. Woodson, of Harrisonburg, came up this evening. He reports that 5000 or more Federal troops are at that place, helping themselves to whatever they want — horses, provisions +c. Conflicting reports as to Jackson's and Ewell's movements. Nothing new as to Johnson's command. Seven prisoners taken near Williamsville, (as I mentioned last night) were brought in the evening, and put in jail. The officer in charge of them addressed them with more sternness than I should have done. I could not treat a fallen foe with harshness. Two more prisoners were left at the Rockbridge Alum, wounded. Those I saw looked rather sickly and forlorn, and excited a feeling of pity, enemies as they are. William McClung, of Highland, was arrested to- day, because he came through with a pass from a Federal Officer, which stated that he had taken the oath of allegiance. His business was to take back cattle which belong to him. He did not take the oath of allegiance.51

Tuesday night, April 29, 1862.

The feeling to-day has been more hopeful. New Orleans not occupied by the enemy at last dates, Gen. Lowell suspected of treachery, Johnson in town nearly all day. It is said that our scouts went to foot of Shenandoah Mt. yesterday, and found no enemy. Jackson has sent here for battle flags, ambulances +c. The last arrival from his camp reports a reinforcement of 12000 men. Sam Robinson of Richmond came up to-day — Says troops are pouring through the South towards Fredericksburg. He + Mason are going to Roaring Run Iron Works to see about a lease of that place by the Government. It occurred to me that I would like to be connected with the enterprise. Went to see Mason — found him in bed — Said he had been thinking about it, and wanted to propose it to me this evening when we were interrupted.

May 1862

Thursday night, May 1, 1862.

Nothing of interest yesterday. Legh's folks returned home. Lucy and Kitty are sweet children, and both of them, especially the latter, "take to" me very much. The intelligence from New Orleans was that the Federal fleet was at the city. Not a word from there to-day, but it is conceded that the Federalists now almost have command of the Mississippi river. The first rumor this morning was that Jackson's army was on the way to Winchester; the next, and apparently more reliable, that Jackson was marching into the Valley to meet the enemy at McGaheysville, while Ewell was moving to meet a Federal force in Page county; the third, that Jackson was at Port Republic last night, and Ewell in the camp at Swift Run Gap; and the last, that Jackson was at Harrisonburg. Coming home before night, I met the Express boy who was said to have brought the third report. He contradicted it entirely, said Jackson was at Swift Run, when he left this morning, and nothing indicated an intention to move. We have had no tidings for several days of the enemy in the West. Northern papers report that their troops occupying Staunton! Another rainy, melancholy day. A number of stores closed doors, because the stock of goods does not justify the payment of license tax.

Friday night, May 2, 1862.

Positively asserted to-day that Jackson is at Port Republic, or this side, and Ewell at the Swift Run Camp. I have no reason to doubt the truth of the statement. Johnson's command had orders to-day to be ready to march at a moment's notice — where no body knows, but it is presumed down the Valley. The Cadets from Lexington will be here to-morrow morning, nearly 200, — where bound and what for, I know not. The enemy's scouts have frequently been at Mt. Crawford.

Saturday night, May 3, 1862.

A rumor about noon to-day that Jackson was crossing the Blue Ridge at Brown's Gap, going East, having Ewell at Swift Run Gap. I thought the report too ridiculous to be credited; but passengers by the cars bring word that he was expected at Mecham's River — to which point the road from Brown's Gap leads — and the Express rider asserts that the army began to cross the mountain last night. These persons are under the impression that Jackson will enter the Valley again by way of Rockfish Gap, and that the movement is a piece of stratege. It seems to me absurd; but I can scarcely believe the reports. The enemy have the Federal flag flying at New Orleans! A rumor that the enemy are concentrating at McDowell and Monterey. The Cadets arrived from Lexington this morning, and are quartered in the large brick building, adjoining the Central Bank. — A half dozen Ambulances were sent down to Jackson to-day, which is strange if there is any authentic information that he is moving across the Blue Ridge.

Sunday night, May 4, 1862.

Another bright Spring day, but full of rumors and anxiety. This morning at Sunday School I was informed that Johnson was threatened with attack by a large force of the enemy — that he was spending the night in town, and was sent for at 12 o'clock — that at 2 o'clock, A. M., two trains of cars, empty, were sent down the road to bring up reinforcements. The number of the enemy was set down at 10,000 — there it was said that 8000 men at Ryans, in the Pastins, that our pickets had been driven in, and that skirmishing was going on at North Mountain. A large force was reported at Millboro', but this was soon contradicted. Returning from Church I encountered Judge Thompson at his gate. He had not heard the rumors, but seemed fully persuaded that the Valley was to be given up to the enemy. Soon after dinner I heard an engine whistle, and hurried down to see if reinforcements had come — Only the freight train due yesterday. The Ambulances, started yesterday, had just come in, having been sent after to return. A little after 3 o'clock there was another whistle, and I went to Judge T's gate to see the train. It was a long train, drawn by two engines, and was full of soldiers! A number of ladies were on the hill, to see what was to be seen. — After coming home to tell the news, I went to Alick's, and he and I went to the Depot. He told me that he was informed that Jackson's movement was intended to deceive the enemy. A large number of soldiers had arrived on the train, principally such as were more or less broken down by their march of yesterday. Many of them are badly clothed and almost destitute of shoes. Altogether their appearance was rather tattered. I met old Mr. Jimmy Lessley, of North Mountain, at the Depot.52 He said everything was quiet in that region, and there was no expectation of an advance of the enemy. — that one of our scouts was at McDowell yesterday, and found some pickets but no enemy this side! A few minutes afterwards the previous report as to an immediate attack upon Johnson was asserted again, and was repeated at Church to-night, with the additional information that cannon and ammunition were sent out to-day. I know not what to believe, but inclined to the opinion that no enemy is pressing from the West. Pickets have been posted on all the roads leading from town towards Rockingham, to prevent information getting to the enemy. Gen. Jackson + Staff have arrived in town, on horseback. One or two more trains with soldiers have also come. The main body are coming afoot. I fear that most of them will be utterly broken down. They have made a marvelous march of it.

Monday night, May 5, 1862.

Train after train has arrived to-day, being various regiments — 23rd, 42nd, 48th, 21st, Irish battalion, 37th, all of which have been through this place once or twice before. But how different their appearance since last summer? Many of the men are ragged, and quite a number entirely without shoes. They also look dirty, and sickly — I mean a large proportion. The regiments and battalion I have mentioned, and perhaps others, (the 10th) marched out two or three miles from town, on the West View road, to camp. Jackson's old brigade — composed of the 2nd, 4th, 5th, 27th +c regiments — are encamped two miles East of town. The town was full of country people this evening, who were permitted to come in but not go out. Pickets are posted on all the roads.

Reported that Yorktown has been abandoned by our troops and that Norfolk — in fact the only place approachable by water — will be. In all probability there was another great fight at Corinth yesterday.

The brigade (Jackson's) is composed of Valley men, and the 5th regiment is (except one company) from this county. It is said that when they found that the army was really leaving the Valley at Brown's Gap, they were greatly depressed; but when their faces were turned towards Rockfish Gap, every face brightened.

Tuesday night, May 6, 1862.

News to-day that the Federal army at Harrisonburg broke up yesterday in a hurry and started down the Valley. According to report, the people have suffered greatly in the loss of grain, flour, meat, horses, negroes +c taken by the enemy. Intelligence of Jackson's movement was no doubt communicated to Harrisonburg. The 5th Regiment marched through town this morning, and encamped near the Cemetery. Johnson's army moved West to-day — where to, we do not know. Jackson's army had marching orders to-day, and will start in the morning. His destination is unknown, but presumed to be down the Valley. I was kept busy to-day - - the whole army seemed to require new outfits. Got home after dark — found young Lacy here. Before we had left the table, there came a rap at the door — three soldiers were there applying for supper, asked them in — members of a cavalry company bivouacked in the lot beyond us, near the forks of the road. We gave them supper, and invited them to come to breakfast. They are from Rappahannock + Fauquier, two of them apparently gentlemen. Norfolk said to be abandoned; and the Navy Yard burnt — cant resist an attack from gun boats! We gave up the lower Valley, to draw the enemy into the interior — they came, took what supplies they wanted, ramassed the people, and have gone off safely! A letter from Kate says that great excitement and apprehension prevailed in Christiansburg on Saturday and Sunday caused by a report that Gen. Heath, in command of a body of our troops in Greenbrier, had come to join Jackson, and that consequently 25,000 Yankees were advancing through Mercer county!

Wednesday night, May 7, 1862.

Jackson's army started to-day, all of the 1st Brigade, except the 5th Regiment, (which encamped near the Cemetery last night) and the artillery passing through town and marching towards Buffalo Gap. I rode out to get a view of the army, but there was no point at which the whole column could be seen. — We are at a loss to know the destination of the army, but presume that it will soon turn and move down the Valley. The force which has passed through since Sunday numbers at least 10,000. - - exclusive of Johnson's Brigade which is from 4000 + 5000 strong. The next excitement, was the arrival of a Yankee officer, captured in a skirmish yesterday, below Harrisonburg. While we were at dinner, Lucy came in and told us that a company of cavalry was coming down the street. We went out to the porch, and found that a large body of mounted men was passing. They were a portion of Ashby's command, about 800. Twelve hundred more are still in Rockingham. The 800 encamped on the Buffalo Gap road, near town, but expected to move on. Soldiers engaged in actual war present a very different appearance from those on holiday parades. There is no such thing as "uniform" — all sorts of coats, pants hats and caps, — but they are alike in dustiness, dirtiness and general shabbiness. Several dispatches from Richmond this evening state that a fight had occurred near Williamsburg, in which we captured 900 men and 12 cannon. Reported that Johnson was at Shaw's Fork, Highland, last night — hardly probable. The distance is 23 miles from Johnson's camp at West View — too far to march in part of a day. And I am not satisfied yet that Jackson is going to cross the Shenandoah mountain. The Judge thinks he is striking for the Baltimore + Ohio Railroad, at Grafton perhaps. It is generally supposed that we are sending a large force towards Winchester from East of the Blue Ridge. Ewell has 20,000 men now, it is said. Our authorities seem at last to have commenced an aggressive policy. Having withdrawn our forces from points where they have awaited an assault for many months, they may have concentrated and pushed forward into Pennsylvania, to let the Northern people feel some of the effects of invasion. Report says that Jackson has in his command 5000 cavalry. Young Lacy returned to- night, bringing his friend, a Mr. Brown. They are going to join Jackson's army.

Thursday night, May 8, 1862.

The Yankee officer was sent off to Richmond this morning. He wore a plate of metal over his breast, and exhibited a bullet which struck him and was flattened like a button. Gen. Johnson did not reach Shaw's Fork Tuesday night, as was reported. Yesterday, he surprised the Federal scouts — some 200 cavalry — near Ryan's, killing six to ten (so reported variously) and capturing two. They left their tents behind them. Cannonading heard to-day from early morning till 4 o'clock P.M. in the direction of Shenandoah mountain. Legh first told me of it — then Frank Young, and then other persons; Finally I heard it myself while walking out to Marquiss's to see a bee hive he proposed to sell me. Came back over Abrey's hill — was transported with the lovely landscape, although it is so familiar to me. Heavy fighting in the Peninsula yesterday. Up to 12 o'clock, M., the enemy had been repulsed three times — heavy loss on both sides. Between 600 + 700 (instead of 900) prisoners taken at the fight on Monday. The result of yesterday's affair not know. J. D. Imboden has arrived — authorized to raise companies for guerilla service, in Western Virginia. Mr. + Mrs. H. J. Crawford spent the evening with us — he is coming in after supper.

Friday night, May 9, 1862.

Jimmy Tate came back this morning, after starting to school to tell us that a fight occurred yesterday, near McDowell, Highland county. The enemy were very strongly posted, but were driven off by Gen. Johnson, the fight commenced at 5 PM and terminated at 9 — the firing during the day, which was heard here, was the enemy's throwing shells +c through the woods. The number of the enemy is reported as 8000; (reinforcements having been sent from Romney) ours, in the fight, much smaller. Our loss 40 killed and 200 wounded, among the latter Gen. Johnson, who has arrived in town. At last accounts the enemy were retreating precipitously, + Jackson was in hot pursuit. A train of cars has gone up to Buffalo Gap for the wounded. The Richmond train, due at 4 o'clock, or thereabouts, not come yet — past 10. Peyton and other Quartermaster's go out of office, "by order of the Secretary of War." I amused myself to- day in converting my dog kennel into a bee house. Ladies busy to-day preparing for the wounded. A large quantity of provisions +c sent out to meet them.

Saturday night, May 10, 1862.

A number of the wounded in the late battle near McDowell, arrived this morning. Also the corpses of eight of the slain, which lay at the Depot, boxed up, scarcely more noticed than bales of goods, so accustomed to such scenes have people become. It was reported this morning that the Federalists, in their hasty retreat from McDowell, left a part of their artillery and every thing else they had. To-night I heard that they had taken the road to Franklin, Pendleton Co., had burnt their wagons, and, retaining their artillery only, were flying before Jackson as fast as they could go. A Federal Colonel (named Constable) was brought in to-day, a prisoner — taken in Highland. The report of a fight in the Peninsula on Wednesday is contradicted — no such battle took place. The papers of to-day state that Gen. Beauregard assailed the enemy, near Corinth, yesterday. — result not known. The "Richmond Dispatch," of yesterday, which we got this morning, was in a flurry about Yankee gun boats coming up James River — cooled down to-day. I went out to Marquiss's after supper, with Jimmy Tate + Wright, and brought the bee hive in on a wheel barrow. Had a hard time — bees very much stirred up — many of them out side — stinging Jimmy +c. Delightful spring day. Roads quite dusty.

Sunday night, May 11, 1862.

More of the wounded at McDowell were brought in to-day — morning and evening. Many were lying in a field at Wilson's, Highland co. The last report of our loss is 75 killed and 250 wounded. It is said that 82 of the enemy have been found dead — 30 of them covered in a heap. The enemy in their flight proceeded beyond Monterey, towards Cheat Mountain, but learning that our guerilla's from the other side (called "Dixie Boys") had occupied the mountain and obstructed the road, they retraced their steps to Monterey and went down the Franklin road — throwing out 16 dead bodies they were carrying off and burning wagons + caisons.53 Afterwards they threw their ammunition into a stream. Thirty (30) wagon loads of their plunder, picked up at various places, arrived to-day. The number of the enemy is reported as 9000, and if they were so strong, their flight was caused by a panic, as we could not bring a much larger force to bear upon them. It is said they had stopped at Franklin, whether to make a stand [which they could not do unless reinforcements were coming to them from some quarter] or from exhaustion, we do not know. They must have suffered severely for want of food. Jackson was to move upon them this morning. — Jackson's recent movements, which seemed so incomprehensible to us, are now all explained. Last Sunday we heard that 8000 or 10 000 of the enemy were threatening Johnson at West View. It was true that the enemy, largely reinforced from Romney, were preparing to advance this way; but they were still in Highland co, or beyond. Jackson was advised of their movements, and therefore took the route he did to meet them. It was, of course, arranged that the guerillas should obstruct the road. Yankee "shinplasters" — or Sutter's tickets — are very abundant in Staunton. A bright and delightful day. Bees doing well apparently, notwithstanding the jolting they got. A young Nelson, of Ohio, cousin of our Nelsons, is among the Federal wounded, and at Monterey. A young man from Wheeling, on our side, is guarding his cousin, from Clarkesburg, a prisoner taken from the enemy.

Monday night, May 12, 1862.

No news of special interest to-day, except that Norfolk has been evacuated by our troops and occupied by the enemy. This event, however, has been anticipated for a week or two days. Various rumors from Jackson's army, but not traceable to any reliable source. A letter from Kate this evening — great panic in Christiansburg, caused by an expected inroad of the enemy, by way of Giles county. Later intelligence in the Richmond papers of to-day, stated that the enemy had been dispersed at Giles C.H. by our General Heth.

Tuesday night, May 13, 1862.

A report from Jackson's army states that the enemy had met reinforcements at Franklin and were making a stand — that they had set the woods on fire all around, which caused the smoky atmosphere observed here. The smoke, however, (if it be smoke) prevailed several days before the enemy raised their conflagration. Some body started a report to-day that Jackson's army had been captured. From Richmond we hear of the destruction of the famous steamer "Virginia," by our authorities, and the complete evacuation of Norfolk + Portsmouth. — Va has been at the Hospital again to-day. Yesterday she and all hands were busy making pillow cases to be filled with straw. Nanny + Matty have been scraping. Phil Trout, who went out to Wilson's after the battle, relates an incident of striking interest. He found a wounded man from this county, and told him he would bring him to Staunton in an ambulance, if he desired to come. The man replied that he wished very much to come, but he could sit up, and that some one who would have to lie down had better be brought. This had never heard of the saying and act of Sir Philip Sidney, when mortally wounded on the field of Zutphen, which have immortalized his name. It was the same spirit — "Thy necessity is yet greater than mine."54 Finding two boxes of proper size at Evans' for bee hives, I bought them this evening.

Wednesday night, May 14, 1862.

The first intelligence of to-day was that Gen. Jackson was marching back from Franklin, by order of Gen. Lee. The enemy was strongly re-inforced at that point. This evening we heard that the Federal gun-boats were only twelve miles from Richmond, at the obstructions placed in the river, and assailing our batteries on the banks. Much murmuring on account of the inefficient means of defence provided by the government. For months the Richmond papers have been calling attention to the defencelessness of Richmond, and yet it is even now believed that there is nothing to prevent gun boats coming up to the city. Richmond, with all its stores, foundries, work shops +c will probably fall into the enemy's hands in a few days. Indignation mingles with the despondency which prevails in anticipation of such a catastrophe. Kate writes that Addy Stuart has returned from the expedition, with a company from Montgomery Co, to Giles C. H. They did not arrive in time for the affair Gen. Heth had with the enemy.

Thursday night, May 15, 1862.

A report from Richmond this evening, by telegraph, that two of the Federal gunboats had been sunk in James River, and the rest driven off. The enemy are said to be at Lewisburg, and the people in the surrounding country are gathering to repel them from the terminus of the Central Railroad, supposing that to be their destination. Gen. Jackson at McDowell last night, and Johnson's Brigade at Shaw's Fork. All my spare minutes at home in day-light are occupied in making a bee hive. —

Friday night, May 16, 1862.

Day of Prayer appointed by President Davis, before going down street this morning, I was disappointed at finding no confirmation of the news said to have been telegraphed from Richmond last evening, and brought up to us by Jimmy Tate. During the day, however, I learned that one or more dispatches had come, stating that, after several hours' firing the gunboats and withdrawn down the river, one or two of them being disabled. The Richmond papers of to-day confirm this intelligence in the main. The Legislature had taken upon itself the responsibility of defending the city to the last, till it destroyed. The President responded to a committee of the two houses that the State would in no event be abandoned. The Governor of the State and Mayor or Richmond declare they will not surrender the place. At a public meeting last night Gov. Letcher was guilty of the indecency of uttering some profanity — he would tell the enemy "to shell and be ——." The crowd applauded — Can they expect the blessing of the Almighty? And this occurred on the eve of a day set apart for special prayer to God for his assistance. Mr. Baker and Mr. Campbell conducted the services at Church this morning. No sermon, but reading the Scriptures, singing and prayer. Part of Jackson's army at Stribling's Springs. A number of the cavalry in town. The Institute boys passed through, going back to Lexington.

Sunday night, May 18, 1862.

This morning a young Morton preached and to- night a young Carrington — both, I believe, chaplains in the army. Military garb, even in the pulpit, is not uncommon these days. Last night Col. Reid of Lexington was here at supper, and this afternoon Frazier came up and is spending the night. Both are returning from the Legislature. — Col. R. brought up a report (having come up street after I left) that the "Yankees" were at Jackson's River, the Western terminus of the Central Railroad. Mr. Wayt told me at Sunday School, this morning, that their force amounted to four hundred cavalry. Next I heard that it was five hundred. Then Frazier brought a report that was eight hundred cavalry and a thousand infantry. H. J. Crawford told me at church that it was two thousand. And, finally, Wm. Kayser asserted positively that it was three hundred. A portion of our cavalry was ordered to Jackson's River, but mistook the order and went to Lexington! It is rumored that Gen. Winder, one of Jackson's Brigadiers, mistook directions given to him at McDowell, and thus the enemy escaped capture in the recent affair. A series of mistakes. Mrs. Sowers died this afternoon. Reported that Mr. John McCue is dead. Several citizens of Highland, arrested for giving aid to the enemy, have been brought in.

Tuesday night, May 20, 1862.

No war news of special interest yesterday and to- day. This morning it was reported that a dispatch had come stating that the Federal ironclad steamer Monitor was on shore and we had captured part of his crew. The cars brought the true account — some of the crew who came ashore were killed or captured. Mrs. Sowers has left me her executor.55 Tate came up this evening, and is here. The enemy lately at Jackson's River have gone off. Jackson's army moved from Stribling Springs, down the Valley, this morning. Imboden (J. D.) came in and took supper with us last night, Mrs. Trout and her sister Harriet Stribling called after their supper, and sat till near bed-time.

Wednesday night, May 21, 1862.

The town quiet all day. A report that Jackson is about to attack the enemy at Narrow Pass on the Valley turnpike, where they are fortifying. He has been reinforced by a Louisiana Brigade — Ewell's division (or a part of it) moving back towards Richmond. These are the reports — dont know how much is true. The enemy have appeared at or very near Hanover C.H. They are evidently trying to surround Richmond and cut off supplies, avoiding a battle whenever possible. A letter from Frazier, written this morning, says he hurried home (Rockbridge Alum Springs) on Monday to get his family off to Lexington as a place of safety — but he heard the enemy were in Buchanan and threatening Lexington. Consequently he was looking to Staunton as a place of refuge. The rumor of a small body of the enemy being at Buchanan, had reached here by other channels — not fully credited. Reports of further operations in Giles co. highly advantageous to us. [I often mention rumors which turn out to be untrue, and many details are incorrect as stated — but I do not generally correct such ones, principally because of the impossibility of obtaining perfectly reliable intelligence.

Thursday night, May 22, 1862

Nothing of special interest to-day. Intelligence this morning that Jackson had turned off the Valley Turnpike, at New Market, as some supposed to abandon the Valley; but the more probable supposition is that he has gone down the road to Front Royal, where, it is reported, a portion of the Federal army under Gen. Shields is. Their main force is at Strasburg. Gen. Heth's dispatch to Richmond claims a signal success in Giles Co. at the recent fight there. Tremendous battles near Richmond and Corinth (Miss) are pending. A man from Highland was in town a few days ago offering for sale a very elegant pistol. In answer to a question, he said he had taken it from a Yankee. "Did you secure the Yankee?" "Yes," said the man. — "Where is he now?" "I dont know." He proceeded then to relate that he had often seen the Yankee passing through the country as a bearer of dispatches, but was afraid to interfere with him while the Federal army had control of the country. As soon, however, as he heard of their reverse near McDowell, he and another man went to look out for the expressman or any other game that might come along. When he came along, they shot him and secured his horse, equipments and dispatches. The latter were from Gen. Milroy to a Federal officer commanding cavalry in the West, giving instructions as to his proceedings, that he might escape capture or give assistance to his routed friends.

Friday night, May 23, 1862.

This morning I learned that a dispatch had come, stating that the Federal army would probably have possession of the Central R.R. near Richmond, and it was doubtful if there would be a train up this evening. The train that went down this morning returned late in the evening from Gordonsville — I have no information as to the state of affairs. Several Federal soldiers, captured down the Valley this morning, arrived this evening by stage coach. They say it was reported in their camp that Beauregard had gained a great victory at Corinth. Very doubtful.

Saturday night, May 24, 1862.

I came home this evening, before the mail was opened, and sent Wright for the papers. He came back, telling that there was some news of a battle down the Valley. After supper I went down street to ascertain what intelligence had come. I encountered H. J. Crawford, J. P. Eskridge, and H. B. Michie — One said a Louisiana regiment belonging to Ewell's division had routed a Federal regiment; another, that the enemy had retired and we had possession of their position; and the third, that the whole Federal army was routed. At last I found, at the Q.Ms office, Gen. Jackson's dispatch to Gen. Jos. E. Johnston — It is dated Front Royal, this morning, and says that the Federal regiment at that place was routed yesterday, many of them captured with a piece of cannon + military stores. The telegraph wire near Richmond has been cut, by the Yankees, it is presumed. The Central R. R. cars now run from the Junction to Richmond on the Richd + Fredericksburg Road. The papers intimate that a great battle very near Richmond will take place soon.

Sunday night, May 25, 1862

The only news to-day is that the enemy have possession of the Central Railroad at Atler's Depot, nine miles from Richmond. Some fighting occurred there yesterday, but our troops in the vicinity were driven off, or retired before superior numbers.

Tuesday morning, May 27, 1862.

Yesterday morning we had news that Jackson has routed the enemy and chased them beyond Winchester — taken 2000 prisoners, all their stores +c. Not much fighting — our total loss about 100 — the enemy still flying and our army pursuing. As it was Court day many people were in town — every face was bright. At 10 o'clock I rode down to Mr. Fultzs' to attend the funeral of his daughter, Mrs. Lathrop. The day was delightful and the country beautiful. On my return, found there was a report in town that Gen. Heth had sustained a defeat at Lewisburg, and that a large force of the enemy was at Franklin, Pendleton Co. In the evening the Western train came in and brought intelligence from Lewisburg, which relieved the depression caused by the first report from that quarter. Heth routed, but not so badly as reported. C. C. Strayer of Harrisonburg came up after supper, and I was suffering from headache. Qualified yesterday as Executor of Mrs. Sowers' estate.

Wednesday night, May 28, 1862.

There was a rumor last night that 8000 of the enemy had surrendered somewhere beyond Winchester — No confirmation of it to-day. There seems to be no doubt that 2000 were captured, and some, perhaps all, of them will be here to-morrow. Our army at last advices had reached Martinsburg, securing large quantities of stores, breaking up the Baltimore + Ohio Railroad, +c. +c. A number of persons have gone to Winchester to buy goods, having heard that the town was well supplied with many articles very scarce here. An order has come for "all the wagons in the county," and adjoining counties to go down to remove the captured stores. No train from Richmond to- day, the enemy having possession of the Richd + Fred's RR. from the Junction down. A report that our troops were repulsed at the Hanover C.H. yesterday. I brought a young Robinson up with me this evening, and he staid till 9 o'clock. Mrs. McClung had quite a levee56 till dark — So many callers. Robinson is from Richmond, and belongs to Company F, 21st Regiment. He mentioned an incident in connection with an allusion to a recent order from Gen. Jackson, prohibiting the wearing of any part of the United States uniform. There was a man in his regiment, a low fellow, who was very ragged and forlorn at the battle of Kernstown (Winchester). The next day, however, he turned up in a full suit of gaudy Yankee uniform — broad-cloth coat, gold corded pants +c. — having managed to equip himself during the darkness, from a slain officer, notwithstanding our army had to make a precipitate retreat. The destitution of clothing, shoes +c in our army, when it passed through Staunton, was merely because the men had been on the march, more or less remote from the depots of supplies, and not because the articles could not be furnished.

Thursday night, May 29, 1862.

Hearing the whistle after 10 o'clock, I hurried down street to hear the news. The train had come from Beaver Dam Depot, Hanover co. The passengers report no news, except that the enemy have not possession of the Fredericksburg Railroad. All quiet at Richmond. Our leaders seem determined that the enemy shall fight, if at all, on this side of the Chickahominy, Each appears to be endeavoring to draw the other into a battle with the river and swamp at his back. From the lower Valley we hear nothing new. Large amount of stores captured at Martinsburg. The enemy succeeded in destroying supplies at Winchester and Charlestown. Some 4000 prisoners taken — carried to Charlottesville without coming through Staunton. Jackson had possession of Harper's Ferry. Soon 35 or 40 wagons started to Winchester to-day Reported that the Federalists had gone back from Franklin. Alick has resigned his post as Surgeon of the Hospital here. Great mortality among the sick and wounded soldiers — as many as 15 a day have died. Tents in the grove above the R.R. Depot are used for the accommodation of a part of the wounded. About 1300 in the Hospital.

Friday night, May 30, 1862.

Still without news from Richmond, Corinth +c, Jackson's army quiet. No prisoners sent off yet from that quarter. The ladies are using my office for preparing food for the wounded soldiers in the tent hospital near the Depot. Have a shed for a cooking store. Expect they will injure the property, but could not refuse the use of it.

June 1862

Sunday night, June 1, 1862.

This morning, at Sunday School, Legh told of a reported that Jackson had been routed by a large force of the enemy — no one, he said, believed it. He also stated that there was a considerable battle near Richmond, yesterday, in which the enemy were repulsed. Just before preaching, he told me there was further intelligence from the lower Valley, brought by Sherrer, the German baker. The substance of it was, that the enemy had re-taken Front Royal, a number of our wagons with stores +c, and had probably captured the 12th Georgia Regiment. As I was going to Mrs. Gilkeson's funeral, at 5 o'clock, I overtook Sherrer — He was not at Front Royal, but on the Valley Turnpike, perhaps at Strasburg. His story was that we had one Regiment (12th Ga) and a company of Cavalry at Front Royal — that on the approach of the enemy the Georgians started towards Winchester and the cavalry to Strasburg, and that our teamsters brought off their horses, leaving 12 or more loaded wagons. W. B. Kayser afterwards gave me another version of the story — A party of our cavalry came dashing into Front Royal, stating that the enemy were approaching, whereupon our troops + teamsters left, but that the wagon master (Joe Whitmer) had gone back for his wagons. At church to-night I encountered Ryron Hoge, who left here for Winchester on Friday last. He went as far as New Market, where he heard that Shields, with a large Federal force, occupied Front Royal (our men, before they left, having destroyed coffee +c captured by them from the enemy), and that Millroy was entering the Valley from the West that Johnson was calling in his troops at Winchester. While we were talking Lyt. came up and said that stage passengers who arrived late in the afternoon [Hoge came this morning] contradicted the reports almost entirely — that a small body of Federal cavalry came to or near Front Royal, and were driven back.

The news by the cars this evening confirms the reports we heard from Richmond this morning. Some 25,000 were engaged on each side. The battle not decisive, but the result in our favor. Mrs. Gilkeson, mother-in-law of J. K. Woods, was buried this evening. Returning from the cemetery, I came over the hill, to enjoy again, on a peaceful Sunday evening, the grand prospect from the summit. But a gathering storm caused me to hurry home. Ground north of the cemetery, just outside of the enclosure, is now used for burying soldiers in. At first they were interred in the Cemetery, but more space became necessary. — I counted 89 graves outside, and there are many others dug + ready to receive the remains of the poor fellows who are dying in our hospitals. Communion in our church to-day — three new members — A young man named Vass, of Fredericksburg, originally, preaching

Monday night, June 2, 1862.

Intelligence of the renewal of the battle at Richmond on yesterday. Seventy-five thousand men on each side engaged. Our army led by President Davis and Generals Lee and Jos. E. Johnston. The last named slightly wounded in the face. The whole Federal army on the Richmond side of the Chickahominy. Five hundred of our army drowned — some persons say or suppose they were Federal soldiers that were drowned. The loss very heavy on both sides. The result of the fighting favorable to us — the enemy driven back five miles — 18 cannon captured yesterday + 23 on Saturday. Such are the reports brought from Lynchburg, where they were received by telegraph from Richmond. Many persons have returned from Winchester. No doubt that the enemy are crowding in upon Jackson — Shields through Front Royal, and Rosencrantz through Hardy Co. - - the latter with 15,000 men, and the former with 20,000, according to report. Geary at Berry's Ferry with 4000 more, + Dix across the Potomac with the remains of Banks' army. It was thought that Jackson would make a dash at one or the other before they could unite. Two hundred + seventy-five wagons expected to- morrow with the store captured at Martinsburg. Immense amount of medical stores taken there — 500 pounds of opium, several thousand dollars worth of quinine +c +c. Some of the stores have already arrived. Kate writes that she will return with Mr. Tate who went up to the Salt Works last week, and will get back to-morrow or next day.

Thursday night, June 3, 1862.

The Richmond Dispatch of yesterday, received this evening via Lynchburg, gives some account of the fighting on Saturday and Sunday. On Sunday the affair was not so protracted and important as on Saturday; it would seem, however, that the reports received here yesterday were exaggerated. Jackson has fallen back this side of Winchester No definite intelligence from his army. Great preparations at the North in consequence of the disaster to Banks' army. A beautiful white mule belonging to Banks, captured at Winchester, has been brought to town. It is really a beautiful animal. There is a match to it, somewhere on the road.

Wednesday night, June 4, 1862.

We can get no definite intelligence of movements down the Valley. It seems to be true that Jackson has retired pretty far up towards Harrisonburg, before a large force of the enemy. There has been skirmishing at several points, and quite a heavy affair at Strasburg, where the Federalists were reported as we heard on yesterday. Many stragglers from our army, who were worn out with marching, have fallen into the hands of the enemy. It turns out also that our company of the 12th Georgia Regiment was captured at Front Royal. A Lieutenant of this company, who was not there, however, informed me to-day that a large number of the Federal cavalry were killed at Front Royal, in a fight which occurred there, in spite of the wishes and orders of the Col. + Lt. Col. of the 12th Ga. who finally went off leaving the Regiment behind them. Both were arrested by order of Gen. Jackson. A large number of wagons, which went down to bring up the captured stores, returned to-day, many of them empty. The enemy pressed too closely for us to bring off all the stores. It is said that upwards of 3000 Federal prisoners were at Mt. Crawford to- day, waiting till a bridge could be constructed, to cross the river. Very heavy rain last night and to-day, causing a great rise in all the water courses. Not a word of news from Richmond, except a report that Gen. Johnston (Jos. E.) was severely wounded. A slide on the CentralR.R., at or near the Blue Ridge, has prevented trains going down or coming up. Kate and Kitty are probably on the road somewhere.

Thursday night, June 5, 1862.

A day of rumors. We heard that the Federal prisoners at North River (Mt. Crawford) had refused to come across. Then it was said they were not at the river, but at Harrisonburg. The first report was next repeated. Imboden started down about 2 o'clock, with men, his three small cannon, and two larger pieces. Many hands, white and black, went also in wagons to aid in building the bridge. Late in the afternoon we heard that Shields (Federal) was at or near Port Republic, that our men had burnt the bridge there, across the Shenandoah, + that Shields would probably come by Mt. Meridian, in this county. Next it was circulated that Jackson had come through Harrisonburg and gone towards Port Republic, to attack Shields, and that large reinforcements had come over for Jackson from Gordonsville. Returning home in the evening, I met Col. J. T. L. Preston, of Lexington, entering the town. He came up to supper and sat till 10 o'clock. He left Harrisonburg this morning + crossed the river at Mt. Crawford in a boat. Jackson had turned off towards Port Republic, and the Federal prisoners had been taken in the same direction; from Harrisonburg, without coming to Mt. Crawford. There was a report at Harrisonburg that "Gen Smith" was coming to reinforce Jackson — what Smith and what troops he had no body could tell and therefore the report was discredited. Just before dark a Capt. Rippetoe arrived from Port Republic and reported that we heard the noise of a battle in the direction of Swift Run Gap, and that afterwards couriers passed him, who stated that "Gen Smith" had suddenly met and defeated Shields. Rippetoe is a truthful man, but nevertheless the report is not believed. Other persons who came from Port Republic have no such news. Refugees from the lower Valley, who returned home last week, are back again. To-morrow we shall probably have news. From Richmond the report is "all quiet." I fear that things are not specially favorable to us in that quarter. The delay is, I fear, advantageous to the enemy. Beauregard is said to have fallen back from Corinth. — The enemy have left Lewisburg and gone West, somewhere. The war is fierce enough now, and the prospect for a protracted struggle is good. The Southern people will never submit to Northern domination. Some Federal officers, prisoners, came this evening in the Harrisonburg stage — crossed the river in the boat. The cars came this evening. A letter from Kate, saying that Tate was detained at Christiansburg by sickness.

Friday night, June 6, 1862.

Jackson's army at Port Republic. The enemy (Fremont) said to be near Harrisonburg, with a force variously estimated from 17,000 to 40,000. Shields on the East side of the Shenandoah with from 10,000 to 18,000 men. The probability of Jackson's having to leave the Valley is talked about. Staunton will be occupied by the enemy, of course, in that event. The Federal prisoners arrived at Waynesboro this morning. The officers captured are here on parol, walking about the streets and looking very much at their ease. It seems impudent for captured invaders to appear so much at home. A number of our own sick, wounded and broken down men have also arrived — a miserable, wobegone dirty-looking set. I met Dr. Smith, a Winchester Physician, now connected with the army, down street, and as the Hotels are crowded to overflowing I brought him home with me — He is a very pleasant gentleman. Have been thinking of telegraphing to Kate not to come home, as the enemy may be here soon. Could not get a dispatch off to- night.

Sunday evening, June 8, 1862.

Exciting reports this afternoon, causing the most serious fears for the safety of Jackson's army. A number of cavalrymen have come in, stating that Shields' (Fed) army came down on the East side of the Shenandoah river this morning. Jackson's army being at c and his headquarters at b. That a Regiment of the enemy's cavalry forded South River at Port Republic (a) and captured our ordnance train at b — that Jackson crossed North River and got to his army, and, according to our report, shelled the enemy out of Port Republic. It would appear, however, that Jackson is now between Shields and Fremont, who is doubtless pressing from Harrisonburg. His escape seems almost impossible, especially as his ordnance stores are lost. The Federal prisoners, at Waynesboro' still this morning, may be recaptured. Some persons (Alick + Legh included) went down to North River, on the McAdamized road, this morning, to reinforce Imboden, who is guarding the ford there with several pieces of cannon. Yesterday we heard the sad news that Ashby had been killed near Harrisonburg. I was very sick all day yesterday, and not well yet. Rumors that large reinforcements are coming to Jackson — too late : Cannonading heard all morning, up to 2 o'clock P.M. The cavalry men were arrested upon their arrival here, and put in the guard house, for running off from the battle.

Later. — Several persons have come up from the army. They say there was a brilliant skirmish, that our cavalry pickets ran off, that a portion of the enemy made a bold attempt to flank Jackson, but were easily repulsed, and that we lost nothing whatever. Passengers by the cars, from Waynesboro', report that the portion of the enemy who made the attempt were captured with their cannon. This is doubted. It is stated that Jackson and his staff crossed the bridge, to get to the army, under fire of the enemy. In the skirmish near Harrisonburg, day before yesterday, it is said we lost 40 in killed and wounded, but did great ex[illeg.] tion upon the enemy and captured from 20 to 75, according to the various rumors. As I was going down street to hear the news, after I had heard the first reports, I stopped Dr. Hamilton and Sam Baskin near Judge Thompson's gate, to inquire what the former had learned — he was just coming up. He had heard only what I had. While we were taking Miss Nancy Clark came up the ally by the Catholic Church, and called to them that John was not going, that Jackson had whipped them and taken cannon and ever so many prisoners. Mr. Craig and others had told her so, as they passed her house. It seemed that John Baskin, who is a soldier in the 5th Regiment, and at home on the sick list, was about hung with other sick soldiers, to escape from the enemy, and his friends were in the act of assisting him off.

Sunday night — Going to church this evening Va + I went to see Aunt Sally, who is not well. As the street near the Railroad, was full of wagons I went down to get the news. — The wagons were bringing the sick and wounded from the Hospital to the Depot — a train was filling up for Greenwood and Charlottesville. A courier had arrived from Jackson's army, having left at 4 o'clock, P.M. Ewell's division had been fighting with Fremont, at Cross Keys, all day. So far the enemy had been repulsed. A prisoner was brought in this evening by a negro man. The negro delivered the man, a little German unable to speak English, to one of our officers here, saying, "Miss Mason told me to bring him here dead or alive, and here he is." Mason caught the fellow near Mt. Crawford. After church Kate + I walked up to Mrs. Skinner's with Betty Lyle. Thought we heard cannonading, and saw several persons going out to listen — they said they had heard it. Jimmy Tate is down street to get the last news (past 10 o'clock) — he has just come in. Says another cousin has arrived — Jackson whipped the Yankees under Fremont and is pursuing them!

Monday night, June 9, 1862.

The first news had this morning was by Mr. Tate, who had arrived from the North River ford opposite Mt. Crawford, at 3 o'clock A.M., and came up to our house before I had left home. He repeated the report Jimmy brought up last night, and seemed to think matters were going on finely for us — that Fremont was routed yesterday, and Jackson was this morning assailing Shields, the cannonading being distinctly heard from town. Upon going down street, I was disappointed to find that there was little or no feeling of elation, but on the contrary some apprehension that Jackson might be overwhelmed by superior numbers, there being rumors that Fremont was receiving large reinforcements. Tate brought word that Imboden's party had been ordered to Port Republic during the night, and Alick + Legh had gone along. The cannonading was heard till half past 9 o'clock, when it ceased. About 10 a courier arrived with the report that Fremont was hastily retreating towards Harrisonburg, blockading the road behind him, + that Shields was in a fair way to be caught. Of course there was universal rejoicing. In the afternoon, however, it was ascertained that Fremont had not retreated, but was on the field again with (according to one report) 60,000 men. It was stated at the same time that Jackson had defeated Shields this morning quite severly. — Late in the evening different persons (citizens) and one or two wounded soldiers arrived from the army, and after dark Alick + Legh came. They had witnessed the battle this morning, and were all aglow with excitement. Shields was driven back with the reported loss of 500 of his men + 5 cannon captured, while Fremont's army was drawn up on the West Side of the Shenandoah, unable to give any assistance. Jackson's army crossed the river this morning to assail Shields, destroying the bridge behind them. It is impossible for me to mention the incidents A + L related, or to describe the scenes in town. Alick was employed in attending to the wounded. Both the Regiments from this county suffered severely, in the number wounded — not a single acquaintance is mentioned as among the killed. I infer that comparatively few were killed on either day. Capt. Robt. Lilly is reported mortally wounded. We hear that two Regiments are coming to reinforce Jackson. Kate + Kitty, with Mary Stuart, arrived Saturday afternoon. They left Christiansburg, in ignorance of the state of affairs in this region.

Tuesday night, June 10, 1862.

The town very quiet to-day — very few rumors + nothing of importance. Nothing doing, apparently, by the armies near Port Republic. Jackson pursued Shields for 10 or 12 miles down the river, yesterday evening — It is now said that only 300 or 400 prisoners were taken. Our loss in killed seems to have been small. Two regiments had arrived at Charlottesville, coming to reinforce Jackson.

Wednesday night, June 11, 1862

Everything quiet to-day. No news from the enemy, except that Capt. Lilly was not hurt, one member of the West Augusta Guard (Doom) killed, + one (Byan) wounded. A rumor this afternoon that the Yankees were coming this way, crossing North River at Mt. Crawford; and another that Fremont was retreating. From 9000 to 11000 reinforcements are on the way to Jackson. Two Federal soldiers caught near Dayton, were brought in this evening A marriage to-night in our church — Jewel to a Miss Risk — a large crowd present.

Thursday night, June 12, 1862

A report this morning that Fremont was marching up North River, with a view towards this region. — At the same time a statement that he had 40,000 men, while Jackson's effective force amounted to only 15,000. All through the day there were vague rumors that the whole Federal army had passed through Harrisonburg, down the Valley. Late in the afternoon these rumors were confirmed by persons from Harrisonburg. The Yankees went off last night, in haste, burning their baggage, and committing many depredations. They even destroyed the gardens, as far as possible. It is reported that their whole number was 15,000 — that is Fremont's column. It is stated that Jackson received reinforcements this evening to the amount of 13,000. — We have nothing as to his movements, if he has made any, except a report that Ewell's division was coming up North River. A Federal soldier came in to-day, accompanied by two of our citizens from Hardy or Pendleton. The man said he was a Texan, but had been living in Ohio for two years, and was drawn into the Federal army without his consent; + that he deserted when the army was passing through Hardy. The two men testified that the deserter had come voluntarily, even paying his way to get on part of the journey. As he may be a spy, he was put in the guard house, and has been, or will be, sent to Gen. Jackson. Some 25 or 30 prisoners captured in Hardy arrived to day — also a number of our soldiers, who fell out of the ranks, from exhaustion, on the retreat from Winchester, and were supposed to have fallen into the hands of the enemy. They came through Hardy + Pendleton. I procured a pack of envelopes, captured at Winchester on the recent occasion, amongst other things, and file one of them in this book, as a specimen of the sort of things the war has brought out. x57 It is quite evident that dissatisfaction exists in the Federal ranks, + that falsehood has been resorted to in order to pacify the men. A prisoner taken in the battle of Monday last stated that it had been read out to them that Richmond had fallen, and if they only whipped out Jackson they would be discharged to go home. A similar report comes from Norfolk — the soldiers had been informed so often of the capture of Norfolk that they began to inquire how many Richmonds there were. It is alleged that 2000 men deserted from Fremont's army while it was at Franklin, Pendleton, and that five of the soldiers died of starvation. The enemy have abandoned Norfolk and Portsmouth, taking the troops to the vicinity of Richmond. A few evenings ago, I brought up five or six letters picked up down the Valley They were written to Yankee soldiers by friends at home. — They are all decent — Some of the letters captured are filthy to the last degree.

Friday night, June 13, 1862.

Our army was near Mt. Meridian this morning — said to be pursuing the enemy now. We may look for another inroad before long. Davy Strasburg is up from the army — took dinner with us to-day. He reports 600 as the number of prisoners taken on Monday and since. Many Federal soldiers are said to be wandering in the woods, and more of less of them have been brought in every day. Twenty of them surrendered to one of our men. The evening left more dead on the field than our officers here ever seen in the same area. Many Federal soldiers are said to be wandering in the mountains of Hardy +c. — they escaped towards the West, from Strasburg, when Banks was flying before Jackson. Strawberries are plentiful with us now — out of our own garden — Have been selling in town at $2 a gallon!

Saturday night, June 14, 1862.

Six or seven Railroad trains arrived this evening, full of soldiers, from Richmond — Gen. Whiting's command. Two or more of the Regiments are from Mississippi. An artillery company from Jackson's army passed through — There is a cavalry company from Bath county, near town. One of the Mississippians told me that a large number of our troops left the Railroad at Waynesboro', on yesterday. We are, of course, ignorant of plans on foot. Nothing heard from the enemy since they left Harrisonburg. There is a report that Federal troops are being withdrawn from Richmond. For several days past it has been reported that Andrew Johnson, the Lincoln Governor of Tennessee, was assassinated at Nashville. Also that Butler, the Federal General at New Orleans, was killed. Mrs. McClung, generally the personification of kind-heartedness, has become blood-thirsty, and frequently sighs for Lincoln's head to be taken off. Very warm to-day. Almost every day we have some one to take a meal with us, besides the house full on hand all the time. On Thursday, Wm. D. Alexander, of Georgia was here — this evening John Graham, of Lexington besides Harriet and Lucy Cook. Yesterday Davy Strasburg. The artillery company from town (Imboden's old battery) was expected this evening.

Sunday, June 15, 1862.

More troops arrived to-day by Railroad. — I dont know how many. Four Regiments left town this evening, going down the Valley Turnpike, viz: the 11th Mississippi, 6th North Carolina, 4th Alabama + 4th Texas. Many of them attended preaching at our church this morning. The four Regiments mentioned constitute Whiting's Brigade. A large number of the soldiers who were at church, were good-looking young men, although roughly clad, as usual. We had a large swarm of bees this evening. Va + I went down to the McAdamized (Augusta) Street to see the troops pass by. They appeared very cheerful. — rather disorderly. Part of this Brigade was in the battle of Seven Pines near Richmond: on the 31st ult., — the 11th Mississippi lost 134 men. The 4th Alabama suffered severely at Manassas. They all seemed glad to get up to this country.

Tuesday night, June 17, 1862

Many troops arrived yesterday, and others to- day. I have no idea how many are now in this vicinity. Whiting's Brigade and others are encamped at Poage's, on the Harrisonburg road, there are large encampments on the hills to the left of the Middlebrook road, near the Railroad, and a small one on the hill in front of Frazier's house (Oakenwold) There is a Texas Brigade here to which the Staunton Artillery is now attached. This company is located in the flat near the site of the old Freight Depot. Soldiers are constantly going from house to house, applying for something to eat — they threaten us with famine, and to- night I was obliged to refuse a request for supper, lodging and breakfast for five! The commissary is well enough supplied, but the men like something better than camp fare, when they can get it. The more respectable soldiers, being less forward than others, fare worse, I presume. Arthur Spitzer, who is in the Staunton Artillery, has been up to see us several times. He applied to me to lend him $18, and I gave him an order to Blackley for the amount. The enemy are said to be about Mt. Jackson, Shenandoah Co. It was reported to-day that they had driven our pickets back to Harrisonburg. For two days past I have been quite unwell — was too sick last night to write a line — this morning we received a Richmond mail — the first since Wednesday or Thursday. The enemy have Memphis. Stuart performed a daring exploit near Richmond last week. The whole country is ringing with the name of Jackson, or "Stonewall," as he is called. I cannot tell how our cause comes on. No indications of a close of the war. Our people, however, seem determined to hold on.

Wednesday night, June 18, 1862.

To the surprise of every body, the troops near town began to move off in the direction of Waynesboro'; this morning. The Texas Brigade (Gen. Hood's) started at 5 o'clock. Whiting's Brigade retraced their steps through town, and marched down the Waynesboro' road, between 8 and 9 o'clock. Several Artillery companies went in the same direction. A Georgia Brigade (Lanton's), several other Regiments and two or three Artillery and two or three cavalry companies remained late in the afternoon, but as I came home after 6 o'clock, two trains full of soldiers, were getting ready to start. All will no doubt go to-morrow, We learn that Jackson's whole command was to-day moving to Waynesboro', with a view of crossing the Blue Ridge. Gen. Jackson was in town nearly all day; but no one found out the purpose or cause of these movements. There was, of course, a large number of wagons in connection with the various Brigades. — Many of our Regiments are very much reduced in numbers — the 31st and 44th Va, have not much over 100 men each. Our company of the 44th has, or had a few days ago, five officers and six men — the "Richmond Zouaves," never a very respectable company; a large number of desertions from it; as from some other companies, belonging to different Regiments. Two men from each company in the 5th Va. have been detailed to collect and take to camp the stragglers from that Regiment. A member of the 31st Va, from Wellsburg, Brooks Co, came into our office this evening, and meeting an acquaintance from the same place - - Dr. White, surgeon of the 27th Reg. — told with great glee that, in the Monday's fight near Port Republic, he had shot the Major of the 1st Va Regiment (so called — although most of the men are not Virginians) in the Federal service. The Major was from Wellsburg also and was recognized by the 31st man, who called the attention of his comrades to him. Two of them took aim at him, saw him fall and carried off, and heard afterwards that he was mortally wounded. The same man told that he had two brothers in the 1st Va (Yankee) Regiment, who ran off, throwing away their guns. He manifested a savage joyousness in relating the fall by his hand of one of his own townsman. Dr. White informed me that the man, although rough-looking, was a very superior clerk. James McClung, who is Quartermaster of the 58th Va., has been in town for several days — he took dinner with us to-day. Davy Strasburg called to tell us good-bye, + got a saucer of strawberries. I saw Arthur Spitzer off this morning. Edward Waddell and Archy Graham called after dinner. Brown sugar is selling by the barrel at 45 cents per pound — bacon 30c

Thursday night, June 19, 1862.

Every body wondering to-day the cause of Jackson's movement across the mountain. Some suggest that he is going to Richmond; intending to fall upon McClelland's rear. Others that he crossed over to meet Fremont's army, which, it is rumored, has left the Valley and gone East. A party of Yankee soldiers, captured by our cavalry near Mt. Jackson, Shenandoah, was brought in to-day. Two of the guard called here to get something to eat, and Va, as susual, did what she could for them. — Several persons arrived to-day from Buckhannon, Upshur county, having come through without interruption. This rout has not been open to travelers for more than a year. No Railroad train from the East to-day.

Friday night, June 20, 1862.

The town very quiet to-day. A report that the Federal army has crossed the Blue Ridge from Front Royal. Jackson said to be at, or on the way to, Gordonsville. On Sunday last, the Sacrament was administered in the army, near Port Republic, after the old Scotch custom, in the open air. I moved from the Quartermaster's Office into my private office to-day, to have a more quiet place for making off the quarterly returns. Having been in a bustle for so many months, the quietness was rather oppressive to me. John Hendren came in and spent an hour or two with me. Legh called in the evening. A great many of the soldiers, principally Marylanders, were at his house while the troops were here, to get milk, butter, eggs +c. Some of them brought coffee, which had been issued to them, as a present, in return for articles they had received. There has been no mail from Richmond for several days. Banks reports to his government that he lost only 911 men, of whom 200 were killed and wounded and the remainder taken prisoners, in his late "retreat" from the Valley — We took to Lynchburg about 3000 of his men who were captured. Our army captured none of his wagons, he says — Legh saw at least 50 of them with our army at Port Republic, + and Yankee wagons and ambulances have been very familiar sights in Staunton since the famous "retreat." Fremont falsifies, almost to the same extent, in his report of the battles near Port Republic.

Saturday night, June 21, 1862.

Still no intelligence from any quarter. Several persons, amongst them Alick, report having heard distant cannonading this morning. Twenty-five or thirty "Yankee" prisoners were in the Court house yard this evening, brought up from Harrisonburg — all but three wounded, and all but three Dutch. With a house full before, Frazier is here to-night, on a lounge in the parlor. For the last ten days the weather has been very favorable for the crops.

Monday night, June 23, 1862

The town perfectly quiet yesterday and to- day — We have been cut off from intelligence, and there has scarcely been a rumor — nothing in the least exciting. According to report, Jackson's army was, when last heard from, at Beaver Dam Depot, Hanover Co. If so, the object must be to spoil McClelland in the rear. The Railroad cars are undoubtedly used for army transportation, or we should have had a train up. Mails from Lexington and Harrisonburg, only: — It is rumored that Fremont's army is guarding the passes of the Blue Ridge, near Front Royal and other fronts, anticipating Jackson's advance in that quarter. Frazier remained till yesterday afternoon. — John Barclay of Lexington came up and remained till church time — Also James McClung. For some days past I have employed my spare moments in working around my grape vines. This evening I removed the hard and poor soil from a young vine (next the row of raspberry vines) and put in manure.

Tuesday afternoon, June 24, 1862.

A report to-day that Halleck, the Federal General who has been confronting Beauregard at Corinth, Miss., is on his way with his army to Washington. Also that Beauregard is in Richmond — presumed that his army is coming. A report from Charlottesville that France has acknowledged our independence. No cars yet, and all the news we have had for about a week has been brought by persons traveling on horseback.

Thursday evening, June 26, 1862.

The cars came in Tuesday evening last, and yesterday and to-day, bringing Richmond mails by way of Lynchburg. No news of special interest from any quarter. Jacksons army said to be at Beaver Dam or the Junction, at the last advices. Staunton has been perfectly quiet. We have several thousand cavalry down the Valley, under Brig. Gen. Robertson (or Robinson), who has taken Asby's place. No other troops.

Friday, June 27, 1862.

I was informed last night that Jackson's army was at Ashland, in Hanover Co., Legh came in this morning — says he heard heavy cannonading last evening. Many other persons speak of having heard it yesterday and this morning. (Jimmy Tate went home Wednesday + Nannie + Mattie yesterday.)

Friday afternoon. — Dispatches received by the telegraph operator here say that a battle began yester about noon at Richmond, and continued til dark. At first the enemy obtained some success, but at the close we had the advantage. The battle was renewed this morning, and was raging all along the line at the last account. At least one hundred thousand men are arrayed on each side — what multitudes are now passing into eternity, and how many more are this moment writhing in pain on the bloody ground! I have acquaintances, friends and relatives there, and yet I do not feel the awful solicitude which in former times I would have anticipated. May God in mercy spare the shedding of blood, and give us the victory!

6 o'clock P.M. — Four or five dispatches have just come from Richmond, — all concur in stating that the enemy have been driven back at all points, and our reports that they are in flight. Our loss very heavy. God grant to make the victory decisive, and give our people grace to praise him for it. The cannonading was certainly heard in this neighborhood.

Saturday, June 28, 1862.

Several dispatches at 10 o'clock last night, stating that the enemy had been driven back seven miles, and our troops still pursuing. A dispatch to-day says the battle is still going on, that we have captured a large number of prisoners and many small arms. Cannonading heard again this morning.

Monday afternoon, June 30, 1862.

The battle near Richmond was continued on yesterday. Cannonading distinctly heard in this region. We have no details of the fight since Friday, but telegraphic dispatches received to- day state that the Federal army was retreating towards James River. The reports are encouraging for our side. Eight members of the Guard (from Staunton) wounded, besides the Captain Burke. Three of the Staunton Artillery reported killed — all strangers to me. I sat up with Dr. Edmondson last night, who died between 1 + 2 o'clock this morning. His family overwhelmed with grief. At the same time battles of his horrible war are filling thousands of households with lamentation. I had another swarm of bees yesterday, and one to-day, making three from the same hive this season. When I contrast my circumstances with those of many other people, how much have I to thank God for. Yet how do I repay Him for his goodness! I do desire to draw near to the Lord Jesus, confessing all my quiet, that I may find pardon and deliverance from Sin. The bees have been a source of much entertainment to me, and have, in part, suggested these reflections.

July 1862

Tuesday evening, July 1, 1862.

The great battle below Richmond, still going on. Many reports, — some very exaggerated — We have been generally successful, and the enemy are retreating — this is about the state of the case so far. There has been no general rout. Cannonading heard again to-day. Several persons wounded in Friday's fight were brought up in the R.R. train this evening.

Wednesday morning, July 2, 1862

Very heavy and rapid cannonading was kept up yesterday afternoon till long after dark. We heard it distinctly at our house. A dispatch between 9 + 10 o'clock last night stated that the enemy were defeated again on Monday, and that there was every prospect of capturing or routing the whole army. But the newspaper accounts never come up to the telegraphic reports. The battle will probably be suspended to-day by the rain — It has been raging for a week to-day. The cars came through from Richmond yesterday. A dispatch from Charlottesville, last night, mentions a report that McClelland had been mortally wounded and that his army was demoralized; but it speaks of the enemy's receiving reinforcements which is not encouraging. We have no report yet in reference to the heavy firing of yesterday and last night.

Friday morning, July 4, 1862.

There is little to say in reference to the great battle below Richmond. The papers disagree as to the result Tuesday night. It seems that the telegraphic reports greatly exaggerated the number of prisoners taken, and probably our successes generally. I cannot receive as true any reports coming in that way. A dispatch last evening stated that the enemy had made "a final stand" at Turkey Island, when they were defeated with great slaughter and the loss of all their artillery. This needs confirmation. I am only certain of this, that the enemy have been repulsed, losing several thousand men in killed, wounded and prisoners, and some cannon +c; and that our loss is also heavy.

Monday morning, July 7, 1862.

A great variety of reports from Richmond since Friday, but no reliable intelligence as to the state of affairs. At one time we heard that the greater part of the Federal army is surrounded and will certainly be captured [there was a rumor yesterday that 50,000 had been taken], and immediately afterwards it is asserted that they have effected their escape. The latter I believe to be true. McClelland has at last, no doubt, got to a position on James River, where his transports and gunboats are, his columns a good deal shattered, but not seriously reduced in numbers. We have about 5000 prisoners (besides the wounded) including one Major General and four or five Brigadiers. No estimates have yet been made of the numbers slain. Although we have not routed the Federal army, we have gained a great success. The North had no expectation of a repulse. The following extract from "Harpers Weekly," published early last week, shows the confident feeling of the people in that region.58

John Seddon, of Stafford, Maj. commanding the Irish Battalion, went home with me to dinner yesterday, and remained till seven o'clock. Dr. Arch. Graham came up after supper. Mrs. McC. and Miss A. remained with him, while the rest of us went to church.

Tuesday, July 8, 1862

The last intelligence confirms the rumor that McClelland, with the main body of his army, had made good his retreat to James River, when he had made a stand. He had received reinforcements and was doubtless preparing for another battle if not for another advance upon Richmond. Our town very quiet. Most of the Federal soldiers down the Valley have gone to reinforce McClelland. Cannonading has been heard, yesterday and to-day. As I sit in my office (about 4 o'clock P.M.) I hear a low dull thumping which may be the sound of distant cannon. If so the fight has been protracted and furious. Yesterday a poor woman who lives in town not far from our house, heard that her husband, a member of the 52nd Regiment, had been killed by a cannon ball. Her wailings were heard at our house for an hour or two. Alick was called in to see her — I met him to-day, and he seemed filled with disgust at war — horrified that rational beings should thus slaughter one another, and fill the world with lamentation and wo. But we have no alternative.

Thursday, July 10, 1862.

No more fighting below Richmond that we know of. The cannonading heard on Monday and Tuesday was probably from the Federal gunboats, as they were firing pretty much at random. It is rumored that Jackson's command is coming to the Valley again. Transportation has been ordered for Loving's command (now in Monroe) and for Robertson's cavalry Brigade in the lower Valley. It seems probable therefore that Jackson is to lead a force towards Maryland. McClelland is on James River, under shelter of his gunboats. I received a letter from Arthur Spitzer to-day.

It seems from the following that the Yankees are anticipating the movement to which I alluded yesterday:59

More Orders from Picayune Butler—More Brutality— Difficulty with British Captain, &c.

MOBILE, July 9.—The Advertiser has received New Orleans papers of the 7th and 8th insts. containing several more of Butler's orders. Order No. 152 consigns John W. Anderson to hard labor at Ship Island for two years for exhibiting a cross said to be made out of the bones of a Yankee soldier.

No. 152 also consigns F. Keller to Ship Island, at hard labor for two years, for exhibiting a skeleton in his window labelled "Chickahominy," intending it to represent a Yankee soldier slain in that battle.

No. 150 confines Mrs. Phillips, wife of Philip Phillips, at Ship Island, within proper limits there, till further orders, for laughing on her balcony while a Yankee funeral was passing.

The Mobile Tribune says the following is reliable:

On the 4th of July, at New Orleans, a boat load of British tars, from the British man-of-war Rinaldo, while approaching the levee, commenced singing some of our patriotic war songs, among them "The Bonnie Blue Flag." Butler sent word to the Captain of the vessel that he did not permit such demonstrations. The Captain replied that he did, and was responsible. The same night a ball was given on board the vessel. Among the decorations were Confederate flags.

Monday, July 14, 1862.

For several days we had no intelligence from any quarter, in regard to the war. Yesterday afternoon a report came by Railroad that the Yankees in considerable force were at Culpeper C.H. or Orange C. H. — I heard nothing more about it till I went home to dinner to-day, when Va, Miss Agnes and Betty Lyle (the last two having been down street) informed me that it was currently rumored that the enemy was at Gordonsville — a dispatch to that effect having come from Charlottesville, and that hands had been sent from here to assist in removing the public stores from the latter place. Bring busy making off Quartermaster's Quarterly returns, I did not have my office during the morning; but several persons were in to see me on business, and it is strange that I heard nothing of the reports alluded to.

Tuesday morning, July 15, 1862.

Upon going into the street yesterday evening, I observed a crowd near the West gate of the Court house, on Augusta St., surrounding a party of blue-coated Federal soldiers, who were sitting on the curb stones. The Yankees were captured at Luray by our cavalry. There were six from Ohio, six from New York, one from Vermont and one from Massachusetts. They mentioned a report, which we had heard before, that their General Curtis had been routed in Arkansas by the Confederates under Gen. Hindman. — No Yankees were at Gordonsville at last advices. Jackson was coming up the Central Railroad. No mail train from Richmond yesterday. Kate, Kitty + Mary Stuart returned from Waynesboro', last evening.

Thursday morning, July 17, 1862.

The town as quiet all this week as if no war were raging in the land. No Railroad train yet, and no news from any quarter. I have been very busy with the Quarterly Returns. [deleted: Fear that my character as an honest man will suffer from my connection with the business. — Feel persuaded that p[illeg.]lation is carried on to a large amount.] The proceedings of the Northern Old School General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, lately in session at Columbus, Ohio, fill me with astonishment. Dr R. J. Breckenridge was the head devil in the council, although his son and nephew have been indicted in Kentucky for "treason." The "deliverance" of the Assembly on the state of the country, takes the most ultra ground against the South, throws the whole blame upon us, urges the prosecution of the war, and with the most arrogant, if not blasphemous, assurance assumes to speak in the name of Jesus Christ. The utter madness and folly of the men is astounding. The vote upon the resolutions was 199 yeas and 20 nays. Brown sugar is selling in Staunton at seventy-five (75) cents per pound. No coffee here, but selling elsewhere at two dollars ($2) a pound. Many articles heretofore deemed essential cannot be obtained at any price. Most of our people have been doing without sugar and coffee for a long time. There is, however, no murmuring. Every body seems prepared to have any privation necessary to get rid of Yankee domination

Friday, July 18, 1862.

No train yet from Richmond. On yesterday it was said that four divisions of our army were at or near Gordonsville. The Federalists had not come this side of the Rappahannock. Another batch of prisoners, taken in Page, or thereabouts, was brought in yesterday. A telegraphic dispatch from Richmond, received last evening, stated that we had gained a signal success at Vicksburg, destroying a number of the enemy's gunboats. The report of Hindman's success over Curtis, in Arkansas, is still in circulation, but we have no authentic account of it. Rain, rain to-day.

Saturday, July 19, 1862

The cars arrived yesterday evening, bringing very little news. Hindman did not capture Curtis's army, as reported. The Federalists are at Culpeper C.H. with their headquarters at Dick Patterson's. Said to be about 6000 in number, and fortifying. There is a report that they have left Winchester entirely; a small force there when the last reliable information came. Gen. Robertson has left the Valley and gone East with his whole cavalry command, except one regiment. A dozen Federal prisoners were brought in yesterday. Very distinct cannonading heard this morning.

Monday morning, July 21, 1862.

As I started to church early last evening, in order to call upon Mr. Tipping, who is sick at the Seminary — he + his family are refugees from Winchester. Coming down the hill I observed two men approaching me, and one of them had lost his left arm. I soon recognized Frank Preston, of Lexington. He and his companion — a young man named Burgess, of a Louisiana Regiment — had just arrived from Winchester, having escaped from the Yankees, and were going to my house. Frank was so severely wounded in a fight at or near Winchester that his arm had to be amputated. The operation was performed just before Jackson was compelled to retreat, and as he could not be moved he was left behind in the hands of the enemy. A private family took care of him, and he was treated with great kindness by the Yankee surgeons. Burgess had been wounded in the leg, and was left in the Hospital. Being paroled, he staid with Frank to dress his arm. Frank, however, was not discharged from custody. One day last week a party of our cavalry had a skirmish with the enemy near Winchester, capturing twelve or fourteen of them, and the Federalists in the town, thinking that Jackson was upon them, hastily withdrew. A lady who lives on this side of the place, taking advantage of the occurrence, went in and brought Frank + Burgess off in her carriage, and so they escaped. The former started to Lexington this morning by stage, and the latter went down the Railroad in search of his regiment. Burgess had been captured before at Huntsville, Ala. He and the other prisoners were confined in a large building, and the ladies of the town coming to bring food to them (the Yankees not furnishing supplies), he asked one of them to allow him to pass out with her. She consented, and taking off his military clothing, he went by the sentinels, unsuspected. Clem. Fishburn was with us most of the day yesterday. Jimmy Tate was in also. Kate gave up her room to Frank + Burgess. News came by the cars yesterday that a party of the enemy from Fredericksburg had made a dash upon the Central Railroad at Beaver Dam Depot, and burnt the buildings, tearing up the track +c. Some skirmishing on Saturday between Gordonsville + Culpeper C.H. — nothing authentic in reference to the cannonading heard here that day.

Afternoon. — A dispatch from Richmond, for Gov. Letcher at Lexington, states that our Col. Morgan has captured Frankfort, Ky, and has been joined by 10,000 men, and that our troops under Forrest and Harris (Governor) have retaken Nashville, Tennessee.

Wednesday, July 23, 1862.

No confirmation of the report that Nashville and Frankfort have been captured by our troops, and it is not now believed. Forest took Murfeesboro, Tenn., and 1200 prisoners whom he paroled, except the officers. A large number of sick and wounded soldiers have been sent here from Richmond — talk of taking the Augusta Female Seminary and Wesleyan Institute for Hospitals. At last accounts Jackson was moving towards Madison C.H. The enemy in that region are said to be from 30,000 to 40,000. Yesterday evening Blackley and I walked up to Legh's, going up the Railroad to Shumate's, and thence along the Old Middlebrook road, across the fields. I felt a desire to go that way, as I had not been along there since the road was closed, years ago. During my childhood and youth every foot of the way was familiar to me. I took a basket to get some huckleberries — found very few, got some blackberries, in Jefferson Kinney's fields as we came back. Joe Ryan was in to see me this morning — he is at home on sick leave. He gives a fearful account of the cannonading on Tuesday evening + night (1st — See Diary Wednesday July 2nd) the 1st inst, which we heard so distinctly. He says the scene was terrific. —

Thursday, July 24, 1862

No train up this evening — Yankees said to be prowling about the Railroad line.

Friday, July 25.

A report this morning of a skirmish at Luray yesterday, in which we captured 25 prisoners, 10 wagons +c. But it is said that two Federal regiments have entered the Valley at Swift Run Gap to cut off the only regiment (cavalry) we have west of the Blue Ridge. Reported that troops from the South are arriving at Richmond. To all appearance Richmond is more closely besieged now than it was before the late battles. Va. Bank notes command a premium of 10 to 15 per cent our Confederate notes. Wood selling at seven dollars ($7) a load. The depreciation of the currency and scarcity of labor make prices very high.

Monday, July 28, 1862.

The prisoners +c captured at Luray arrived last evening. Jackson has been collecting his forces in the neighborhood of Gordonsville — said to have about 15,000, but receiving reinforcements. His ranks very much reduced by sickness, absence without leave +c +c. The evening, in much larger force, are in Culpeper, Greene, Orange +c. Charlottesville is supposed to be threatened. — Last night there was a report that a party of the enemy was at Port Republic — not true. No other news. The prospect of peace is as remote as ever. — No signs of European intervention.

Tuesday, July 29.

Yesterday evening three wagon loads of Yankee prisoners were brought up from Harrisonburg, where they had been since the battles at Port Republic. They were left in the Hospital. One or two wore bandages and I observed a pair of crutches in one of the wagons. They were generally hale-looking fellows, and I experienced a stronger feeling of resentment towards them than usual. They were guarded by three of our cavalrymen. — a small guard for probably thirty or forty men. — We have no news from our armies. Enlistments seem to be going on briskly in the Federal States of the North, and the 300,000 men will no doubt be raised very soon. Towns and individuals are subscribing liberally to increase the pay of the soldiers, and encourage enlistments. It is evident that the feeling at the North is more vindictive than ever, and the war will be waged more ruthlessly. The Federal General Pope, commanding the army of Northern Virginia, has issued several savage orders recently, which indicate the present temper of the Yankee nation. Whenever the Federal troops penetrate the Southern country, the citizens are to be arrested and sent off who refuse to take the oath of allegiance, the army is to subsist off the country, property is to be taken as far as necessary, the negroes employed for our subjugation (they do not say as soldiers), people living in their lines are to be held responsible for the acts of our guerillas, +c. +c. Whenever the Yankees go, therefore, the men will fly from their homes, thousands will take arms who otherwise would have remained quiet, and Gen. Pope will find the number of his enemies increased at every step.

Va had a visit yesterday, from one of the poor serving women of town. She gave a lively description of the sufferings of that class of the community, occasioned by the war. Her dresses, she said, usually cost her $1.25 each, being made of calico. Owing to the high prices of goods at this time, she would have to work several weeks to make enough money to purchase one dress. But the serving cannot be obtained, as people even in good circumstances cannot get the materials to work up. The woman wished to know if she could get an old dress and pay for it in work. She said the women of her class generally were suffering greatly, both for want of the means of living and from mental anxiety in regard to the war. — They read no papers and are without correct information, and are therefore exposed to all the thousand reports which fly through the community. Next winter is dreaded by many besides the very poor.

Wednesday, July 30, 1862.

[deleted: Putting up the Harrisonburg telegraph (poles + wire) to-day. The Rev. Dr. Plumer has published a card defining his position. Having been identified with the South nearly all his life, and being regarded a bold and honest man, his many admirers + friends in this region have expected him to take ground on our side. His card shows him to be a [deleted: trimmer] and is very discreditable to him. He curries favor with the North, or provides for his own safety, by protesting his devotion to the Constitution, Union +c +c. Yet does not say that he is in favor of the war.] It is more and more apparent that the Northern people are prosecuting the war for revenge — they can not have the idea, moreover, that 20,000,000 of people should be forced to yield anything to 6,000,000 (whites). Gov. Curtin, of Penn., in a speech at Pittsburg, rejoices that Lincoln has at last come to take a right view of the matter, + that, in a word, the "rebels" are to be treated like wild beasts. Well, the "rebels" sometimes have a few of the enemy in their hands. Retaliation — vindictive, terrible will be the result if the Yankees prosecute the war as they threaten. May God help us all.

August 1862

Friday evening, August 1, 1862.\

This morning I heard from my office a sermon of lamentation in the street or neighboring home. Going out I found the noise proceeded from an upper room in the Court-house. A negro woman informed me that it was a soldier crying because he had to go to war! He is from the lower part of the county, and was brought up under the conscript act passed by Congress. Poor fellow! there was something ludicrous in his wailings, although I pitied him. Several men and women stood in the street. Some laughing and others denouncing.

The Central Presbyterian, received this evening, takes that same view of Dr. Plumer's card that I did yesterday.

Monday, August 4, 1862.

A lady arrived from Martinsburg, yesterday, bringing Baltimore and Washington papers which state that Seward, U. S. Sec. of State, has resigned, and that Ohio and Connecticut have refused to furnish more troops. There are rumors as to the causes of both, but we have no authentic information as to either event. If reports turn out to be true, we hope the occurrences alluded to will tend to bring the war to an end. The sick soldiers are to be removed from the Hospital here, to Lovingston, it is said. The possibility of a Yankee raid up the Valley is suggested as the cause, although some persons surmise that the object is to make room for the wounded in the battle which seems to be impending near Gordonsville.

Wednesday morning, August 6, 1862.

No train from Richmond yesterday, the Yankees, it was feared, being at Frederickshall, Louisa. The usual train did not start from Richmond. The report of Seward's resignation is contradicted. Beginning to suffer for rain. Getting along very slowly in settling up Quartermaster's accounts. General talk about corruptions in the management of affairs here. Many things look very strange. I am afraid of being considered an accomplice, although I am not privy except accidentally in one or two cases, to transactions which I disapprove of. Persons outside of the concern know about as much as I do. Some of the Quartermaster's are growing rich very fast, and I see how they can put more money in their pockets than their salaries amount to. The Secretary of War has been informed of the suspicions entertained in the community, but the Department appears to have no time or disposition to investigate affairs.

Thursday morning, August 7th.

The reports in reference to Seward +c, alluded to on the 4th, are contradicted. There has been a skirmish at Malvern Hill below Richmond, in which we were worsted and lost three pieces of cannon. The enemy are showing some activity in that quarter. A general exchange of prisoners is going on by order of President Davis. Gen. Pope and his officers, who may be captured hereafter, are excepted from the operation of the cartel, on account of the barbarous orders issued by Pope. The removal of the sick in Hospital here seems to have been caused by a disagreement between the Surgeons. We have had a home full of company. Martha Waddell for some time60 - - Edmonia Do went to West View on Monday. Janetta + Frank Preston arrived Tuesday night — going to West View this morning.

Friday, August 8, 1862.

No train from Richmond yesterday, the Yankees having, the day before, been at Frederickshall and destroyed some of the buildings +c. They arrived ten minutes after the up train passed, in which Mr. Cook and part of his family arrived here. A gentleman who arrived from Culpeper yesterday reports that Dick Patteson has suffered severely from the invading army. All his negroes including Mrs. Warden's Old Harry, have gone off with the Yankees. A six acre lot of corn was still untouched, the remainder of his crops and all his fences being destroyed. It is reported that a citizen of Frederickshall who expressed his feelings freely, was severely whipped by the Yankees and carried off to Fredericksburg. But we hear many such reports which prove untrue. It is thought now that the notorious Dr. Rucker who was captured by our troops at Summersville, did not escape as was reported, but was taken out privately and killed by some of our men. The Yankees, it is said, have dashed into Lewisburg and carried off several citizens as hostages for Rucker's safely. It is thought that a battle will soon take place near Gordonsville. A large number of wagons for our army in that quarter have been ordered, which is indicative of a forward movement.

Saturday evening, Aug. 9, 1862.

A report this evening from Lynchburg, that our formidable gunboat, or ram, Arkansas was blown up on the Mississippi, to prevent her falling into the hands of the enemy. Some of her machinery having got out of order. Another report that we have captured Buell's (Federal) whole army in Tennessee. This is regarded as too good to be true. Reports from Jackson's army is that it is pressing towards Culpeper C.H., the enemy falling back. The Federal officers are said to be enforcing Pope's order rigidly in the lower Valley — Females as well as males over fourteen years of age who refuse to take the oath of allegiance to the U. S. are required to come out side the Yankee lines, bringing their clothing only. Persons who have arrived here from Clarke county make this statement.

Monday, August 11, 1862.

The cars brought word yesterday of fighting on Saturday, beginning at 11 o'clock A.M. and closing at midnight, in Madison or Culpeper. The enemy, it was said, were driven near Culpeper C.H. leaving their dead and wounded behind them. Our force engaged was reported as only 5000. The number of prisoners taken by our army was variously reported from 150 to 600, among them Gen. Prince. Our General Winder was killed by a cannon ball. The telegraph operator here reports, upon information received by him this morning from the operations at Gordonsville, that the fighting was successful to our side on yesterday, that we had captured 29 officers and two Generals yesterday evening. Passing the Court house yard a while ago, I observed a number of persons standing before several blue jackets who were lying on the grass. The latter turned out to be deserters from the Yankee army down the Valley. A dozen of them arrived here last evening, ten Western Virginians, one from Pennsylvania and one from New York. I talked with two of them, one from Kanawha and the other from Jackson county. They said there was great dissatisfaction in the Yankee army, many of the soldiers having deserted and many more intending to do so the first opportunity. These men were in camp near the Blue Ridge and took to the mountain to escape a pursuit by cavalry. Afterwards they came out into the Valley, and were guarded by our "bushwhackers." No further intelligence from East Tennessee.

Tuesday morning, August 12, 1862.

The intelligence by the cars yesterday was not as favorable as we anticipated. There was no fighting of consequence on Sunday, and, the enemy being heavily reinforced, Jackson fell back a short distance towards his main body. The Yankee prisoners are now said to number one hundred, including Gen. Prince. No statement of our loss in killed and wounded, nor of the enemy's. A young man named Baylor, of this county, was killed and Wm. H. Gamble lost an arm. One passenger brought a report that several of our regiments were surrounded + captured. — But this is not believed, as other passengers and letters from the army say nothing about it. The weather very warm and dry.

Wednesday morning, Aug. 13, 1862.

Another train of wounded from Saturday's battle arrived this morning — one or more came yesterday, bringing fifty wounded Yankees. These sights give us a horrid view of war. Men without arms and legs, and shot in the head, body +c. — A poor woman present looking for her husband, who, she has heard, was wounded, or killed. We are still without reliable particulars of the battle. Reported that 800 of the enemy were left dead on the field, that we captured from one to three Brig. Gens and killed one, and took 4000 small arms, cannon +c. The fight is represented as a very severe one. A brother of Joe Ryan killed. The papers of Monday; received last night (via Lynchburg) have no news indicative of a termination of the war. Most people in this region doing without sugar and coffee.

Afternoon. — Twenty-one deserters from the Federal army came in to day. Fifteen or sixteen of them belonged to the 8th Va (Yankee) Regiment, to which most of those who arrived Sunday evening were attached. Lincoln has ordered a draft for 300,000 militia, for nine months, in addition to the 300,000 volunteers called for. So far the North seems determined to rage the war to the bitter end, in defiance of the cardinal feature of our institutions, that governments derive "their just powers from the consent of the governed."

Thursday, Aug. 14, 1862.

The only news we have to-day is that troops are pouring towards Gordonsville from both sides. McClelland is said to be there with all his army, while our troops are coming from Richmond.

Friday, August 15.

We had no coffee for supper last night. The little we have on hand we keep for breakfast, using 1/3 coffee + 2/3 rye. — The impending battle near Gordonsville is awaited with great solicitude. The result is of immense importance to us. The Federal deserters who arrived here on Sunday were paroled and provided with passports to go West. They (or most of them) returned yesterday, having been sent back to the Provost Marshal at the Warm Springs.

Monday, August 18, 1862

Nothing of special interest since Friday. We hear that troops are pouring in to both sides on the Rapidann line. Our army moved towards the enemy on Saturday last. There is a great stir among persons liable to military service under the conscript act, many who have been exempted heretofore being ordered to the army. A few days ago an order came from the Quartermaster General to turn out all conscripts from the office here; this subjecting them to the operation of the act. Blackley is among them, and has gone to Richmond to procure a substitute. He is utterly unfit for military service, but does not like to run the risk of an inspection. Goods lately imported in this region from Baltimore have been seized by the military authorities and either confiscated or returned to the armies upon payment of duty. I am again at Harman + Bell's office.

Wednesday morning, Aug. 20, 1862.

A number of Marylanders, escaping from the draft ordered by the Lincoln government, have arrived here. Quite a cavalcade of them came in a while ago. It is rumored that Pope's army is falling back. The Railroad trains being used for transportation of troops from Richmond + Lynchburg, we have no regular mails here this week. The freight train brought the mail yesterday. Burnt up my old beehive yesterday evening, to destroy the worms, which infested it. Had a crowd of visitors last night.

Friday evening, Aug. 22

No intelligence since Wednesday, except a repetition of the report that the enemy is falling back. The wounded Yankees were brought from the Hospital yesterday, to be sent off this morning. An officer attempted to escape and was put in jail.

Monday morning, Aug. 25, 1862.

A report came Saturday evening that a battle was going on at the Rappahannock. Yesterday we learned that the fight was between the artillery, that we lost 150 men, but drove the enemy off and rescued the bridge. The prospect before us is gloomy enough. I am told on Saturday that 500 men from Lewis, Barbour and Randolph counties were on the way to join our army, in consequence of the anticipated draft in that region by Federal authority.

Tuesday evening, Aug. 26, 1862

A report this evening, by telegraph, of fighting near Warrenton (I suppose). Cars sent for last night to go down, consequently no train went out this morning, and it is said none will come in this evening.

Wednesday morning, Aug 27

Thirty-odd Federal soldiers brought in last night, captured below Winchester. Some fifty of our men intercepted a Railroad train between Charleston and Winchester, taking prisoners, the mail, with $3000 in specie, and destroying the train. Yankee papers and letters were common articles in town yesterday. No train from the East yet. It is reported that a large number of wounded from the recent battle are to be up. Everything is uncertain as to affairs East of the Blue Ridge, towards Warrenton.

Friday, August 29, 1862.

A letter to Mary Stuart from her mother, says that Addy is preparing to go with the army. Col. Edmundson's command, as Brigade dispatch bearer. The boy has been nearly cracked since the beginning of the war. His father is trying to get a situation as Chaplain or on some staff, and if he succeeds, the family will probably come to Staunton. Under recent orders from Richmond, doing away with all previous discharges + exemptions, Legh has had to report himself again. Reports came yesterday of a battle the day before at a place called Waterloo, in Fauquier Co., Jackson wishing to cross the Rappahannock, and being opposed by the enemy on the other side, sent a portion of his up the river where they crossed and assailed the Federalists in flank. The result was, according to report, that the enemy was entirely routed. Eleven hundred prisoners and fifty-two cannon being captured. As usual I do not rely implicitly upon these statements.

Mrs. Fisk, wife of the engineer, came to our house yesterday to see Mrs. McClung, and returned in the evening to supper. Mr. Fisk came for her about 9 o'clock. They made their escape from Washington in April, 1860. Hearing of sickness in her father's family at Washington, she is trying to get back there, and was to start to Winchester, with her children, this morning. We hear of vigorous movements in the N. W. Va. on the part of our rangers +c. J. D. Imboden has 800 men now, + Jenkins more than two thousand. They have been joined by large numbers, in consequence of the Federal draft. Goff, a refugee from Beverly, Randolph co., tells me that 100 men came out from Harrison co. recently.

September 1862

Monday, September 1, 1862.

Many rumors for several days past, but no reliable intelligence. A report last night that a battle occurred on Friday at Manassas, in which the enemy were defeated with a loss of 2000 prisoners. Also that Jackson was at Leesburg, and Stuart (cavalry) at Alexandria! These rumors need confirmation.

Tuesday, Sept. 2, 1862

The cars did not come in till about dark last evening. They brought rumors, but no reliable intelligence. This morning, however, I learned that A H H Stuart had received a dispatch from J. B. Baldwin, who is in Richmond, stating that Gen. Lee telegraphed that we gained a decisive victory over the combined forces of McClelland + Pope, near Manassas, on Saturday. It is rumored that one-third of Ewell's division was killed and wounded in the battle of Friday. So far we have the good news of Saturday's fight, but we rejoice with trembling, not knowing who are among the slain.

Afternoon. — Charley Arnall arrived just before dinner time, having left the army Friday morning. He was wounded in the shoulder, on Thursday. At that time our army had got between the enemy and Washington, and there was no communication with Gordonsville. He, of course, had no personal knowledge of what occurred later than Thursday. Represents our loss on that day as very heavy. Jack Doye + Preston Byers of this place killed. The former, poor fellow! said, as he was leaving home the last time, if he knew he would not be in another battle he would be perfectly happy. So many persons crowding around C. A. — women + others enquiring for friends — that I could get little out of him.

This afternoon the following telegraphic dispatch was received: "A complete and thorough rout of Pope, Burnside and McClelland. The enemy fleeing towards Leesburg in utter rout. Sickles killed. Pope and McDowell mortally wounded. More than fifty pieces of artillery already captured — our troops pressing. Botts, Rowan and Nadenbush" [officers of the 2nd Va Reg] "wounded. Siegel also killed." Signed, "G. W. T. Kersley, Maj. +c"

Wednesday, Sept. 3, 1862.

The lists of killed are coming in — Wm. Baylor, Col of the 5th Reg., Neo. Garber, Capt in the 52nd, were slain on Saturday. Lamentation and mourning! It is said to- day that Jack Doyle was not killed, as reported yesterday, but badly wounded. I doubt if the enemy was routed as completely as reported.

Thursday, Sept. 4, 1862.

It was stated yesterday evening that the Federalists had evacuated Fredericksburg, destroying their stores, persons from the army state that Jackson had to destroy an immense amount of stores captured from the enemy, about the middle of last week, not being able to remove them. It was when he first got in their rear, before anything decisive had occurred. There is a report now that Gen. Burnside + Staff have been captured. The report that Pope was wounded is doubted. I insert a slip (on next page) giving a Northern account of things up to Friday, the 29th. It will be interesting as a contemporary narrative, and so far as I know accurate in its details: it explains some things not understood by us heretofore:

"The Battles in Northern Virginia—Interesting Accounts from Northern Papers—Conflicting Statements, &c, &c," Image 1

"The Battles in Northern Virginia—Interesting Accounts from Northern Papers—Conflicting Statements, &c, &c," Image 2

Did Jackson come into the Valley?

Thursday evening. — We hear of the death of Wm. Patrick, from a wound received in one of the recent battles. — Gen. Ewell also died yesterday, a mistake. A report comes from Harrisonburg that the Federalists have abandoned Winchester, burning a third of the town, and that Gen. McClelland was killed. Intelligence from the army is very meagre and unreliable. Letters state that the enemy was at Fairfax C.H. + that another battle would take place yesterday. Among the rumors are that our cavalry was on the other side of them, and that they (the enemy) had burnt or blown up the Long Bridge across the Potomac at Washington. The inspecting surgeon pronounced Legh unfit to bear arms, but recommended him for service in some other department. Upon the arrival of the cars this evening, the town was all alive. Many persons leaving for Winchester. Peyton was starting to buy supplies, and I engaged him to get me a pound of tea, if possible. It has been selling here at $12! Coffee $2. Sugar from 75c to $1.00. — Wherever the Yankee army go their sutters and others being in large supplies of all sorts, and whenever a place is evacuated our people make a rush to procure necessary articles.

Friday, Sept. 5, 1862

The cars bring no news this evening — not even a rumor. The report of McClelland's death is still current. A dispatch from Winchester, received this morning, confirms the report of evacuation of that place by the enemy. One square of houses was burnt. A large number of our wounded soldiers came up on the train this evening. On their way to the Hospital they formed a miserable-looking procession — very dirty and badly clad.

Monday, Sept. 8, 1862

Being so much interested in other news, I did not mention last week the intelligence that Gen. Kirby Smith had routed a Yankee army at Richmond, Ky. It was reported on Saturday that he had taken Lexington, Ky. A lady has arrived here from Fredericksburg. The enemy abandoned the place last week, destroying their stores. The lady asserts that they took off a large number of negroes, and shot them at Aquia Creek. Upon finding that they had not transportation for them! This is hardly credible. For several days we have had reports that a part of our army was in Maryland. This morning it is rumored that Jackson was at the Relay House near Baltimore — Doubtful! Great uncertainty as to the position or movements of our army. No intelligence is allowed to come out.

Tuesday evening, Sept. 9, 1862.

The Harrisonburg stage brought word this afternoon that Jackson was at Frederick, Md., having captured 2600 Federal soldiers at Poolsville — all lately in the Valley. The telegraph afterwards repeated the same report. Next the rumor ran through town, from the telegraph office, that Kirby Smith had taken Cincinnati! Passengers by the cars, subsequently stated, as a report, in addition to former, that Stuart's cavalry was at Baltimore, and that 6000 Marylanders had joined Jackson. There is no reason to doubt now that a portion of our forces are in Maryland — the remainder is probably mere conjecture. — The reported capture of Cincinnati has possibly risen out of the dispatches from that place copied from Northern papers by our papers yesterday, which represented a portion of our forces as within ten or twelve miles of the city. As usual the Yankees claimed the victory in the recent fights near Manassas as long as they could. Gen. Pope sent a dispatch to Washington stating that he had defeated us on Thursday, the 28th, and Friday the 29th — and then follows, in the newspaper, his respectful request that Gen. Lee will permit him to take off his wounded.

"An Account of the Battle of Saturday" and "The Great Victory in Kentucky"

Wednesday, Sept. 10, 1862.

A telegraphic dispatch received last night states that Cincinnati has capitulated. Every body greatly elated; many think the war will soon terminate. There are certainly some hopeful signs. The tone of the Northern papers, so far as we have heard from there, is depressed. The Federal army retired before ours to their entrenchments, and then Lee slipped a part of his force into Maryland. What is to be done there is a mystery. The new [illeg.] at the North must feel discouraged. In one neighborhood in Pennsylvania the people have forcibly resisted the enrolment of the militia, preparatory to a draft, driving off the officer. What a change since six months ago or less! Then the enemy had many of our towns and cities and seemed irresistible. Now our army is in Maryland, Cincinnati threatened, if not taken, and the Yankees beaten at every point. Their army at Nashville must retire soon or be taken.

The women of this region have been making really beautiful hats of wheat straw. Below is a specimen of the writing paper now manufactured in the Confederate states. I received a letter from Arthur Spitzer yesterday. He sent me a newspaper cut captured from the Yankees, representing a gallant cock standing under the U. S. flag, and a wretched Shanghai, plucked of his feathers, with the Confederate flag above it.61 Like nearly all the rest Arthur is very anxious to get out of the army.

Thursday, Sept. 11, 1862.

Rumored that Lincoln has called the U. S. Congress to meet at New York. A report of a battle at the Relay House. Last night I met at the Hotel. Maj. J. T. L. Preston and John McD. Alexander, of Lexington, just from Winchester. They went to our army to see after Wm. Preston, youngest son of the former, who was mortally wounded in the Thursday's fight at Manassas and died the next evening. They found the grave but could not bring the remains away. The Yankees were burrying their dead on Sunday last — seemed to have just begun — more than a week after the battles. Maj. P. gave a graphic description of the appearance of the dead as they lay over the field — Their faces blackened and their postures in some cases horridly ludicrous. The buzzards had torn the entrails out of some. — Our dead were burried soon after the battle.

Annexed is an impression from the Yankee cut, to which I alluded yesterday. The plate was made before the recent battles, + was intended to caricature the Confederate States. It is thought that our whole army is in Maryland. The newspapers of yesterday state that Gen. Smith had recently occupied Covington, Ky; and given Cincinnati four hours time for capitulation +c. +c.

Friday, Sept. 12, 1862.

The report as to the capture of Cincinnati turns out untrue, as appears from the following taken from the Richmond Dispatch of yesterday:

"From the North"

The demand for the surrender of Cincinnati was said to have been made on the 4th Strange to find that Pennsylvania is now apprehensive of invasion.

No news by the train this evening — not a rumor to-day from any quarter.

Monday, Sept. 15, 1862.

As I was sitting in the porch yesterday afternoon, two young soldiers, dirty and ill-clad, passed up the street towards my stable. I followed and overlook them at the corner. They were Georgians from one of the Hospital in Richmond, going to join our army in Maryland. They told me that fifteen hundred of them had arrived in town the night before, by R. R. I invited them down to the fence and gave them some grapes, bread + tomatoes, which they seemed glad to get. Afterwards three more came up and asked for grapes, but I did not see them. About 4 o'clock, the whole column marched out of town, down the Valley. They seemed very merry



I met Englebrecht this morning, just from Frederick, Md. He was there when our army entered, + gives a ludicrous account of the affair. — The men dropped in one and two at a time, and the first inquiry of every fellow was for a shoe store. He says the U. S. authorities have recalled the order for drafting and will rely upon volunteering. We had a considerable force at Martinsburg, which crossed the Potomac for the purpose (it is presumed) of cutting off the enemy still at Harper's Ferry. Many rumors during the last few days, but no reliable intelligence from any quarter.

Wednesday, Sept. 17, 1862.

The following slips from the Richmond Dispatch of yesterday give the principal items of news lately received:

"From Western Virginia" and "Kentuckians Rallying"

There was a report on Monday that our troops had captured the force of the enemy at Harper's Ferry. It was contradicted yesterday, by stage passengers, who stated that cannonading was going on in the direction of the Ferry, and it was supposed a battle was in progress. There is a dispatch this morning stating that a battle had occurred at Boonsborough, Md., and that we had taken 8,000 prisoners. I found the Rev. (Capt) John Miller at our house last night, when I went home — he has been raising and organizing troops in N. W. Virginia.62 The annexed shows the scarcity of salt! and the means resorted to to provide necessary supplies. It can only be gotten from the works in S. W. Virginia. Peyton brought me a pound of tea from Winchester, for which I paid him $6.00. A very indifferent article. A number of letters have been received from sister. She is still perplexed as to what she is to do. Addy was to leave for the army yesterday, and Mr. Stuart next week. Synod meets here on the 1st October, and the ladies are interested in making arrangements for it. The Northern people are evidently bewildered at their recent reverses. Gen. Pope has been sent off to Minnesota, to take command in that quarter, where an Indian war is raging. He virtually accuses most of his leading officers of cowardice in the late battles. McDowell has been relieved of his command. There is a general outcry at the North against their two Generals — Pope is accused of incompetency and McDowell of treachery. What a fall for Pope! Upon taking command in Va. he issued a braggadocio proclamation — that he had been used to seeing the rebels' backs, his policy was to push forward and let his rear take care of itself +c +c — In a few weeks he was forced to run, his army beaten, and now he is banished to the N. W. The following is the dispatch alluded to above, sent from Winchester by courier to Harrisonburg, and thence by Telegraph: "Harper's Ferry surrendered yesterday, 8,000 prisoners. D. H. Hill fought at Brownsville, Md., Saturday. Victorious. Our loss heavy. Gen. R. B. Garland reported among the killed." [Boonsborough is no doubt meant.]

Afternoon. — A dispatch from Harrisonburg. Since dinner is rather unfavorable. It says:

"Maj Yost has just arrived from Harper's Ferry. — He says that Gen. Hill was attacked by eighty [thousand] Federals under McClelland and Burnside, near Boonsboro, Md., and repulsed three times with heavy loss and driven back some distance, when Gen's Lee and Longstreet came to his assistance and drove them three miles beyond Boonsboro. Their loss was tremendous, as well as our own. Gen's Lee, Longstreet and Hill retreated in the direction of the Potomac. Gen. Jackson in the mean time had captured at Harper's Ferry 11,000 prisoners and 1500 negroes, 50 pieces of artillery, all their ammunition, commissary and Quartermaster's stores. He opened fire on them at 5 o'clock and shelled them until 10, when they surrendered. Gen. Jackson then crossed the river and formed a junction with Gen. Lee." The idea of our army retreating towards the Potomac is unpleasant, and diminishes the gratification of the grand result at Harper's Ferry.

Thursday, Sept. 18, 1862.

This is Thanksgiving day, appointed by the President on account of recent victories. The people are taking holiday, but I have been at work since breakfast. A letter from A. R. Boteler, received last night, puts a rather different face upon the news from Maryland. The dates are important. He says Hill was attacked at Boonsboro on Sunday, and held his ground till Longstreet came up, when the enemy retired. It is supposed that the Federalists were moving to relieve their army at Harper's Ferry. Lee fell back, probably to support Jackson, who took Harper's Ferry on Monday. Thus the plans of the enemy were defeated, and ours were successful. Gen. Loring's last dispatch is dated at Charleston, Kanawha Co. He had driven the Federalists before him at all points. — A large number of conscripts from North Carolina arrived this morning on route for Maryland — probably 500. A fine company from Hardy, reorganized here, marched out this morning. They were taken prisoners last summer in the West (Va), and have recently been exchanged.

Saturday afternoon, Sept. 20, 1862.

The sale of 90 condemned government horses and mules yesterday kept me busy all day. The aggregate proceeds are $4.838.50.

For the last two days we have had many rumors of heavy fighting in Maryland. Letters and stage passengers report in substance as follows: that on Sunday the enemy in force attacked D. H. Hill's division, which after fighting all day was retiring in good order, when Longstreet came up at sundown and drove the Federalists back several miles. On Monday Jackson captured Harper's Ferry, with 11,000 prisoners, 14,000 guns, 80 cannon, stores of immense value, +c. On Tuesday there was another fight (rumor says we took from 5000 to 8000 prisoners — but this is doubtful). On Wednesday a terrific battle came off. The enemy broke our centre at one time, but Jackson coming up in some way, the tide was turned and the enemy defeated. It is stated that our army was pursuing them, and that they made no reply to the assaults upon their rear. Reports represent that the loss on both sides amounts to from 50,000 to 60,000! It is asserted by some, but not generally credited, that the Federal General Burnside was captured.

Staunton is now a principal Depot for the army. Soldiers are constantly arriving and going down the Valley. Last night we had a house full of company. Mary, Jimmy, Nanny + Matty Tate + Betty Lyle, besides Mrs. McClung, Miss Agnes, Mary Stuart, Kate + Kitty, at supper. After supper two young men from Christiansburg called to see Mary Stuart. They were going to the army, one of them lately a prisoner in Fort Delaware. Estill Waddell was also with us at supper, on his way to the army. Jimmy + Nanny Tate went to the Rockbridge Alum this morning. Matty being unwell, she and Mary remained.

Monday morning, Sept. 22, 1862.

There seems to be a turn in the tide of our affairs. Things are discouraging this morning. After the battle of Wednesday last in which it is reported the enemy were badly defeated, our army was so much exhausted that Gen. Lee crossed the Potomac into Virginia. It is reported that the enemy have also crossed but there is some doubt about that. Rumor says we have only 80,000 men left — or 50,000 effective. Reports also that a large force of the enemy is at Clarkesburg, Harrison Co. Legh started to Winchester yesterday, in charge of a wagon train, accompanying troops.

Later. — Every arrival confirms the impression that we have been worsted in Maryland, on the whole. Rumored that our army was reduced by 20,000 men, in one way and another. Three or four of our Generals have been killed, and eight or nine wounded. One of Gen. Starke's staff, who arrived with his (Starke's) body, says the enemy were repulsed on Wednesday, but it was far from a victory for us. The American Hotel is to be used as a Military Hospital.

Tuesday, Sept. 23, 1862.

A letter from Winchester this morning states that ten thousand of the enemy crossed the Potomac and were ambushed by Jackson and driven back with great loss of men and arms; that our army had recrossed into Maryland +c. This intelligence has relieved to some extent the painful apprehension felt on yesterday. If we were not so used to it, the sight of the multitudes of wounded and suffering soldiers constantly arriving, would be shocking. A large number of troops arrived on the train last night — part from Georgia and the remainder Marylanders. The former moved down the Valley this morning; the latter are still in town, and some of them, having obtained liquor, have been very disorderly. Several were arrested by the Provost Marshal's guard, after a fracas. Many of the soldiers are walking about bare-footed — feet sore and unable to wear shoes. Winchester is said to be overrun with vermin. I have just paid $1.50 for not quite 3/4 pounds of table salt.

Afternoon. — Persons arrived since dinner state that another portion of the enemy crossed the Potomac lower down than Shepherdstown, and falling into a trap set for them by Gen. Hill, were nearby all killed and drowned.

Jim McClung has come, from Winchester, sick and very much rednosed. He says our army suffered severely in Maryland, and will have to fall back to Winchester, — for want of subsistence in their present position. His account of the affairs mentioned above is, that Jackson, hearing that the enemy had crossed at Williamsport, went up to that place, leaving A. P. Hill with a part of his force at Shepherdstown. Jackson's encounter with the enemy and Hill's are so mixed up, that it is impossible to distinguish between them — the intelligence is confused — but all accounts agree in representing that the Yankees were signally repulsed.

Wednesday, Sept. 24, 1862.

Not an item of news this morning. Raining to- day — very welcome. Garden + fields burnt up. News from Europe not favorable for intervention. Thos. Carlyle says of the American war that it is "the foulest chimney that's been afire this century, and the best way is to let it burn out." — Unless European powers do interfere in some way, at least acknowledging our independence, that war must go on interminably. We cannot go on as at present many months longer — exhaustion must soon come, and a slate of guerilla warfare will ensue. All the wounded men who can walk have been creeping up from Winchester, trying to get to their respective homes. The town is full of them. Many look very forlorn, hands and arms hurt, faces bound up, badly clad, bare-footed and dirty. We are afraid to offer them shelter lest they fill the houses with vermin. Only one Hotel now, and that crowded to suffocation. Many of the soldiers are in much better plight than those described above.

Thursday, Sept. 25, 1862.

Contradictory reports as to the affair at the Potomac on Saturday last. A Gen. Ripley, who says he was present, states that not over 800 of the enemy came over, and he thinks the number did not exceed 400. Maj. Briscoe, who was also present, says the number was 2500, and that only 200 escaped. Others say the number was 3000 — Others 5000! Last night the town was overflowing with wounded soldiers from the army, and recruits +c going down.

Saturday night, Sept. 27, 1862.

Late this evening, nearly 500 Yankee prisoners were brought up from Winchester. They marched in files of four, were better clothed than our poor fellows — sky blue pants, dark blue jackets + caps. Many of them were very ill-looking. It is said they were captured first at Harper's Ferry, and soon afterwards somewhere else, having violated their parole. It was pitiful to see so many human beings conducted along like sheep. Troops have been moving down the Valley (from here) about every day this week. Two parties went out to-day — a company this morning, and several hundred, not organized, this afternoon. Four or five hundred came up on the cars to-night. Most of the wounded soldiers from Winchester have been shipped off to Richmond. Others continue to drop in all day, however. Night before last the town was alive with them. Many slept in the Court house porch, in front of the American Hotel +c. They were fed, as far as possible, by the citizens. No late news from the army. Another horse sale to-day — 114 sold — from 25c to $192.

Monday, Sept. 29, 1862.

Reported that the enemy are advancing upon Winchester, in several columns. Our army has fallen back to the vicinity of that town. Have heard from Legh — he was at Winchester on Saturday, detained there to assist in the removal of stores.

October 1862

Wednesday, Oct. 1, 1862

No news this morning. All late intelligence represents our army as concentrating at or near Winchester, and the enemy as advancing. Lincoln has issued a proclamation declaring slaves in the "rebel" states free after the 1st of January next. In consequence of this proceeding, it has been proposed in our Congress to wage a war of extermination of the Yankee invaders, to take no prisoners, and ask and give no quarter. The war must come to this. There is no prospect of an end. Civil liberty is nearly gone in this faction, as well as among the Yankee states, and a military despotism will finally prevail. Wearied out as they are, the people will soon be ready to accept any authority which may restore peace. The drought continues, and a scarcity of subsistence is threatened. The yellow fever is prevailing at Wilmington, N. C. None at Norfolk and New Orleans where the Yankees have possession.

Thursday, Oct. 2, 1862

An ambulance train laden with wounded soldiers has come in from Winchester. From this number of Yankee vehicles (captured from the enemy) one might suppose that the Federal army was passing along. One four-wheeled ambulance is marked "39th Regiment — Col. d'Assey — N. Y. S. V." (New York State Volunteers); Another vehicle, two- storied, has the letters "U. S." pained on it; and a third, "N. Y. S. V." Legh got back yesterday. Well-informed persons from Winchester state that our army has filled up rapidly, being now twice the size it was upon the return from Maryland. The number a few days ago is however only put down at 80,000. Lincoln's proclamation in regard to slaves, seems calculated and intended to excite servile insurrections in the South — to such a pitch of ferocity have our enemies arrived.

Synod met last night — comparatively few here. Our guests are Rev. Mr. Dudley, Henry C. Alexander, Mr. Phlegar, of Christiansburg, and Mr. Dinwiddie, of Greenwood, Albemarle. Besides these we have Ann Eliza Wilson, Mary Tate Graham (her husband till this morning); Mrs. McClung, Miss Agnes, and Mary Stuart. Dr. White and Foote + Wm. M. Tate were at dinner. Sister thinks of coming down on a visit during the month. Mr. Stuart and Addy have gone to join the army.

I annex a Yankee account of the great battle in Maryland. The number of ambulances which have arrived here together with those this side of Mt. Sidney is said to be 225. Our order for ammunition to be sent to Winchester in 48 hours, was received this morning. Just now a man called at the door and stated that the telegraph operator reports a fierce battle as in progress near Winchester.

"What was Gained by the Federals in the Battles in Maryland"

Monday, Oct. 6, 1862

The members of Synod generally left this morning. Large crowds were attracted to the meetings. Troops (conscripts + soldiers from Hospitals) have continued to pass by Staunton down the Valley. No late news of special interest. Quite unwell to- day.

Wednesday, Oct. 8, 1862.

Mrs. McClung, Agnes, Betty Lyle + Mary Tate Graham went over to Louisa this morning. We all came to the Depot to help them off. The scene there was striking — wonderful contrast to what we used to see, before the war. Many wounded soldiers going home on furlough or discharged — some on two crutches, others on one, and several supported by two men, one on each side. A poor fellow came leaping along, using a rough staff in place of one of his legs which was hurt, making his way to the Quartermaster's office to obtain a transportation ticket. One leg of his pants was cut off at the knee, and the other was slit open so as to expose his bare limb. What clothing he had on was dirty, as usual with most soldiers returning from the army. — I made him sit down on the platform and taking his paper got the [illeg.] for transportation endorsed upon it. Troops still going down the Valley — a large number yesterday, and some to-day. Rumors of a battle near Corinth, Miss. No intelligence of interest from the Potomac army.

Friday, Oct 10, 1862.

Bad news yesterday about the battle of Corinth — we met with a serious disaster. Sister and her three younger children and servant arrived yesterday evening. I am delighted to have them with us. Mr. Stuart and Addy are with the army in Kentucky. A little sprinkle of rain this morning — none to wet the ground well for months — the country parched up. Indications that our army is about to move out of the lower Valley. Enemy said to be threatening the Va. Central Railroad again.

Monday, Oct. 13, 1862.

Rumors to-day of a victory by Bragg and Kirby Smith over the enemy in Kentucky. We met with a reverse in Tennessee a few days ago, a small body of our troops having been surprised. Troops still going down the Valley — a large number this morning — No news from that quarter. — A number of brass cannon, captured from the enemy, in town. Rumors on Saturday of some kind of intervention by England. Not credited. Cloudy and chilly for several days, with a little rain. The earth very dry — no pasture for stock very few vegetables — fall seeding retarded — corn crop short. There was a distribution of salt to-day considerable crowd and pressure — one pound for each member of a family. Several wagons passed through town to- day, on the way to Kanawha for salt.

Wednesday, Oct. 15, 1862

A Telegraphic dispatch from Winchester passed through this place yesterday, stating that Gen. Stuart had made a cavalry excursion into Pennsylvania, capturing Chambersburg and other places, taking many horses, +c. cutting his way through a division of the enemy, without the loss of a man. It is still thought that Bragg had a victory in Kentucky, although we are without positive or definite information. Another large body of recruits moved down the Valley this morning. Still no news from that quarter, except in relation to Stuart's expedition. Cleared off — very little rain. H. C. Alexander came from Lexington Monday night and staid with us till this morning. Tate at our house last night — slept on the floor.

Thursday evening, Oct. 16, 1862

A long row of ambulances, just in from the army, in the street before my office. No intelligence yet from Gen Bragg's army and the late battle in Kentucky, except through Northern newspapers. In all probability the fight went against us. Some indications of popular excitement at the North on account of Lincoln's tyrannies +c. Jas. Brooks of N. Y., has made a bold speech for these times. Elections take place in a number of the States this month. Civil liberty is crushed out at the North - - not very much better here — but the case is different between the two sections — We are resisting invasion and subjugation — it is life or death with us, and therefore the military power necessarily predominates. The North crushes out liberty at home as a means of conquering the South.

Saturday, Oct. 18, 1862.

Indications of popular feeling at the North, are somewhat encouraging. A great meeting held in New York City, a few days ago, was, in some degree, a peace meeting. Fillmore + Washington Hunt were among the Vice Presidents, and John Van Buren and others spoke. The latter denounced the Administration and indirectly the war; the resolutions took the same ground. The meeting was held to influence the pending elections. Other indications also are encouraging. McClelland has issued an order prohibiting political discussions in his army, which is a good sign — There must be some necessity for it — the army is criticising the government.

I annex a slip giving the last news from Kentucky. We are still anxious as to the result, however. A terrible Railroad accident, at Ivy, Albemarle Co., a few days ago, to a train bringing soldiers up this way — 708 killed and 60 to 70 wounded. But what of this at a time when men are killed and wounded by hundred and thousands! Soldiers still passing through to the army. Provisions of all kinds scarce and prices high. Flour $14 per barrel — butter 75c per pound. Serious apprehensions for the future. Cloth very difficult to get. Great demoralization among the people. Rights of property not respected as formerly.

"Knoxville, Oct. 16"

Monday, Oct. 20, 1862.

A rumor this morning that Bragg has been defeated in Kentucky, and has fallen back to Cumberland Gap — very different from previous intelligence. — Reported yesterday that the enemy, 200,000 strong, had crossed the Potomac — nothing of it to- day. Loring is said to be on the way to join Lee. Troops still going down the Valley. We see in the Richmond Dispatch a letter giving an account of recent murders in Missouri by the Federalists. Among the persons said to have been killed is a brother of Mr. Stuart (S. D.), Robert Stuart of Saline county. The last unfavorable account from Kentucky have come here in this way: Richardson came up from Richmond last night and says a clerk in one of the offices informed him Saturday night that the intelligence alluded to had been received by the Department, and the Telegraph operator here says he has received similar news. It is probable that in a second fight which was anticipated after our first successes, we were defeated and had to retreat.63

Wednesday, Oct. 22, 1862.

Gen. Bragg has sure enough fallen back, being within forty miles of Cumberland Gap at last accounts. The explanation from our side is, that he was obliged to fall back for supplies. The results is that we lose Kentucky. Our accounts state that all the fighting was favorable to Bragg. It seems, however, that we did not take many prisoners, and our successes, as reported on a previous page, are greatly exaggerated. We hear that the battalion with which Mr. Stuart and Addy were traveling, had joined Gen. Marshall and they are therefore with the main army in Kentucky. (Sister and her children went to James Calhoun's yesterday, to spend a few days). The last reports from the lower Valley are, that Gen. Lee was advancing upon the enemy. The latter came across the Potomac in large force, occupying Charlestown, but after some skirmishing retired. The elections in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana have gone for the Democrats, but as all parties advocate the war, the result will not do us any good, probably. Draughting (or drafting) has been going on in several of the Northern States. Even Maryland had nearly furnished her quota of men, only lacking 6000. But we have more to fear from the scarcity of bread stuffs and clothing than from the Yankee armies. The drought continues unabated — the fields are perfectly barren — the wheat must perish soon. Farmers are unwilling to sell the produce they have on hand. Flour $14 — Butter 75c Corn $2 per bushel Pork will probably be $20 to $25 per hundred lbs. Many persons who have money can scarcely procure necessary food, even at this early in the Fall, usually the most abundant period of the year. Clothing is sold at extravagant prices. Tate got dresses for Nanny + Matty in Richmond a few days ago, and paid $60 for the two, a common article. I have heard of an infant's dress costing $18. Felt hats sell from $10 to $15. Shoemakers in town demand from $5.50 to $6 for making a pair of shoes, leather, lining and thread furnished to them. The small pox has spread from the Hospital into the town. Yellow fever raging in Wilmington. War, pestilence and famine! Oh for the faith of Habakkuk! Alas! we never know how little faith we had till the day of trial comes. Twenty-three artillery companies have been dismantled by Gen. Lee, and the cannon +c sent here. — the men put into other service. A few days ago thirteen thousand recruits for Gen. Lee's army had passed through Staunton since the battles in Maryland. The news of the apparent Yankee successes in Maryland had reached England, and the British press were complimenting Gen. McClelland. They seem not to have heard of the capture of Harper's Ferry by our army, and to be in a great degree ignorant of the course of events. As usual when the Confederacy has sustained a reverse, there is again talk in Europe of acknowledging our independence. Whenever we are successful foreign powers seem determined to take no such step. It is apparent that they wish the war to go on till the sections are hopelessly broken down, but would interfere to prevent a reunion. They desire the ultimate success of the "rebels" in dissolving the Old Union, but want to see the country ruined first. Hence they encourage which ever side is at the moment suffering from reverses.

Thursday, Oct. 23, 1862

At last we have the official report of recent operations in Kentucky, which I annex. Rumors this morning of movements down the Valley, but nothing authentic.

We have their ambulances!

The above extract shows that the North is beginning to find out the truth as to recent affairs.

"The Battle of Perryville— General Bragg's Official Report," "A Northern Minister on Southern Society," and "The Maryland Campaign"

Letters from Memphis and Columbus, Ky, published in Western papers, state that the Yankee soldiers are greatly dissatisfied in regard to Lincoln's emancipation proclamation. One writer says:

Another says:

Our government has now made a call, under the recent act of Congress for all men up to 40 years of age.

There is no hope that the war will end till foreign powers at least acknowledge our independence. The United States will be prevented by pride from taking their first step towards our recognition. As long as other nations ignore us, the Yankees will presume that the world of impartial spectators still expects them to reduce us to submission.

"Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation," "Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation—A Warning," and [Untitled]


The following is a copy of Major General Bragg's official report of the battle of Perryville, Ky:

SIR—Finding the enemy pressing heavily in his rear, near Perryville, Major General Hardee, of Polk's command, was obliged to halt and check him at that point. Having arrived at Harrodsburg from Frankfort, I determined to give him battle there, and accordingly concentrated three divisions of my old command—the army of the Mississippi, now under Major General Polk—Cheatham's, Buckner's, and Anderson's—and directed Gen. Polk to take the command on the 7th, and attack the enemy next morning. Wither's division had gone the day before to support Smith. Hearing, on the night of the 7th, that the force in front of Smith had rapidly retreated, I moved early next morning, to be present at the operations of Polk's forces.

The two armies were formed confronting each other, on opposite sides of the town of Perryville. After consulting the General, and reconnoitering the ground and examining his dispositions, I declined to assume the command, but suggested some changes and modifications of his arrangements, which he promptly adopted. The action opened at 12 P. M., between the skirmishers and artillery on both sides. Finding the enemy indisposed to advance upon us, and knowing he was receiving heavy reinforcements, I deemed it best to assail him vigorously, and so directed.

The engagement became general soon thereafter, and was continued furiously from that time to dark, our troops never faltering and never falling in their efforts.

For some time engaged it was the severest and most desperately contested engagement within my knowledge. Fearfully outnumbered, our troops did not hesitate to engage at any odds, and though checked at times, they eventually carried every position, and drove the enemy about two miles. But for the intervention of night, we should have completed the work. We had captured fifteen pieces of artillery by the most daring charges, killed one and wounded two Brigadier Generals, and a very large number of inferior officers and men, estimated at no less than 4,000, and captured 400 prisoners, including three Staff officers, with servants, carriage, and baggage of Major General McCook.

The ground was literally covered with his dead and wounded. In such a contest our own loss was necessarily severe, probably not less than 2,500 killed, wounded, and missing. Included in the wounded are Brigadier Generals Wood, Cleburn and Brown—gallant and noble soldiers- -whose loss will be severely felt by their commands. To Major General Polk, commanding the forces, Major General Hardee, commanding the left wing, two divisions, and Major Generals Cheatham, Buckner, and Anderson, commanding divisions, is mainly due the brilliant achievements of this memorable field. Nobler troops were never more gallantly led. The country owes them a debt of gratitude, which I am sure will be acknowledged.

Ascertaining that the enemy was heavily reinforced during the night, I withdrew my force early the next morning to Harrodsburg, and thence to this point. Major General Smith arrived at Harrodsburg with most of his force and Wither's division the next day, 10th, and yesterday I withdrew the whole to this point—the enemy following slowly, but not pressing us.

I am, sir, very respectfully,

Your obedient servant,

[Signed] Braxton Bragg, Gen. Com'g.

To Adjutant General, Richmond, Va.


Among the most stirring episodes in the proceedings of the Unitarian Autumnal Convention, which opened in sessions in Brooklyn, N. Y., Monday, was the peculiar feeling excited by the remarks of Rev. Dr. Bellows in eulogy of Southern social life and the influences proceeding from it. We reproduce the appended extract from his remarkable discourse, which elicited much bitter comment among the members of the Convention:

No candid mind will deny the peculiar charm of Southern young men at college, or Southern young women in society. How far race and climate, independent of servile institutions, may have produced the Southern chivalric spirit and manners, I will not here consider. But one might as well deny the small feet and hands of that people as deny a certain inbred habit of command; a contempt of life in defence of honor or class; a talent for political life, and an easy control of inferiors. Nor is this merely an external and flashy heroism. It is real. It showed itself in Congress early, and always by the courage, eloquence, skill and success with which it controlled majorities. It showed itself in the social life of Washington by the grace, fascination and ease, the free and charming hospitality, by which it governed society. It now shows itself in England and France, by the success with which it manages the courts and the circles of literature and fashion in both countries. It shows itself in this war in the orders and proclamations of its Generals, in the messages of the Rebel Congress, and in the essential good breeding and humanity (contrary to a diligently encouraged public impression) with which it not seldom divides its medical stores, and gives our sick and wounded as favorable care as it is able to extend to its own. It exceeds us at this moment in the possession of an ambulance corps.

I think the war must have increased the respect felt by the North for the South. Its miraculous resources, the bravery of its troops, their patience under hardships, their unthinking firmness in the desperate position they have assumed, the wonderful success with which they have extemporized manufactures and munitions of war, and kept themselves in relation with the world in spite of our magnificent blockade; the elasticity with which they have risen from defeat, and the courage they have shown in threatening again and again our capital, and even our interior, cannot fail to extort an unwilling admiration and respect. Well is General McClellan reported to have said (privately) as, he watched their obstinate fighting at Antietam, and saw them retiring in perfect order in the midst of the most frightful carnage: "What terrific neighbors they would be! We must conquer them, or they will conquer us!"

THE MARYLAND CAMPAIGN.—We find the following in the Washington Correspondence of the New York Times:

The rebel conflict in Maryland is the engrossing topic of conversation here. As it becomes clear that the rebel army has made good its escape, the tendency of public opinion is to deprecate the advantages secured by our triumph at Sharpsburg. While every credit is given to our gallant soldiers for their admirable fighting in the field, yet the loss of Harpers Ferry is beginning to be felt as a disastrous as well as humiliating defeat. The balance of advantage in the late expedition, evidently rests with the enemy, as they carry off all the plunder captured, including over 10,000 stand of arms, and over 50 pieces of artillery.

These losses, added to those sustained in the Peninsula and by General Pope's army, must make an aggregate in considerable over fifty thousand stand of arms, one hundred pieces of artillery, recently loss in operations in the east sufficient to thoroughly equip an army half as large as that now retreating into Virginia. It is known that our losses of ordnance at Harper's Ferry was also very large, and that they were not destroyed previous to the surrender.

These facts give point to a recent remark of General Ripley, Chief of Ordnance, who is said to have stated that he ought to be the ablest ordnance office in the world, as he was required to furnish arms enough to supply the enemy's army as well as his own.

LINCOLN'S EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION.—The Memphis Bulletin, of the 30th ult, says:

We should be glad to hear Mr. Lincoln give a satisfactory answer to his own objection to his own proclamation, as stated a few days ago to the Chicago clergymen. His objections were thus stated:

"What good," asked he, "would a proclamation of emancipation from me do, especially as we are now situated? I do not want to issue a document that the whole world will see must necessarily be inoperative, like the Pope's bull against the comet. Would my word free the slaves when I cannot even enforce the Constitution in the rebel States? Is there a single court or magistrate, or individual, that would be influenced by it there? And what reason ss there to think it would have any greater effect upon the slaves than the late law of Congress, which I approved, and which offers protection and freedom to the slaves of rebel masters who come within our lines. Yet I cannot learn that that law has caused a single slave to come over to us. And suppose they could be induced, by a proclamation of freedom from me, to throw themselves upon us, what should we do with them? How can we feed and care for such a multitude? Gen. Butler wrote me a few days since, that he was issuing more rations to the slaves who have rushed to him than all the white troops under his command. They eat and that is all.

After the president answers these objections, we would like to have his explanation of the following resolution, passed unanimously by Congress the 11th day of February, 1861.

Resolved, That neither Congress, nor the people, nor the Governments of the non-slave-holding States, have the right to legislation on or interfere with slavery in any of the slaveholding States of the Union.

Finally, we would respectfully call his attention to his inaugural, delivered before the people's representatives at Washington, on the 4th of March, 1861:

"I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so."

And then he goes on to say:

"Those who nominated and elected me did so with the full knowledge that I had made this and many similar declarations, and have never recanted them. And more than this, they placed in the platform for my acceptance, and as a law to themselves and to me, the clear and emphatic resolution which I now read:

"Resolved, That the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the States, and especially the right of each State to order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively, is essential to the balance of power on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depends."

We regard the proclamation as unconstitutional and exceedingly ill timed. It is calculated to do, we fear, immense mischief to Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland, where important military events are on the taps.

But our most serious objection to it is, that it destroys all we have ever said in defense of Mr. Lincoln's conservatism, and confirms the argument of that class of men South who have seceded from the Union on the ground that Mr. Lincoln was an abolitionist and would administer the government with a view to the overthrow of slavery. There is to day, one universal shout in Dixie over the proclamation. "I told you so," "I told you so," runs through the lines and the Union men in the slave States hang their heads in sorrow.

LINCOLN'S PROCLAMATION — A WARNING. — The Harrisburg (Pa.) "Union" says: We warn the revolutionists in time. If they proceed in their purposes, let it be with their eyes open to all the consequences. Before they succeed in abolishing slavery, in violation of the Constitution, and elevating the negro to their own level their revolution must meet and subdue a movement independent of, and different from the Southern rebellion—a movement whose object will be to maintain the Constitution inviolate and crush to the earth every rebel impious enough to raise his hand against it.

There is little else talked of now amongst officers and soldiers, and at times their discussions become so heated that it requires the interference of friends to prevent a collision; in fact, hatred and bitterness are the necessary results of this unwarranted assumption of the President, and every day develops such dissatisfaction with a large portion of our army that fears are entertained as to the results. Already the soldiers are excited, and improve every opportunity to vent their indignation upon the hordes of negroes who are strutting the streets of Memphis, many of them wearing the uniforms of a soldier of the United States.

War is a terrible revolutionizer of political sentiments, and among the soldiers, no matter what may have been their former political creeds, you can scarcely find one man who is an avowed abolitionist, or who does not look with alarm upon all emancipation schemes. The test is now being applied, and the question comes directly home to everyone, and their future association and welfare are both in the issue.

And further than this there is no use in disguising the fact, that the soldiers are getting tired of this war, and are becoming heartily sick of its management.

(Friday Oct. 24/62)

Wright asked me yesterday, at dinner time, if I heard "that rumbling noise." He said it was very loud, not like the reports of cannon — something like thunder, but there was no cloud. Sister returned from the country last evening, and says James Calhoun and others heard the noise near West View, and thought the Magazine in town had exploded. It occurred about 11 o'clock, A.M.

Monday, Oct. 27, 1862.

Commenced raining about 11 o'clock Saturday night — continued all day yesterday and last night — grains well soaked now. Bright clear day. We are called upon to thank God. Yesterday evening a man came to our house to inquire if we would cook some rations for sick soldiers arrived from Winchester — he said that 2000 would be in town — that they were occupying the Lecture rooms of the churches and the main buildings would probably be filled. We, of course, agreed to have the provisions prepared, but the flour was not sent. After supper I came down to the church to see the state of affairs. Found the Lecture Room and church occupied — the carpet in a fair way to be ruined. Went round through the storm to see if the other churches had been taken also — only their Lecture Room in use. Thus the building most liable to be irreparably injured (except the Episcopal Church) was taken. Called upon all the officers here this morning. — they talk very fair. Troops still coming from Richmond, and going down the Valley. Some movement must be anticipated in that quarter. We find much entertainment in sister's children. Nettie and Jinny very gentle — Lelia rough as a young bear, but very pretty and smart.

Friday, Oct. 31, 1862

Rumors for several days past that our army is falling back from Winchester, or going into Eastern Virginia. It is said that Jackson is to remain in the Valley. Somewhere this side of Winchester. Troops still going down. Rumors of expeditions fitting out by the Yankees to attack Charleston, Mobile and Savannah. — These places will probably fall into the enemy's hands. — Frequent squabbling between the military officers here and citizens. Mr. Baker prepared a paper to lay before the Secretary of War, in reference to the occupation of our church, complaining of the officers +c. I signed the paper as a Trustee of the Church, not heartily, however, and subsequently induced Mr. Tinsley not to go to Richmond to present it. Mr. Baker, however, had another for Gen. Jackson, and after a long discussion of the matter with him, I signed that, principally to please him. I think the officers blamable, but the affair is rather too small a one to agitate while such issues are pending.

November 1862

Saturday, November 1, 1862

Reports in yesterday's papers, received last night, of English and French intervention. They came from New York. — The two governments, it is said, will propose an armistice to the United States, with a view to negotiation, for peace; and if it is refused, the Southern Confederacy will be instantly recognised. The governments named are apprehensive of servile insurrections, when Lincoln's emancipation proclamation takes effect, on the 1st of January next, and are solicitous for the safety of the subjects resident in the Confederacy. Lord Lyons, the British Minister, was to sail on the 25th ult., bringing a formal proposition to Washington, and the same steamer was to bring similar instructions to the representation of France. These are the reports — not fully credited.

I learned last night that Mr. Tinsley had gone to Richmond on Wednesday, to see the Secretary of War in reference to the occupation of our church. I regretted it exceedingly. Last night J. H. Lacy, an aid of Gen. G. W. Smith, came up under orders to investigate the matter. — He came to see me this morning, and I explained my position and feelings. Another letter from Mr. Stuart last night — he says Kentucky is joined to her idols. I fear the State is really against us, and if so, how are we to agree upon a boundary, or ever have peace?

Tuesday, Nov. 4, 1862.

Reports that the Yankees are coming into Highland co. in considerable force. Our army has had to fall back from Charleston, Kanawha. This is election day in nine of the United States. Still much talk about foreign intervention — no certain intelligence — If it be true that the Federalists are advancing through Highland, our army must fall back from Winchester. Probably they (the Yankees) desire this result.

Friday, Nov. 7, 1862, (2 o'clock)

Along train of Ambulances just arrived with sick soldiers from Winchester. Bitter cold all day, and cloudy. General expectation that the war will close in a short time, either from European intervention, or a change of feeling in the North. I got a barrel of sugar from Jas. Gordon, Richmond, a few days ago, at 60c thought I had secured a bargain — The total cost $151.10, including 50c drayage. Last February I got a barrel for less than 13c per pound.

Saturday, Nov. 8, 1862

Later advices from Europe do not encourage the expectation of intervention.

Wednesday, Nov. 12, 1862

Very busy for more than a week past — no time to write — and not much to record. This morning exciting reports afloat — Yankees at Shenandoah mountain (26 miles from town) — captured several hundred hogs belonging to Glendy — have driven off Imboden, capturing hogs, in Hardy, belonging to J. M. McCue — captured him (McC) but he escaped with loss of hat and wig. Some assert that a few Yankees are or have been, at Monterey, and there are none nearer. Various small commands, at Warm Springs +c, have been notified by courier to try to intercept the enemy. Much apprehension lest the Yankees get here. Sister in a worry about getting home. We know nothing definite as to the position of our army under Gen. Lee. Jackson said to be about Winchester — Lee in Culpeper. Enemy pressing with large force towards Culpeper, from the Potomac. Rumors of a fight in Culpeper a few days ago. The late elections in the United States went against the Republicans, generally. New York, New Jersey, Illinois + perhaps others, have gone with Pennsylvania, Ohio + Indiana for the opposition to Lincoln's administration. Dont know what effect it will have upon the war. All parties there seem to be in favor of prosecuting it. In the mean time, the enemy are making vigorous efforts all around the board. They have been operating in North Carolina, and an immediate attack upon Charleston, S. C., is expected. A young man named Wade, from Montgomery, returning to the army, came to our house to see Sister last night. We invited him to stay, and he slept in the parlour.

Afternoon. — The S.C. Cavalry Regiment, which has been in this vicinity for some time, went out just now to see after the enemy in the mountains. They passed through town, and made a great display. A report, brought from Winchester to-day, that an uprising has taken place in Maryland, and that Jackson has gone down that way. The mountains west are on fire, making a great smoke — A number of small-pox cases — I was re-vaccinated to-day.

Thursday, Nov. 13, 1862,

No report from the troops who went out yesterday, but other persons from Shenandoah Mt. state that no Yankees have been there. They are certainly coming into Pendleton, however, in considerable force. It is now said that they did not get Glendy's hogs. Extracts from Canada papers show that a belief prevails there that England and France are about to acknowledge our independence. A Boston paper (the "Pilot") calls for peace. Riots have occurred among the U. S. soldiers in Rhode Island and at Chicago.

Young Sherrer, who staid at our house last Spring, after the battle of Kernstown, called to see us last night and took dinner with us to-day. He was wounded again at the battle of Sharpsburg, Md. A hundred or more Yankee prisoners arrived to-day from the lower Valley.

Saturday, Nov. 15, 1862.

No definite intelligence about the Yankees in Highland — a rumor that they have gone towards the Warm Springs. The British Minister, Lord Lyons, has arrived at Washington, accompanied by Simon Cameron, late U. S. Minister to Russia. The London Times says the British Secretary of War, in his speech against immediate intervention, spoke the sentiment of the Ministry; but report says that Cameron expresses the belief that England + France will interfere before long, and that the Confederates are fitting out vessels in British ports to attack New York city. We have had various reports from the North of a Confederate navy brig under way in England — of course our government does not divulge the pact, if the reports are true in any measure. Gen. McClelland has been superseded, taken from the command of the army, removed or resigned. We attach much importance to this circumstance.

Monday, Nov. 17, 1862.

Our cavalry returned from Highland report that there are no Yankees in that region this side of the Alleghany — A company of Federal cavalry had been at Monterey. More than a hundred Yankee prisoners were brought up the Valley yesterday. No news of special interest from any quarter.

Wednesday, Nov. 19, 1862.

Sister and her family got off this morning, Sherrer accompanying them to Lynchburg. Last night Ann E. Wilson (Va's second cousin) came to our house with A. S. Gray. Both of them took supper there, and she is staying with us till she finds company to Prince Edward. Mrs. McClung +c will be back next week. No war news. Rumored that Jackson is going into winter quarters at Winchester. The hope of European intervention in any short time, is pretty well extinguished.

Thursday, Nov. 20, 1862.

Yankees in Highland — Millroy and Kelly — committing great depredations in Crab Bottom. Some Yankee prisoners [deleted: (officers, I believe)] walking about the streets — one strapping fellow in Zuave uniform (red pants +c) is particularly prominent. I presume they are mechanics, and prefer to remain and labor here to being exchanged. Our citizens, however, feel suspicious of them.

Tuesday, Nov. 25, 1862.

The scene has greatly changed. The enemy, under Burnside, are opposite Fredericksburg demanding the surrender of the town, under a threat to shell it. Several messengers have passed between the two armies. The demand was refused, and up to the last dates the threat had not been executed. Many women and children left the place on Saturday, the 22nd. Gen. Lee is there in person, commanding our forces. Jackson and D. H. Hill have moved from the Valley in the same direction. Things look dark for us. No indications of a termination of the war. From all quarters we hear that our soldiers are suffering for clothing, and appeals are made to the people to supply the want. Alas we have little to spare — Prices getting higher. No enemy in Highland, so far as we know.

Thursday, Nov. 27.

No war news from any quarter. The enemy still opposite Fredericksburg. Northern papers of last week claimed great credit for Burnside on account of his "change of base" from the Potomac to the Rappahannock — so expeditiously accomplished, they said, that Gen. Lee knew nothing about it till he was left far behind by their army, which was then probably at Hanover Junction! When they learned that Lee was at Fredericksburg, with a considerable part of his force, one of them or their cried out that there was treachery somewhere — that no sooner was the movement determined on at Washington, than Lee was in motion, before Burnside had struck a tent! It is undoubtedly true that Gen. Lee anticipated the movement, but not likely that he received information from Washington. Reported that the enemy are concentrating a large force at Suffolk, in Nansemond Co. Yesterday and to-day I was busy about a sale of government horses — nearly three hundred. Mrs. McClung + Miss Agnes returned last night, in good health + spirits. Ann Eliza Wilson went to Tom Preston's this morning. John Graham and Mary here at supper to-night.

Saturday night, Nov. 29, 1862.

Still no war news. All quiet at Fredericksburg. Great complaints through the newspapers of outrages by the enemy upon our people in various parts of the country, and calls upon the Government for retaliation — The Richmond Enquirer — generally very cautious — advises our soldiers to shoot down every "Zouave" they may capture. One of these captures, wearing red breeches and red cap has been walking our streets for more than a week past, with other prisoners of war. Why they are detained here, I cannot tell. The shooting of ten citizens in Mississippi, by order of a Yankee General, caused a general outcry for revenge. Yesterday a report came from Winchester that McClellan and Seymour (Gov- elect of N. Y.) had been arrested and sent to Fort Lafayette. Not believed. More horses sold to-day. The sales of horses, wagons +c amount to about $13,000. Virginia told me to-night that we had been drinking rye, without any mixture of coffee, for several weeks, our supply of the latter having given out! I had not detected it. Miss Agnes brought a pound or two of coffee as a present from Dr Wills to Va. Linsey64 for servants' dresses now sells at $2.50 per yard. The people are obliged to give the Factory prices, whatever they are, and the proprietors seem determined to exact the last cent. The extortion practised by those who have anything to sell, adds greatly to the hardship of the times. As a consequence, theft and robbery are becoming common. Port is selling at $20 per hundred. I learn that persons have been hauling off my wood, on the road near Legh's, which I had cut for our own use — I have not been able to get it all brought in. Wood sells at $7.00 a cord.

Sunday night, Nov 30, 1862.

This afternoon as Va and I sat by the fire in our room, there was a rap at the dining-room door. Some one came to answer, then I heard Kitty's voice, and a running up stairs, and finally Kate came in with a note from Alick, stating that he had just returned from Legh's — that Bell had given birth to twins, one of whom has a "hare lip." We feel greatly distressed. Bell had met Glendy (Wm), who is disfigured in that way, at Henderson's, one of her neighbors. — May the parents be enabled to feel that God has ordered the matter.

December 1862

Wednesday night, Dec. 3, 1862

Again no war news. It is thought, however, that a battle must soon take place at Fredericksburg. At my suggestion, the ladies are making blankets for soldiers out of church carpets. Several days ago the papers contained the correspondence between France, England and Russia in regard to a proposition for an armistice in this country. France insisted the other powers to unite with her in a proposition of the kind, but they declined on the ground that it would do no good. I received two hogs to-day, each weighing 180 lbs, at $20 per hundred = $72.00 — only $3 (three) less than a month's pay!

Thursday night, Dec. 4, 1862.

News this morning that our troops (some 2 or 3000 had left Winchester, and come to Strasburg, the enemy advancing from New Creek in large force.

Monday night, Dec. 8, 1862.

Weather very cold since Friday, on which day we had a snow storm. Some persons hauling ice to-day — much thicker than any I have seen for three years. All quiet at Fredericksburg — persons connected with the army, just from that place, say that Gen. Lee does not anticipate a battle there. He thinks the enemy will not attempt to cross the river. A small force of Yankees visited Winchester last week, going off in a few hours, and our cavalry are again picketing below Charlestown, Lincoln message to Congress is much talked about — It is in every respect a contemptible document. Mary Tate Graham goes to Lexington in the morning. Jinny accompanying her. They have gone to the Hotel to sleep.

Wednesday night, Dec. 10, 1862

The town perfectly quiet yesterday and to- day — a dreary dullness. This evening the papers bring news of quite an important affair at Huntsville, on the Cumberland River, Tennessee. Gen. J. H. Morgan assailed an outpost of the enemy, killing and wounding 200, and capturing 1800, with all the stores at the place. A great expedition (Yankee) is about starting from Cairo for the reduction of Vicksburg and the opening of the Mississippi river. All quiet at Fredericksburg. Two hundred negroes are called for from this county, to work on the fortifications at Richmond. H. J. Lushbaugh is manufacturing maple wood buttons — very pretty ones. Nails sell in town at 50c a pound — formerly 5c to 6/4c.

Friday night, Dec. 12, 1862.

Reports yesterday and to-day by telegraph of heavy fighting in the direction of Fredericksburg. This morning we heard that the Yankees had shelled the town, and that the number of wounded on our side was large. The operator here told me, about 12 o'clock, that he had caught a dispatch from Fredericksburg to Richmond, asking for Railroad trains to carry off the wounded. The Richmond papers of this morning tell us that the enemey attempted to cross the Rappahannock at three points, were driven back at two of them, but succeeded in crossing at the third. Our loss is said to have been five killed and seventy-five wounded. The enemy fired upon the town and several houses were burnt. The town is nearly deserted of its inhabitants, who are scattered through the State, many of them without means of subsistence. The New York Herald is confident of success "this time." The United States, it says, have an army of a million of men, and a navy of equal to a half a million more, and must now succeed, in a few weeks, over own army of not more than five hundred thousand, "It is very long before the paradox is generally admitted, that numbers do not necessarily contribute to the intrinsic efficiency of armies." — Hallam Mid. Ages — p 122.65

I received three more hogs to-day — 402 1/2 lbs at $25 per hundred = $100.87! Va bought a piece of cotton cloth yesterday 36 1/4 yds at 90c per yard. Five yards of Factory flannel cost $12.50!

Saturday night, Dec. 13, 1862.

All the news from Fredericksburg is embraced in the annexed slip, cut from the Richmond Dispatch of this morning. Passengers by this evening's train state that firing was heard again this morning, and it is supposed that a general fight was in progress. The "Dispatch" of to-day thought the great battle would take place to-morrow. — No news of interest from any other quarter. A correspondent of the Philadelphia "Inquirer" chuckles over the fact that "rebel" women — delicate and refined — driven from their homes in Fredericksburg, are camping out, in the vicinity. The letter was written a week or more ago.

"From Our Own Reporter"

Sunday night, Dec. 14, 1862.

A mild, spring-like day. — The bees out in large force — many dead ones about the hive in the flower garden. I brought Robt. McFarland home from church to dinner. Jim McClung afterwards came in and also dined with us. This morning, as I learned at church, intelligence was received by Telegraph, that the enemy were repulsed at all points on yesterday — that Gen. J. R. R. Cobb, of Georgia, was killed +c. +c. Upon going to church to- night, the crowd at the door was talking over the news brought by the Railroad passengers. They stated that the enemy had been repulsed, as reported this morning, that Gen. Cobb had not been killed, but had lost a leg, and that a general engagement along a line of five or six miles was in progress to- day. As the Telegraph Office was opened again at 7 o'clock, P.M., I went down after church to enquire the news. The operator informed me that he had not a word, except that the Richmond office had assured him since night that there was no fighting to-day. Reported that Millroy is advancing with a large force from Moorfield, Hardy Co., towards Strasburg.

Monday night, December 15, 1862.

No telegraphic dispatches to-day. Annexed is a summary of news as given by this morning's papers.

"From Fredericksburg — Great Fight on Saturday — The Enemy Repulsed at All Points"

Thursday afternoon, Dec. 18, 1862

The papers of yesterday gives no further particulars of the battle at Fredericksburg, but a history will relate them in full, I need not mention them here. We learned yesterday that the enemy had re-crossed the Rappahannock. This movement is regarded as an acknowledgement of defeat. The enemy are pressing in North Carolina, towards the Wilmington + Weldon Railroad, and Gen. Evans, with a small force, has been fighting them for several days. A report yesterday that Gen. Jas. E. Johnston had recently had a successful battle with the enemy at Murfreesboro', Tennessee, (on Saturday). Nothing authentic. The report mentioned by me on the 10th, in regard to Morgan's exploit at Huntsville, is confirmed.

Friday night, Dec. 19, 1862.

A dispatch from Winchester last night started that a party of our cavalry had returned from an expedition to Hagerstown and Poolsville, Md., bringing 35 prisoners, many horses +c. It stated also that the "Baltimore Sun" reports the Federal loss at Fredericksburg at 40,000 — that the Washington Cabinet were quarreling amongst themselves — that Burnside had been rumored from the head of the Federal army and Fremont put in his place. A rumor was current that a fight had occurred in New York, and 1500 people killed, in consequence of an attempt by Lincoln's officials to arrest John Van Buren. A letter from Frederickburg states that Mrs. Lomax (Kitty's grandmother) returned to the town, after assurance was given that the place would not be fired into, and when the bombardment began, her brother, Mr. Presley Thornton, undertook to convey her to the basement of a neighbor's house, which was considered entirely safe — and the writer of the letter had heard nothing further of her.

Sunday night, December 21, 1862

Va went to Legh's this afternoon, and I am alone. — Legh came in to church this morning, and seemed to be in great trouble — Bell was sick and very much depressed, Lucy sick, Mrs. Hill broken down +c +c. Mr. Baker preached a thanksgiving sermon to-night on the battle of Fredericksburg. Very cold again yesterday and to-day — milder to-night.

"More Exploits of the Alabama— She Captures Two More Yankee Vessels—A Whole Squadron after Her"

Tuesday night, Dec. 23, 1862.

News this morning that the enemy under Millroy — eight thousand — were at Mt. Jackson, Shenandoah. The papers received to-night give some interesting extracts from United States papers. The latter are evidently very much discouraged by the result of the battle at Fredericksburg. The New York "World" speaks right out and concedes the greatest defeat of the war. It says: "Heaven help us! There seems to be no help in man. Our cause is perishing — hope after hope has vanished — and now the only prospect is the very blackness of despair." A dispatch from Fredericksburg, dated 22nd, says that Seward has resigned, + the whole Yankee Cabinet will follow suit, that Halleck (commander-in- chief) will be removed, and that Burnside will resign. This is most too much of a good thing.

As an incident of the time I may mention that a milliner of this place, went to Baltimore recently to purchase goods, taking a female companion with her. The goods had to "run the blockade," in other words to be smuggled across the line, and the two persons returned, each one concealing a large number of bonnet frames under her hood + wearing any quantity of dresses and cloaks.

I have been making little wagons for various children — Addy + Lucy Waddell, J. K. Woods' little girl + others. The scarcity of toys taxes the ingenuity of persons these Christmas times.

Wednesday night, Dec. 24, 1862

Every face was bright this morning, on account of the Northern news published in the Richmond papers of yesterday. There seems to be no doubt that Seward has tendered his resignation. Wm. B. Reed, of Philadelphia, has written warmly advocating peace. The last report from Millroy is; that he was moving towards Harper's Ferry. Kate just came in with a volume of sermons — "Pulpit Eloquence of the Nineteenth Century" — as a Christmas present for me. To-morrow we have holiday, and I anticipate it with as much pleasure as I used to feel in boyhood.

Thursday night, Dec. 25, 1862.

I did some work this morning about one of my grape vines, and went down street about 10 o'clock. Found sentinels, from the Provost Marshal's Guard, at the corners, — strange and sad change from the times we had only two years ago! Upon joining a crowd near the Courthouse, I learned that the sentinels had, last night, assaulted citizens on the street, and ordered them not to pass unless they were going home. We all agreed that it was a high-handed usurpation which should not be submitted to. So John Baldwin wrote down Edwin Edmondson's statement of his aunt, shortly after 9 o'clock, and sent it with a note to Davidson, commander of the post, enquiring if the guard had acted in pursuance of orders, and if so whether the proceeding was to be continued to-night. The note was signed in his reply that the Guard were inexperienced, and had misunderstood their instructions — notwithstanding the papers sent to him showed that the Provost Marshall was present at one of the public corners, and required the sentinel to use his gun when necessary to arrest passersby.

I feel a special jealously of the exercise of unnecessary military authority. It is what we have most to fear at this time. — While fully sustaining the military in all lawful and necessary measures, every encroachment by them upon civil rights should be promptly resisted.

I brought Legh up to dinner. We had Alick, Adeline, Sarah Warden, Mr + Mrs Baker, and Agnes + Augusta Tinsley. Legh seemed rather low- spirited, and left us abruptly just before dinner. I have felt much troubled about the matter. None of us knew he had left the house till we sat down to dinner. Poor fellow, he has cause for depression. The supply of rosin gave out at the Gas Works last night, and we have to get along with tallow candles. I should have mentioned that Va's dinner was as good as she could have provided in peace times — Turkey, Old ham, spare-ribs, some cheese, sundry vegetables (potatoes, [illeg.], tomatoes +c) "huckleberry" + damson pies, raspberry puffs, cake, peaches + milk + preserves — We had a sufficiency of table furniture also — many families are sadly off for plates, tumblers, cups +c, having broken up old sets, and not being able to procure new ones.

Friday night, Dec. 26, 1862.

At a sale near town to-day, corn went off at $3.60 a bushel, oats $2.05, bran $1.05, shorts $2.00 other things in the same proportion. A report to-day that the enemy lately at Strasburg, numbered only 800. The last Northern accounts state that Lincoln will not accept Seward's resignation.

Tuesday night, Dec. 30, 1862.

We have no news of special interest from our armies in this State. It is supposed that the Yankees will make another effort to take Richmond, probably from the South side of James River. — The negroes from this county, drafted to work on the fortifications

"Van-Dorn's Recent Exploits — Memphis Not Attacked"

"The Advance Upon Vicksburg — Sharp Fighting — The Enemy Repulsed"


January 1863

Thursday night, January 1, 1863.

A dispatch from Richmond this afternoon reports that Gen. Bragg had defeated the enemy near Murfreesborough, Tenn., taking 4000 prisoners, 31 cannon + 300 wagons. The prisoners included two Brigadier Generals. We have had so many false reports from the South West, that we are now rather incredulous as to the truth of good news from that quarter. Letters from Christiansburg last night inform us that Addy Stuart has gone with his regiment to Petersburg. He was previously at Drury's Bluff, on James River. A few week ago he was in North Carolina. The town was full of negroes to-day; as usual on New Year. A negro woman hired at auction for $140! (a year). [deleted: Aunt Sally's Tom goes to Richmond with other hands to work on the fortifications.] They have on Saturday night — about 250 from this county. The hands were drafted like soldiers, and are to be employed for sixty days. Nanny and Matty were at a juvenile party, at J. B. Baldwin's last night. — I went for them at 10 o'clock. Kitty is attending a party at N. K. Trout's to-night. Va + Miss Agnes are spending the evening at our neighbor's Bledsoe — I go for them in a few minutes.

Friday night, January 2, 1863

The Richmond papers of to-day publish the annexed dispatch. It is said that the enemy successfully resisted us on "the extreme left." Till we hear the final result, therefore, we rejoice with trembling, remembering the first reports of other battles in the same region.

Some plan is on foot to circumvent Millroy, who is beginning to rival the notorious "Blast Butler." Two companies stationed there for some time past, went down the Valley to-day, to co-operate.




The following official dispatch was this morning received at the War Department:


We assailed the enemy this morning at 7 o'clock, and after ten hours' hard fighting have driven him from every position, except his extreme left, where he has successfully resisted us. We captured Four Thousand Prisoners, including two Brigadier Generals, Thirty-One Pieces of Artillery, and some two hundred wagons and teams. Our loss is heavy, but that of the enemy much greater.

General Commanding.

Saturday night, January 3, 1863.

The Richmond papers of to-day publish a dispatch from Gen Bragg, saying: "The enemy has yielded his strong point, and is falling back. We now occupy the whole field, and shall follow." The "Dispatch" newspaper says: "We learn from another source that the enemy is completely routed, and their communication with Nashville completely cut off." It was reported this morning, by telegraph, that we had captured 5000 more prisoners. There seems to be no reason to doubt that we have gained great advantages. Gen Bragg says in his last dispatch, "God has granted us a happy New Year." May He give us all hearts to praise and serve Him! The movements down the Valley have attracted much attention — The public, of course, do not know the plan of operations. All the soldiers that could be raised about here have gone down. Some of the Post Officials, surgeons, +c, seem to regard the enterprise as a frolic. I hope it may not prove a farce. The commander of the Post went down to-day in a buggy! The remains of H. J. Crawford, who died in Petersburg on the 1st arrived this evening. His wife got to him in time to see him die, and returned with the corpse. The funeral takes place to-morrow. I have been attending to the arrangements.

Sunday night, January 4, 1863.

Returning from the cemetery this morning, Va and I walked over the hill and through the ground where deceased soldiers are buried. The number of graves has greatly increased since I was there last. It was almost appalling to see the rows of graves recently dug, waiting with gaping mouths for still living victims [deleted: who are to fill them]. The sight brought before us visibly the sufferings of the soldiers dying in military hospitals, far from home and kindred and all the horrors of a time of war. The small pox cases are buried elsewhere.

Monday night, January 5, 1863.

Gen. Pemberton telegraphs that the Yankees have gone off from Vicksburg, leaving a considerable quantity of entrenching tools +c. Things do not look quite so favorable at Murfreesboro. Gen. Bragg says on the 2nd: "The enemy retired last night but a short distance in rear of his former position." A short and sharp contest occurred on the evening of the 2nd. Gens. Wheeler and Wharton were again in the enemy's rear, on the 1st, and destroyed 200 loaded wagons. The worst, however, is in a dispatch from Murfreesboro on the 3rd which says: "The enemy, in strong force, continue in position about three miles of the town. Nashville has been reinforced." A majority of the heirs of Mr. Sowers' estate wish me to act as Administrator de bonis non +c. H. J. Crawford having been the Executor. I am not unwilling, but apprehend some difficulties. The steamer Alabama has captured another Yankee vessel, the Ariel, which had more than 800 persons on board, including 140 marines.

Tuesday night, January 6, 1863.

Just as I feared! Bragg has fallen back thirty miles, with his four thousand prisoners +c. Strange after such a victory as reports claim for us. Was the enemy largely reinforced, or does Bragg run away from his victories? That we had a great success is not doubted, but the causes of the last movement are entirely unknown. New York papers state that their loss at Murfreesboro in killed and wounded was 30,000 (ours much more, of course), but that they defeated us. Our falling back gives color to the claim.

Frazier here to-night, on his way to Richmond. Rather blue after the bright hopes of the last few days.

Wednesday night, January 7, 1863.

Arrived is the last dispatch from Gen. Bragg. Another report says the enemy are retreating also! This is hardly probable — that both sides should retreat, although it is said to have occurred after the battle of Perrysville, in Kentucky. Gen. Bragg has a way of "falling back" after a victory. The Yankee papers claim to have got the best of us at Murfreesboro; although they admit great losses. The expedition down the Valley has come to nothing. A skirmish took place at Moorfield, in Hardy county, and then our men "fell back." I blame neither officers nor men — not wishing to sit by the fire and censure the operations of soldiers enduring the hardships of the field — but after the bright hopes entertained a few days ago there is a feeling of disappointment. Rumors from the North of French interference again, to settle our troubles. I see no prospect of our ever getting out of them until Europe does interfere. Lincoln's Proclamation, liberating the slaves, which has recently approved, creates no sensation. He chooses to consider all Southern territory in possession of his armies as "loyal," and proclaims freedom to the regions only in the regions where he has [deleted: power] no control!

AHH Stuart spoke to me to-day on the subject of my becoming administrator of the late Mr. Sowers. He is trustee for two of the heirs. Said he would go my security — the bond will be $50,000 to $60,000.

"Tullahoma, Jan. 5 — Unable to dislodge the enemy from his entrenchments, and hearing of reinforcements to him, I withdrew from his front night before last. He has not followed. My cavalry are close on his front. [Signed,]


Monday night, January 12, 1863.

We have been in deep affliction. At [deleted: last] this [deleted: cruel] war has taken a victim from our family. On Thursday, the 8th, I received a dispatch from Mr. Stuart, stating that Addy was dead, that his remains would be brought to Staunton, and requesting me to meet Sister in Lynchburg on Friday. I felt that I had received a staggering blow, and oh! the overwhelming sympathy for his heart-broken mother — he her only son. — And such a son! — So obedient, affectionate, sympathizing — so upright, truthful and brave. Before he was quite seventeen years of age he entered the army as an "orderly" to Col. Harry L. Edmundson of Roanoke Co. The schools had been disbanded and he was left unemployed and without an associate, all the youths of Christiansburg about his age [deleted: and older], being in the service. He became so restless and unhappy, that when the comparatively safe and easy position alluded to was offered to him, his parents [deleted: withdrew their] allowed him to accept it. He went through the Kentucky campaign, returned to Wytheville, Va., went thence with his regiment to Richmond, and soon afterwards to Petersburg. From every point he wrote to his mother, cheering her up, and assuring her that he would be happy if he only knew she was not in trouble about him. Again he wrote that the regiment was on the point of moving, he knew not whither — next, only four days afterwards, came a dispatch saying that he had died of pneumonia, after an illness of twenty-four hours, and his remains would be forwarded. I met his mother at a hotel in Lynchburg. Friday night, and returned with her to Staunton on Saturday — a most mournful journey. Never can I forget that night as we sat in a dark room, she talking about her loved and loving boy, and I trying to comfort her. Mary, who came to Lynchburg with her mother, returned home next morning in the three o'clock train. And there we sat in the dark, till she shivered with cold, and I persuaded her to lie down. He was a son to love and be proud of. He was cheerful, social, accommodating, conscientious and a universal favorite. Long ago, he came forward, of his own accord; and made a profession of religion — recently, when about to march, he wrote to his mother, "I go cheerfully, trusting in God." [deleted: On one occasion, upon his mother, with tender solicitude inquiring as to his habit of prayer, he said, "Why Ma, I pray as I am going to school."] We have learned by telegraph to-day that in his last moments his mind was unclouded and hopeful. He died at Franklin, N. C., on Blackwater River. He was a universal favorite, for he was always ready to do a kind act, to whoever needed it. His battalion was dismounted on a recent occasion and required to march on foot, owing to his position he was permitted to retain his horse, but he tendered it to a soldier who, he thought, was less able to walk than himself. All his acquaintances, of every rank, have testified to his noble traits, and expressed affection for him. But he is gone from us — God has ordered it so, and oh let us bow to His will. His stricken mother broke forth into praise when she received the dispatch this morning, stating that in his last moments his mind was unclouded and hopeful. Notwithstanding the arrangements I had made in Lynchburg, the remains passed through that place and went to Christiansburg. They will arrive here to- morrow evening. It is painful to me to write these lines, but I want to have some tribute to the dear boy. — God grant that we all may have true faith in Christ and obedience to Him, so that we shall at last meet in heaven. Mr. Stuart is at home, sick.

Tuesday night, January 13, 1863.

Just as the light of day was departing, we laid Addy Stuart's remains in the grave, by the side of his sister, little Cornie, who two years ago died in the triumphs of faith. The mail brought a letter from Mary, in which she told of Addy's last moments, as reported by young Maxwell, who accompanied the remains to Christiansburg. Nothing troubled him but the thought of his mother's distress. "It will kill Ma," he said, "but tell her that I trust in God, and am willing and not afraid to die." To his father he sent word that he hoped to meet him in heaven. Oh! the grief and bereavement I feel at the loss of this noble boy. He died at the home of a Mr. Camp, in Southampton Co., Va., and we are assured that he received every attention.

Important events have occurred during the last week, which will be recorded in history; nothing of local interest.

Monday night, January 19, 1863.

Prospect of another battle at Fredericksburg. We expect Mr. Stuart to-morrow. He leaves the children in Christiansburg. Sister intended to start back to morrow. Va going with her till a dispatch came from Mr. S., stating that he was coming. Her distress at times wrings my heart with anguish. Peace propositions have been introduced in New Jersey Legislature. The Democratic members of Illinois Legislature have adopted resolutions of the same purports.

Friday night, Jan. 23, 1863.

Mr. Stuart arrived Tuesday evening, and remained till this morning, when he, Sister and Kate started to Christiansburg. He contemplates breaking up at C. before long, and the family will probably come to Staunton temporarily. Poor Sister! her grief is at times heart-rending, although she is generally sustained far better than I could have anticipated.

Yankee gunboats have recently been captured on the Cumberland river. The Hatteras, one of their iron-clads, was sunk near Galveston, Texas, a few days ago, with nearly all on board — supposed to have been done by the Confederate steamer Alabama, Capt. Semms. Cavalry have been extensively used of late in capturing Yankee gunboats! There seems to be a growing feeling in the West of opposition to a continuance of the war. Nothing encouraging from Europe — on the contrary, it has leaked out that French Consuls in Texas have been intriguing to separate that State from the Confederacy, and it is feared that the Emperor has been privy to the scheme.

Sunday night, January 25, 1863.

The snow which fell last Tuesday evening and night [12 inches deep — the heaviest we have had since January 1857] has been melting rapidly to-day — Temperature of the weather very mild. No heart for writing anything — Was very sick Wednesday night.

Monday night, January 26, 1863.

A letter from Kate to Kitty to-night — Says they arrived safely at Christiansburg, on Saturday. The little children met them in the porch, with a very subdued look, not knowing whether it was proper to make any demonstration of joy. Mary has fallen off, and is sad. The house is still and sombre as if a corpse were in it. Various things on the way reminded her of Addy, who was with her on the former trip to C.

I qualified to-day as Administrator de bonis non +c, of the late Mr. Sowers, executing a bond with penalty of $50,000. My security are my two brothers and A. H. H. Stuart. Alfred Sowers applied for administration, but as his sisters, who are a majority of the heirs, preferred me, and especially opposed him, the Court decided in my favor, after a wrangle at the bar. I of course was not an applicant for the place, and I would have cheerfully declined it, if Alfred S. had proposed any one whom I could have recommended to his sisters. I presume he has no opposition to me, but only wanted the office himself.

Some days ago we had a Northern report that 5000 of our men had been captured by Federalists at "Arkansas Post," in Arkansas. It was disbelieved, as no one could tell anything about such a force at such a place. But it now sees to have been true. From the Northern news published in the Richmond papers of this morning, it seems that the Federal army was last week advancing again to cross the Rappahannock, near Fredericksburg. Indeed, it is doubtful, as we hear nothing of it from our side. Still some hopeful signs at the North. The New Jersey Legislature has elected Wall to the U. S. Senate, who has recently been released from one of Lincoln's prisons. The new Governor of that State, in his inaugural address, advocates peace — but, like all the others, does not give up the Union yet!!! Reports from Europe, that the French Emperor is again moving for intervention. — England still holds back.

Wednesday night, January 28, 1863.

Horribly wintry day — another snow storm — began last night. No recent intelligence from the armies. The bad weather has probably prevented another threatened attempt at Fredericksburg, unless, as is rumored or suspected, disaffection in the ranks of the enemy interferes with the movements against us. A letter copied from the N. Y. Tribune, which denies that disaffection exists to any serious extent, furnishes the best proof I have of its existence. It is said to be quite wide-spread among the Northwestern troops, particularly those from Illinois. A great change has certainly taken place at the North — people are speaking out against Lincolnism and the war after a fashion which a few months ago would have promptly sent them to one of the military prisons. Since the Governor of New York (Seymour) declared that there should be freedom of speech, and the new Governor of New Jersey (Parker) followed suit, tongues long tied have become glib again

Friday night, January 30, 1863.

A general impression that the war will soon be over. The signs from Illinois, Indiana, New York, New Jersey, certainly indicate a great reaction in those regions. Many Yankee soldiers will go out of services in May (their terms of enlistment expiring then), and it seems very doubtful if their places can be supplied. Popular meetings in Illinois + Indiana have recently spoken out boldly for peace, denouncing Lincoln, and threatening themselves to cut loose from New England. It was reported in Richmond yesterday that Commissioners from the Western States just named have arrived in that city — not so of course. Reported to-day that the Union legislature of Ky. has ordered out 60,000 troops to resist Lincoln's proclamation. How natural was poor Sister's feeling, that peace would make her grief more poignant! Often does her account of Addy's leaving home the last time occur to me — "He looked so well," she said "and Oh, I kissed him over and over again." May God comfort her. We hear that Rev. Dr. Boyd was recently shot and instantly killed in Winchester, by a Yankee sentinel.

February 1863

Sunday night, February 1, 1863.

L. P. Waller came up after dinner to-day, bringing a young man named Jones, from Kentucky, a Lieutenant in Gen. John H. Morgan's command. He seems to be a very intelligent, and genteel youth. I invited them to remain all the afternoon; they promised to return to supper, but sent a note excusing themselves. Just before supper, J. H. Lacy came up, on his way from Richmond to Lexington. He is one of Gen. G. W. Smith's Aids, and gave us some important intelligence. Two of our gun boats at Charleston had gone out and attacked the blockading squadron, capturing one, sinking two and driving the others entirely off. Thus the blockade of the harbor has been raised, and according to the law of nations, it is said, the port cannot be closed again for sixty days. By order of Secretary Benjamin a steamer was immediately dispatched to Nassau, New Providence, to give notice that the port was open to neutral commerce. A battle has occurred near Suffolk, in which we are said to have defeated the Yankees. Gen. Wheeler has destroyed several more Federal steamers on the Cumberland. The news altogether, especially that from Charleston, created quite an excitement, as was exhibited at Church.

Monday night, Feb. 2, 1863.

The blockaders have appeared again off the port of Charleston. Reported that many Yankee deserters are coming into our lines down the Valley.

Thursday night, Feb. 5, 1863.

Another snow storm — all day — No war news. No prospect of European intervention. Reported that great dissatisfaction prevails among the Yankee soldiers on the Mississippi, and that many are deserting. The Yankees are cutting a canal so as to leave Vicksburg high and dry.

Saturday night, Feb. 7, 1863.

Had an appraisement of the Sowers estate this morning. — A number of deserters from the Yankee army opposite Fredericksburg have arrived here within a few days past. They are said to be coming in down the Valley in large numbers. They need clothing +c, and no body knows what to do with them.

Wednesday night, February 11, 1863

The most formidable assaults by the enemy are expected in a short time, perhaps in a few days, at various points, particularly Vicksburg and Charleston; perhaps also at Savannah and Mobile. The bad weather has prevented any movement opposite Fredericksburg. — The enemy has also a great army at Murfreesboro, Tenn., and smaller ones at various other points. A crisis is evidently at hand. — No relaxation on the part of the North. No signs of a termination of the war.

Mr. Stuart has determined to break up at Christiansburg, and bring his family to Staunton. We have been much troubled as to how they are to be accommodated. I have been under a cloud for some time past, and particularly to-day. The affairs of the Sowers estate occupy much of my attention. I am decidedly opposed to selling the real estate at this time, when the currency is so unsettled — we may get larger prices, but what is the money worth? This remains to be seen. The heirs who are here, however, insist upon a sale.

Thursday night, February 12, 1863.

Last night, just before going to bed, Va partly wound up the striking side of our mantel piece clock — having a trick of striking every hour from twenty to a hundred times, we have had to let that side run down, as the noise was very loud and distracting. Last night, however, the machine took another turn, striking at intervals of four or five minutes. [deleted: I was sitting before the fire reading, and did not observe what Va was doing till the noise began, when she walked off, remarking that she left me "some music." After enduring it till the nuisance became intolerable, I gave the hammer a twist, which prevented its striking the coil; but after I went to bed, I could still hear the wheels rapidly revolving, and all the machinery apparently doing its best to alarm the house as usual. The occurrence was both amazing and ludicrous.]

No war news — the "Dispatch" decidedly dull.

Another snow storm to-day. Tomorrow is the day appointed for the sale of Mr. Sowers' property, but if the weather continues bad, I shall postpone it till Monday. Much talk for several days past about the supposed opposition to Lincolnism and the war, in the North and West. Many indications go to show that there is a growing discontent in those regions; but a victory or two, especially the capture of Vicksburg by the Yankees, would bring the whole nation together again. A letter from Christiansburg states that Sister and family expected to start to Staunton on Thursday next. Va wrote immediately to tell them not to start till they heard of the arrival here of some few necessary articles of their furniture. We have engaged rooms for them at the Academy, till they can get Alick's house, the 1st of May. Another military enterprise against Midway, the Yankee General at Winchester, is on foot. Gen Jones has moved from his quarters at, or near, New Market. A forlorn regiment, or battalion came in to-day from Variety Springs, where they have been quartered for some time. Some of the men had no overcoats, and some straw hats — decidedly out of season in a snow storm. The horses are as woe-begone as their riders. Lt. Col. Witcher commands. He moves down the Valley in the morning. His force was raised along the Kentucky border, I believe.


Another Youthful Martyr.

ADDISON WADDELL STUART, only son of the Rev. S. D. Stuart, of Christiansburg, died on Blackwater river, Southampton co., Va., on the 7th of January, 1863 of pneumonia, after an illness of twenty- four hours. He was seventeen years of age on the 21st day of December, 1862. In the month of September last, he entered the military service as Orderly to Col. Henry L. Edmondson, of Roanoke, and went through the Kentucky campaign under General Humphrey Marshall. After the retreat to Virginia, he was stationed at Wytheville for a time; the battalion to which he belonged was then ordered to Richmond, and thence to Petersburg. From the last named place, he wrote that the troops were on the point of moving, he knew not wither—the next intelligence concerning him, was a telegraphic dispatch announcing his death.

The writer can hardly trust himself to speak of this dear boy, lest strangers suspect some exaggeration. He was intelligent, cheerful social, universally popular, always ready to do a kind act to [deleted: any] every one, however humble.66 While on the march, he would dismount and walk, that a soldier somewhat unwell might ride his horse. Ever bright and happy, he was the light and joy of his home—the tender comforted of his oft-stricken mother—in the camp and on the march an example of cheerful endurance, shrinking from no hardship or danger.

But the most consoling fact is, that he knew the God of his fathers, and was owned by Him as one of his children. Early dedicated to God, as soon as he arrived at years of discretion, he publicly avowed his faith in Christ and united with the church. His walk and conversation never belied his profession. All men testify to his upright and conscientious life. Not long before he was called hence, he wrote to his mother, when about to start on some expedition, "I go cheerfully, trusting in God." Hiss illness was brief, but we have his dying testimony to the grace which alone can sustain in that trying hour. The thought of his mother's grief troubled him for a moment—"It will kill Ma," he said, "but tell her I trust in God and am willing and not afraid to die." To his father he sent word that he hoped to meet him in Heaven. Thus he peacefully fell asleep. His short and happy life on earth is ended—he has passed from us like a beautiful vision—but he has entered upon a higher and happier service in Heaven. For him there is nothing to regret. On the evening of the 13th inst., his remains were laid in the cemetery at Staunton, near the grave of his grand-father (the late Dr. Addison Waddell) and by the side of a little sister who two years before departed in the triumphs of faith. "Father, I will that they also, whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am."67

This tribute to another young martyr is placed on record as a memorial of the devotion which characterises our whole people in the present cruel war, and especially as an humble testimonial to the faithfulness of God to those who trust in Him. Thank God for such a life and such a death! Blessed parents who have their most precious treasure—five lovely children—laid up in Heaven!

Thursday night, Feb. 19, 1863.

Reported to-day that Gen. Hood is coming to the Valley, with his division. Our army seems to be coming away from Fredericksburg, as the Yankees on the other side of the river are leaving. Things look rather dark. Gen. Beauregard warns the non- combatants to leave Charleston and Savannah, as he expects an attack upon one or both places. The French Emperor has made a proposition to the United States for a consultation between the belligerents with a view to peace, to which Seward replies rather testily in the negative. The Rev. John Baker has just returned from New York city, where he went to send funds to his mother in Illinois. He walked from New Market, Shenandoah co, to the Potomac, dodging Yankee camps; found wagons loaded with wheat crossing the river at a ferry, got into one of the wagons and went over unquestioned by soldiers. Returning, had to cross the Potomac at a bridge, was arrested by the guard and taken before the Provost Marshall — allowed to pass without search, bring sealed letters and $500 for the Fredericksburg people sent by one gentleman. While in N. Y. and Brooklin saw a number of Southern people, but thinks the war will last for some time yet. He bought three new shirts, and wore them all on his person. Mrs. Skinner's only woman servant has small pox, and the family is cut off from communication with neighbors +c. I went up to night, however, to inquire for them. Did not go in the house, She seemed in a state of great distress — and I dont wonder at it. Her companions day and night are her deaf-mute Sister and daughter, and several little negroes. Burdell, who has had the disease, was there to-night.

Sunday night, February 22, 1863.

Another great snow storm. — began last night soon after dark and continued till late this morning. I have not been off the lot to-day. All the church bells silent. No service, I presume, anywhere. Read a sermon aloud after dinner. — reading to myself some in Doddridge and a good deal in Hanna's Life of Chalmers. Very much troubled as to how Sister and family are to disposed when they come — Expect them next Friday. Reported last night that the Yankee steamer Queen of the West had been captured on Red River or the Mississippi. General expectation that the French Emperor will do something before long in reference to the affairs of this country.

Monday night, February 23, 1863.

Passengers by the train from Richmond to- night state that fighting has begun at Vicksburg. Recent reports from the South West represent the Yankee army in that quarter as greatly demoralized — officers resigning in large numbers and privates deserting by the hundred. The train from Richmond due last night did not get in till this morning, detained by the snow. Some of Mr. Stuart's furniture has arrived by express. Miserable weather for the family to move in. To show the great increase in the price of all articles of subsistence I mention, that the money value of one hundred soldiers' rations (for a day), formerly estimated at a little more than nine dollars, is now at market prices more than one hundred and twenty- three dollars ($123). Coffee formerly 9 cents a pound, is now $3.50 to $4. Sugar once 3 + 4 cents is now a dollar. Bacon is selling in Richmond at $1 a pound.

Thursday night, February 26, 1863.

Sister and her family are expected to- morrow evening, and Kitty goes to Charlottesville to meet them. They will go into the Academy for the present — very poor accommodations — hope to get Alick's house in May. Have written to Bickle on the subject. He occupies the house, and is unwilling to give it up. I have tried to rent a part of Mrs. Sowers' house (now owned by Mayes), but have given up the attempt, on account of the high price and difficulty in making any arrangement with another person for a division of the property. The real estate and most of the personal property sold enormously high on Tuesday.

Very little war news for several days. The report of fighting at Vicksburg turned out untrue, unless the account we have to-night of some cannonading be a confirmation of it. The Northern Congress has passed a conscript law and a finance bill, which together give Lincoln unlimited control of men and money in his dominions. The Kentucky Legislature seems to have backed out from its movement for a peace Congress of the Western States. The proposition was defeated in Illinois by the Republican (or Lincoln) majority of the State Senate seceding, and leaving the Legislature without a quorum. The prospect is still for fierce, unrelenting war. Butter selling at $1.75 a pound. Dont know where people get so much money — Confederate Treasury notes. Nearly all sorts of people seem to be overflowing with "currency."

Saturday night, February 28, 1863,

Sister and her children with Kate arrived last evening, and Mr. Stuart this evening. They are eating with us for the present, making (with their two servants) twenty persons fed from our table. Our military force down the Valley has at last had some success over the enemy, capturing 184 of them.

March 1863

Sunday night (11 o'clock) March 1, 1863

One hundred and seventy-four prisoners taken in the recent affair down the Valley [deleted: a few days ago] (we heard of it on Friday.) were brought in this evening. I went down to the McAdamized (Augusta) Street to see them pass, and Mary Stuart, Kitty + Nannie Tate followed me. Much trouble about Sister, Alick, Legh.

Wednesday night, March 4, 1863.

A very cold, blustery day. I have been low in spirits, particularly to-night. Nothing encouraging all around the horizon. No prospect of a termination of the war. The Yankees appear to have begun their attack upon Savannah.

Saturday evening, March 7, 1863.

The war drags along — no news of interest for some time past. The high prices of provisions threaten a famine. A few days ago, I paid a Negro man $6 for two days work. He said he earned daily $2.50 — which is certainly not more than 75c in former times. Beef rose to 40c at market this morning, and will be 50c next week. Ten dollars a bushel are asked for seed potatoes. Wood enormously high, and difficult to get at any price, as farmers are engaged in ploughing. I obtained a government wagon and sent Bristoe for a load this morning, being nearly out. Mr. Stuart and Sister are at last fixed in the Academy — have a room up-stairs, kitchen in one of the school rooms — use the other for storing their furniture. From present appearances, the people of the South will be in a fearful predicament six months hence, if the war continue — and no prospect of a termination. The Yankees are mustering negro regiments at various places. Lincoln has full control of the men and money of the United States — he is absolute dictator — Unless there should be popular rebellions he may carry on the war indefinitely.

Wednesday night, March 11, 1863.

There is a general feeling of despondency in the community. The question of subsistence, not only for the army, but for the people also, is a very serious one. Flour has gone up to $25 per barrel in Staunton — bacon is $1 a pound, very indifferent beef 50c in fact the prices of all articles indicate either a time of famine, or an utterly ruinous depreciation of the currency. Both causes are in operation. A prospect for no wheat in this region next summer, and gold at a premium of $4 in Richmond — that is $5 Confederate currency are paid for $1 gold. Fire wood is selling enormously high - - whatever sellers choose to ask, and the necessities of buyers compel them to give. Our man demands — and receives — $26 a wagon load. Hope I have made an arrangement for getting some wood tomorrow — Borrowed a government wagon, and Legh is to send in two horses — Mr. Stuart's and another. Mrs. C. S. Crawford in town to-night — wrote to me to call and see her at her sister's, Mrs. Heiskell. Much troubled about her business. I have been very much urged by Mr. Wayt to become Administrator of T. C. Burnell's estate. He said the widow and others interested desire it. I declined repeatedly, my time being fully overpaid; but finally agreed to undertake the business in connection with another person, and being requested to submit an appropriate, chose J. W. Hendren. He agrees to serve. So far as we have heard the Northern people are quietly submitting to Lincoln's domination — all the recent measures giving him entire control of their persons and property in the prosecution of the war. A crisis in our affairs seems to have arrived. We cannot submit to the Federalists without utter ruin — and how can we hold on much longer, as at present!

What a contrast between the condition of the country now and two years ago! It is hard to realize that we ever had the luxuries once so common — Stores and shops and groceries and confectionaries full to overflowing — Sugar, coffee, tea, spices, fish, nuts, preserved and dried fruits, candies, cakes, cheese and a thousand articles, prices which now seem strangely low. Now most of these articles cannot be purchased at any price. — only a little sugar at a dollar or more per pound — tea $12 or $15 — We long ago came down to the rye, pure and simple — coffee at $4 a pound was not for us. Some months ago the great demand was for clothing — now the even more pressing demand for food occupies all thoughts. I have, however, heard of no actual suffering for want of necessary sustenance.

Sunday night, March 15, 1863.

Curious weather. Quite a thunder storm on hand. Very cold for the last four or five days. All morning we were threatened with a fall of snow. Mr. Stuart preached to-day. — Mr. Baker in Georgia. Jinny came over this afternoon in great glee, saying she had come to stay with us all the time — that her mother had given her to aunt Jinny. She seemed greatly delighted, asked Va if she was not very glad, and inquired if Matty Tate was glad to have her as her "dear little sister." Upon getting some tobacco in her eye, from blowing into the tobacco box, she began to cry for her mother, but was soon pacified. Netty came over just before dark, and Jinny asked if she had brought her "cowes" (clothes). She went to sleep immediately after supper, in Kate's arms, and Mary now has charge of her. No war news of special interest for several days. An attack at Charleston, S.C., expected soon. The newspapers have further accounts of disaffection in the North Western States. A large amount of army stores burnt up at Richmond, and a cartridge factory then exploded, killing many persons, principally females. Flour said to be $25 (twenty-five dollars) in Staunton! A large cavalry force (Hamilton's Legion) have been in the lower part of this county, near New Hope, eating out the country like a swarm of locusts — taking family supplies of meat from the people — I have been ordered off.

Tuesday night, March 17, 1863.

The Yankees have at last made their long-promised attack upon Port Hudson, one of our strong holds on the Mississippi river, and, from the accounts we have, sustained a signal repulse. Dr. Arch. Graham, of Lexington, who arrived from Richmond this evening, gave us the first intelligence of the affair. Reported that Gen. Jones' command is falling back to Harrisonburg — that the Yankees at Winchester have been largely reinforced — to 20,000 or 25,000. Reported also that the Yankees are advancing on the Rappahannock.

Wednesday night, March 18, 1863.

Nothing further from Port Hudson. Reported this morning that the enemy who were advancing on the upper Potomac, had been driven back. Thought to-day that the rumors of Gen. Jones' falling back +c +c are incorrect. Irish laborers are demanding six dollars a day!

Thursday night, March 19, 1863.

Rumors of fight near Fredericksburg. Another snow-storm to-day. Hearing that aunt Sally had no wood, I called to see after her. Found her and cousin S. sitting almost in the fire place — She could get no wood, and was out of flour also. I don't see how she is to get along under the high prices +c, +c. Her resources are diminished, while she had to pay from 4 to 6 times the old prices for all articles of consumption. I made Tom bring from my office the small quantity of wood there. Met Capt Stevenson this morning, and he had just paid $45 for two barrels of flour. The same amount would formerly have bought from six to nine barrels. Mr. Wayt told me yesterday he was about to butcher a calf six weeks old and weighing about forty pounds net — that the meat was worth a dollar a pound, and the tanner offered fifteen dollars for the hide — $55 for a calf six weeks old!

The supply of rosin at the Gas Works having given out, and candles being enormously high, and difficult to procure at that, Va made to night what is called a "Confederate candle." She dipped a candle wick (fifteen yards) in wax melted with a small portion of rosin, and wrapping the string around a stick, passed one end through a loop made of wire fastened to the top of the stick — The end of the wick, when lighted burns freely, but the light is very indifferent. The stick in this case is supported by a block of marble having a hole in it.

Friday night, March 20, 1863.

Snowing all day. Such a storm, continuing now thirty-six hours, at this season of the year, is remarkable. This evening the snow was at least a foot deep.

Tuesday evening, March 24, 1863.

A load of wood sold to-day for $35 (thirty- five dollars). [deleted: Flour is selling at $25 a barrel] — Butter $2.25 a pound. Raining hard all afternoon. Nearly all of the snow had disappeared by last night.

Friday night, March 27, 1863.

Fast day appointed by President Davis — Services in our church this morning and prayer meetings in the afternoon conducted by Mr. Stuart. Mr. Baker not having returned from Georgia. Yesterday evening little Jinny came in, swelling with indignation, apparently, and told her aunt Va. that "Jeff Davis said we should'nt eat." The concert at the Presbyterian Church, for the benefit of soldiers' families, was repeated last night — large attendance — very creditable to the performers. At an auction sale yesterday, common dinner plates brought $3.75 a piece — many persons have had their glass and china ware broken up since the war began, and there is a great demand for such articles. No war news for several days. Some uneasiness lest the enemy get here this spring from Winchester.

Saturday night, March 28, 1863.

Intelligence that four of the Federal boats attempted to pass our batteries at Vicksburg — one was sunk with all on board, and one disabled. A general feeling of despondency in the community, in regard to the war. Our currency so depreciated that sellers demand and buyers pay the most enormous prices for all articles, and persons who have not an abundant supply of notes are in great strait. Some decisive events must occur in a short time, however, and if we are defeated in the Mississippi Valley, the war will go on indefinitely. A great contest is impending in that section. Disasters to our arms now will overwhelm us with ruin. We know what the enemy are capable of doing, by their treatment of cities and sections in their power. The history of the world does not record a war of greater atrocity — a war of such magnitude and ruthless tyranny. The desire for peace lately manifested by a party in the North, appears to have died out. Va is sitting up to- night with Mrs. Wilson, who is very ill.

April 1863

Friday night, April 3, 1863

We hear to-night of a fearful bread riot in Richmond — more alarming news than the report of a defeat. The papers are silent on the subject. Reported that Gen. Lee has crossed the Rappahannock. Our affairs have looked very gloomy for some weeks past. Few voices for peace come to us from the North, and to all appearances we are in a fearful crisis. Decisive battles have been expected daily at Vicksburg, Charleston +c +c.

I have been very busy every day this week except Tuesday, about Burwell's estate, sale yesterday + to-day and will be continued to-morrow.

Wednesday night, April 8, 1863

Troops moving over the Central Railroad — from Tennessee, it is said — consequently no train up this evening. It is rumored that Gen. Lee is about to advance upon the enemy. The weather still cold — scarcely any sign of opening Spring. Yesterday I purchased 18 pounds of common brown sugar for $25.20 — one dollar and forty cents a pound.

Thursday night, April 9, 1863.

News that the attack upon Charleston has begun. So far the enemy have suffered some loss — at least one gunboat without inflicting serious injury upon us. Cannonading heard this morning — Probably practicing at Imboden's camp.

Saturday night, April 11, 1863

The 31st Va Regiment and a part of the 25th Va arrived to-day on route to join Imboden, at Shenandoah Mt. The remainder of the 25th expected to-night. Some movement is about to be made, probably with a view to procure cattle in the North West, as Tate is about going out in that region on a scout mission. No gas light in town, and badly off for lights of any kind — Adamantius candles selling at $6 per pound. — Not being able to procure an increase of pay at the Q.M.'s office, we have begun to draw rations. My rations for a month are 33 lbs flour, 15 lbs bacon, 2 lbs sugar, 3 lbs rice, 2 candles, a pint of salt + a pint of vinegar — These articles, at present market prices, are worth more than $30! A vast amount of money is being invested in 8 per cent Confederate bonds. After the 22nd inst, no more such bonds can be procured. Have been corresponding with Waterhouse + Bowes in regard to Horton's management of the Gas Works, and his conduct generally. There is some mystery about the matter which Waterhouse promises to explain when he arrives. He enclosed to me a sealed letter to Mrs. Horton, which he requested me to deliver in person. He thinks Horton is deranged. No news from Charleston. At last advices it seemed that the Federalists had abandoned their attempt on Vicksburg.

Thursday night, April 16, 1863

A year ago to-night, + This is a mistake — the excitement occurred on the night of the 18th and the next day Staunton was in an uproar, in anticipation of the enemy's approach — On the 17th I left home for Charlottesville. After two years of war, we seem no nearer peace than when we began. Nearly all articles of food very scarce — Butter a rarity. Very little fresh meat in market, and the quality miserable. I do not know how people who put up no pork get along. The fine rain of yesterday makes the grass look green, and we are cheered by the prospect of better times.

Friday night, April 17, 1863.

This day two years ago, the two military companies of Staunton left home for Harper's Ferry. Then the war began. Two long, eventful years. Imboden started to the Northwest several days ago with his command, and got as far as McDowell, in Highland co., where an order from Gen. Jones overtook him, requiring him to return, as the enemy were believed to be coming up the Valley from towards Winchester. It is thought to have been a false alarm, but Imboden is back at his old camp, and his enterprise, whatever it was is defeated for the present. I met Lloyd Logan, of Winchester, this morning, and he gave me an account of the treatment of his wife and family by the Federal General Millroy. Logan's house is said to be one of the most elegant in Winchester, and during his voluntary exile from home, on account of the presence of the enemy, his wife has had charge of the establishment. Five Federal officers boarded with her during the Winter. They were well-behaved gentlemen, and according to Logan, his wife succeeded in "demoralizing" them, converting them into good Southern men. Two of the five resigned their commissions, and the remaining three declared their intention to quit the service. In every case where officers boarded in respectable families, the same result followed. Gen. Millroy, in consequence of this state of affairs, prohibited officers boarding in families and ordered them to their regiments. Some days ago, a party of soldiers went to Logan's house and carried off a parcel of furniture, and one of his sons, a boy, offering some resistance, was sent to the guard house. The next morning, before breakfast, an officer with a guard presented himself at the home, and notified Mrs. Logan to leave, as Gen. Millroy wished to use the place himself. She remonstrated, refused to go, offered to give up part of the house; but the miserable tool of a petty tyrant informed her that she must go, by force, if necessary, not only out of the house but beyond the Federal lines. She was closely watched during all her preparations for departure, not being alone for a moment. In the mean while many citizens had gathered in the street, no one was permitted to enter the house. — Several gentlemen called on Millroy in behalf of the family, but he refused to revoke his order, assigning, as his only cause of complaint, that a prayer-meeting was held in the house on Fast Day. This was not true, as the meeting was held in an adjoining house. Mrs. Logan was allowed to bring with her some articles of female apparel and bed clothing — She asked them to bring a spoon for administering medicine to a sick child, and it was refused. She asked permission to take a cup of sugar — it was denied — A small medicine box, and all private papers and money were taken from her. An old servant woman, applied for the keys to get dinner for the family before they started, as they were prevented from eating breakfast — the officer refused the request, and the negro denounced him in terms more indignant than elegant. One of the wretches dressed himself in a full suit of Logan's clothes, and asked his daughter how he looked in her father's attire. She replied that he looked like a thief. At 2 o'clock, an old carriage and baggage wagon drove up to the door, the family were thrust in, including the boy brought from the guardhouse, and under escort of sixty soldiers brought out to Newtown. Two of the officers who had boarded with Mrs. Logan, rode after her and wept like children on account of her treatment. — They told her to bear her trials patiently — that the North must soon give up the contest — that they would not lift an arm again against the South — that they were determined the Northern people should know of Millroy's proceedings. — All the garden tools in Winchester have been collected by Yankee soldiers, to prevent the raising of vegetables. Farmers in the neighborhood are idle, having no horses and all the slaves being gone.

Tuesday night, April 21, 1863.

Our newspapers have been very hopeful for some days past, and the general feeling has been more buoyant than a week or two ago, although the intelligence which arrived Sunday evening, that five Federal gunboats had got past our batteries at Vicksburg, caused some depression. The elevation of feeling has been produced by the failure of the Yankees at Charleston, and their general want of success; the negotiation of a Confederate loan in England, which is a pretty substantial acknowledgement of our independence by the capitalists of that country; and the revival of popular discontents in the Northern States, particularly with reference to the conscript law passed by the Washington Congress. The latest reports from the North state that Lincoln has postponed indefinitely the execution of the law. Important, and, so far, encouraging movements have been in progress at Washington, N. C. and Suffolk, Va — Gen. D. H. Hill commanding our troops at the former place, and Gen. Longstreet at the latter. Imboden got off again yesterday — I do not anticipate anything valuable from his expedition.

Wednesday night, April 22, 1863.

Gen. Hill has abandoned the siege of Washington, N. C. We have sustained some loss at Suffolk — an artillery company having been surprised and captured. Our community generally are reduced to great straits for lights at night — no gas yet. We have what are called "Confederate candles" — long pieces of candlewick dipped in melted wax having a little rosin mixed with it. It is surely better than no light at all. The most necessary articles of food very difficult to get. Families who have lived well heretofore are reduced to bread and water. We had a small piece of mutton or lamb for dinner to-day, barely enough for a meal, which cost three dollars ($3). I am trying to put in about six acres of corn, in the field I bought from Legh. Philip is plowing, when the weather permits, and is to cultivate the crop on shares.

Saturday night, April 25, 1863.

Having Mrs. Imboden to dine with us to-day, with Mr. Stuart, Mary Stuart, D. A. Kayser +c, Va had almost as good an entertainment as she could have had in old times — turkey, old ham, potatoes, tomatoes, rice, pickles, dried huckleberry and dried currant pies, preserved strawberries + currant jelly. But we live very differently common times — these articles have been hoarded for special occasions. Butter has gone up to three dollars ($3) a pound — at least that sum has been demanded. Brown sugar $1.50. Common calico formerly 12 1/2 cents a yard, now $2.50. (two and a half dollars.) Large amounts of Confederate Treasury notes have been funded recently, which makes currency somewhat scarce, and prices have fallen slightly; but if the war continues they will go up again.

Sunday night, April 26, 1863.

This afternoon Alick came by and said cannonading had been heard by a number of persons — We have no intelligence by Railroad or Telegraph of any battle impending in this region — No enemy near us so far as we are aware. Cold enough this morning to form ice. Mr. Stuart preached this morning — congregation large.

Tuesday night, April 28, 1863.

I received a letter this afternoon from Tate, written at Beverly, Randolph co., last Saturday morning, the 25th. The Yankees there were surprised Friday evening, but escaped after burning their stores. They (the Yankees) numbered some 1200. Tate writes as if there was very little fighting, but Imboden in a letter speaks of a three hours' fight! — Several persons sent off from Maryland arrived in town last night — they report an outburst in Indiana. — We have heard of such things too often to be credulous.

Wednesday night, April 29, 1863.

News by Telegraph this evening, confirmed by the Railroad train, that large forces of the enemy have crossed the Rappahannock at Kelly's Ford and other points in Culpeper. — A party of Yankees sent from the lower Valley to pursue Gen. Jones (who is cooperating with Imboden in the N. W.) had been ambushed on their return, and forty of them slain or captured.

Thursday night, April 30, 1863.

Not a word of intelligence from the East, by Telegraph or otherwise. The only dispatch received during the day announced merely that the Railroad train would not arrive this evening. The freight train due this morning did not come. We infer, of course, that the trains have been taken for the transportation of troops. Two companies stationed here for many months, were ordered off, and left this morning by Railroad, for Gordonsville, or some other point East. Some very important military movement is on foot undoubtedly — probably a great battle is impending — perhaps actually going on — Although in the latter event we should, I suppose, hear the reports of cannon. It has not often occurred during the war that communication by Telegraph and Railroad has so entirely been suspended or interdicted.

A report of a desperate affair in Hardy county was in circulation to-day, but could not be traced to any perfectly credible source. It stated that some of our troops, cavalry and infantry, had driven a party of the enemy into a church, or surprised them there, near Moorfield; that the enemy refused to surrender, but firing through port holes, killed and wounded about 38 of our men; that the Church was finally taken by storm and set on fire; and that the whole party were captured, killed or burnt to death. — One version of the report stated that all of them were killed by shooting or burnt to death in the house.

Fourteen or fifteen prisoners taken by Imboden at Beverly arrived this evening — all Dutch.

May 1863

Friday night, May 1, 1863.

The first intelligence of this morning was confirmatory of yesterday's report of the affair in Hardy county, mentioned above, in the main. Two companies of Yankee soldiers were captured, having surrendered only when the burning house was about to fall in upon them. Our loss was 5 or 6 killed, and 15 or 16 wounded. Some of the Yankee wounded, as well as their dead, were consumed by the fire. It was reported during the day that Gen. Jones had destroyed the tressle works on the Baltimore + Ohio Railroad at Cheat Mountain, and also captured 1000 Yankees at New Creek. Imboden writes again that he is prospering in the N. W. But rations on the Rappahannock attract the chief attention. It was communicated to me in profound confidence that a battle was raging, and we are getting the worst of it — this news was said to have come by Telegraph and was told as a secret by the operator to his friends. The mail train arrived a little past the usual time, and a crowd of people rushed to the Depot. I was first told by a man who had heard a passenger relate the news, that the enemy had taken the fords of the Rapidan, our forces having been worsted. Next a passenger told me that Gen Stuart had repulsed the enemy at the Rapidan, that the Yankees had crossed below Fredericksburg, we had sustained some loss skirmishing; and that a great battle was expected to begin every hour. A third person informed me that the Yankees had not approached the Rapidan, but were crossing the Rappahannock at Kelly's Fort, at Deep Run, and at Port Royal. A great battle is at hand, may God govern for us.

Saturday night, May 2, 1863.

A day of great suspense. The first intelligence received this morning by Telegraph, stated that a Yankee force had reached Trevilian's Depot, nine miles below Gordonsville, and were destroying the Central Railroad. The train which left Staunton this morning for Richmond, was stopped at Charlottesville. Until the train returned late in the afternoon, we received no further intelligence. Passengers then brought news that the Yankees, after doing what injury they could at Trevilian's, were proceeding towards Louisa C. H., when a party of our troops encountered and utterly annihilated them. No intelligence whatever from Fredericksburg or thereabouts. People in this neighborhood say they have heard great cannonading to-day. Miss Agnes has felt much solicitude about Martha Wills, who lives near Trevilian's. This evening, after the arrival of the cars, I encountered Mrs. Galt on the street and found her greatly disturbed by apprehensions for the safety of her three sons who are in the army, working +c. I stood at the gate with her, trying to administer consolation. This evening ninety-five Yankees captured at the church in Hardy, were brought in — an ill-looking set. The weather has been delightful for several days past — Spring opening beautifully — every body gardening. It was particularly melancholy, however, to reflect to any that the enemy might come in like a flood and destroy all our heritage. Legh's two children were in town to-day — Lucy and Kitty. They with Addy and Mary dined at Sister's, and then Sister's three (Netty, Lelia, + Jenny), Alicks two (Addy + Mary) and Legh's two (Lucy + Kitty) came up to make a visit.

Sunday night, May 3, 1863.

It was said this morning that a dispatch received during the night, confirmed the report of yesterday evening in regard to the destruction of the Yankee force making the raid upon the Railroad, and that the damage done to the truck would be repaired at once. When the train arrived this evening, however, very different intelligence was received. It is difficult to tell what was received, as there was a wild and confused map of rumors, suppositions, +c. If any encounter took place between our troops and the enemy, it was a small affair. One report is that our cavalry were too much exhausted to pursue the enemy — another that Gen. Fitzhugh Lee is in pursuit. The num- of the enemy was variously reported from one to eight thousand. — all cavalry. They were said to be South of the Central Railroad at last accounts, but no body can tell where they were precisely. Some persons are disposed to think that they are aiming for the James River Canal at Columbia, and the Southside Railroad at Farmville. But at Charlottesville there was an expectation that they would come that way to destroy the Railroad bridge across the Rivanna; and the public stores were then removed to Lynchburg. Some persons going off with their slaves +c, and the people were arriving to defend the bridge. In the mean time it is supposed that a great battle is in progress on the Rappahannock, near Lynchburg. Fighting at Grand Gulf, Miss., + in Tennessee.

Monday evening, May 4, 1863.\

A Telegraphic rumor this morning that Jackson had defeated the enemy at Port Royal, capturing 5000 of them. This evening it said that Brig. Gen. Paxton was killed. No tidings of the Yankees who were depredating upon the Railroad.

At night — 10 o'clock — The cars arrived after dark. — Jimmy Tate went down to learn the news — I having been quite unwell all day — laid up at home in the forenoon. Jimmy reported on his return that the Yankee army had been driven seven miles beyond the Rappahannock, that our army was in their (the Yankees) late camp, that we had taken 10,000 prisoners, that Gen. Jackson was wounded — one person said severely, others said slightly, — that nothing was known of the Yankees who tore up the Railroad, the damage had been repaired, and that the cars came through from Richmond to-day. Oh that our people may give the glory of this deliverance to God, turning unto him with grateful obedient hearts. Another beautiful Spring day — several showers of rain.

Tuesday, May 5, 18623-

2 o'clock, P. M. — While we were enjoying the good news of last night, a dispatch came this morning, stating that 12,000 Yankees, cavalry and artillery, under Gen. Stoneham, were at Yanceyville, Louisa Co. — the same who made the raid upon the Railroad, and now returning from the James River Canal. It is said that this division as they came on last week, took our cavalry entirely by surprise capturing 2000 of them and scattering the remainder. — that Fitzhugh Lee with 500 men followed them, and fought them while they were breaking up the Railroad, but having such a superiority in numbers they were able to brush Lee off and go on with their work. Some apprehension that they may come this way. The train did not come through from Richmond yesterday, and the information in regard to affairs on the Rappahannock, near Fredericksburg, is not direct enough to be satisfactory.

Night. — The cars arrived between 5 + 6 o'clock. The first reports I heard were decidedly discouraging. As I came out of the office to inquire the news, I met S. H. Lushbaugh returning from the Railroad, and he informed me that the Yankees had the Richmond + Fredericksburg R. R. as well as the Central. G. W. Booth, however, who came up from Lynchburg, gave a more favorable account of matters. He stated that the enemy under Gen. Stoneham Stoneman - - 6000 strong — their headquarters at Louisa C. H., and that parties had been sent out to destroy Railroads +c. One party went to the Canal, but did not succeed in their object; another was sent to the Richmond + Fredericksburg R. R., and captured one of our ambulance trains, approached within a short distance of Richmond +c +c. But that these are the only Yankees on this side of the Rappahannock, and they are said to be surrounded by our troops. Of course things looked bright again this evening. Gen. Lee stated in his official dispatch that he gained a great victory, but says that Gen. Jackson was severely wounded. Other accounts state that he was wounded in the arm, and did not leave the field. Some members of the 5th Regiment, wounded in the recent battle, arrived this evening. Beef sells at one dollar a pound, in market.

Wednesday night, May 6, 1863.

My few additional particulars in regard to the recent great battle — chiefly a repetition of the statement that we gained a decided victory. But Gen. Jackson has lost his arm, the injury being so serious as to render amputation necessary. There is a report, not credited, that the Yankee commander in chief, "Fighting Joe Hooker," and all his staff have been captured. No authentic information as to what has become of the Yankee cavalry on the Railroad — a report that they were making for Raccoon ford, in Culpeper. We do not know certainly to what extent the Railroad has been injured. Some of the party were captured quite near to Richmond. Reports from Jones' + Imboden's N. W. expedition, but the statements confused. Northern accounts say that Jones had captured Clarksburg, and entered Pennsylvania — a part of his command has been in Morgantown. ——— A N. E. storm with heavy rains to-day which has suspended corn planting.

Thursday night, May 7, 1863

A man from Harrisonburg, told in the office this morning that the Yankees were coming up the Valley. As the Telegraph has made no report of the fact, I thought it an idle rumor. About 9 o'clock to-night, however, Jimmy Tate came in from the kitchen and told us that Wright said the Yankees were coming, a number of stages and many people having arrived in Harrisonburg. I went down street immediately to ascertain the facts of the case. Found Dr. L. Waddell at the American Hotel Hospital — he had come up with the sick soldiers from the Harrisonburg Hospital. He said there were many rumors of the advance of the enemy, but he had no reliable information — the road however was full of people with their cattle +c, flying before them. We have a force of 800 men below Harrisonburg. Afterwards I learned that a dispatch had come stating that 2100 of the enemy (presumed to be cavalry) were nine miles blow Harrisonburg. Passengers by the train this evening and the papers received repeat former reports as to our victory on the Rappahannock. — I go down street again to inquire the news.

Friday, May 8, 1863.

2 o'clock, P. M. — Upon my second trip down street last night, I heard still more exciting reports. The Yankees in large force, — infantry, artillery and cavalry — were said to be advancing, and would probably reach Staunton by to-morrow. One of our clerks (C. N. K.) whom I met at the Telegraph Office, told me that the Yankees were recrossing the Rappahannock, and that another great battle would take place in a few days. From his intimacy with the Operator, I thought it possible that some such official intelligence had been communicated to him. Came home at near 12 o'clock, feeling rather anxious. This morning there is no intelligence from the Rappahannock, and it is not probable that a routed army could rally so soon. From the Valley we learn that the Yankees are going back towards Winchester. The expedition may have been a reconnaisance to ascertain what force we had. Forty-seven prisoners taken in the Northwest were brought in to-day. It is reported that a large number of captured horses and cattle are at hand, having reached this county. Reports + impressions of persons from army in that section are conflicting as to our operations. We are said to have a large force there, now under command of Gen. Saml. Jones. (The other Jones is Wm). but there is no very recent tidings as to movements. Joe Ryan lost a leg at the Rappahannock, and Thomas or Charles Calhoun was badly wounded. Oh may God arrest this carnage!

Night. — An army chaplain who left Richmond yesterday, I presume, reports that an other battle was anticipated on the Rappahannock — that one wing of the enemy was still on this side of the river, and that reinforcements had been received. C. R. Mason, however, who arrived this evening, probably from Gordonsville, says that a portion of the enemy were on this side (or South) of the river, that a fight occurred on Wednesday, since when the enemy have been crossing over and going off. It is said that Hood's division has joined Lee. Charles Calhoun's leg and Joe Ryan's were shot off. The horrors of the war! For two long years blood has flowed, and hearts have been wrung with anguish. James Calhoun goes down tomorrow to see after his son. At the first news of a battle for the last two years he has been promptly in town, and has generally gone immediately to the army. The Central Railroad has been repaired, and the cars will go through to-morrow. I fear that some of our soldiers have been pillaging in the N. W. — committing downright robbery. A set of silver has been sent to the wife of a Col. from town. He doubtless captured it!

Monday, May 11, 1863.

A report of Gen. Jackson's death was current this morning, but most persons hoped that it was untrue. Between 1 + 2 o'clock, however, the Telegraph Operator stepped into the room where I was writing, and handed me a dispatch from the War Department at Richmond, to be sent to Lexington, announcing the fact. — I could scarcely control my hand so as to write my name. Universal lamentation. Jackson was to us like Elijah to his people — "the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof."68 News, also, of the death of James Calhoun.

Wednesday night, May 13, 1863.

There seems to be no doubt, as at first reported, that Jackson received the wounds which caused his death, from our own men. He had gone out reconnoitering after dark, and he and his staff were mistaken for a party of the enemy. Never was there a more universal lamentation among any people than this event has caused. He was a man of remarkable singleness of purpose, fearing God and naught else. Yet before the war he was almost a butt in the society at Lexington — a good deal laughed at for some peculiarities — although, at the same time, respected as a sincere, good man. For some years he was unable to keep awake during preaching, but slept in his pew, sitting, perfectly erect, which was a subject of much merrimaking. But behind it all there was a feeling of respect for the man. — James Calhoun arrived this evening with the remains of Charles, rejoicing in the midst of his grief that his son died in the faith of the Gospel. One or more other corpses were brought on the same train — the slain have been coming ever since the battle, as well as the wounded. How the heart sickens at this carnage — yet we are hardened to it, and do not feel it as I would have anticipated. Persons from Shenandoah give some particulars of the recent advance of the enemy through that county. They were about 2000 in number, and came only a mile this side of New Market. All accounts state that they were very timid, and suddenly hurried back, upon receiving intelligence by couriers from Winchester, the officers not waiting to eat the dinner that was preparing. Some of the Yankees slept in a building formerly used as a Hospital, at New Market, and during the night the citizens were alarmed by wild shrieks which came from the building. Next morning some of the Yankees told that they had seen ghosts! This is related by a Lutheran minister from the vicinity. A rumor to-day that Imboden has met with some disaster.

Thursday night, May 14, 1863.

The Northern papers of the 11th report that their Gen. Keyes has captured Richmond! Further rumors from N. W. Va, but nothing reliable of recent date. It is said that a portion of our troops behaved outrageously, robbing the people indiscriminately, or rather that our own friends were the principal sufferers, as the Federalists ran away with all their movable property. At the late battle of the Wilderness, on the Rappahannock, a South Carolina Brigade, which was lying down, was ordered to charge a battery or breastwork of the enemy, but refused to move. The General in command asked what Brigade was just behind them, and being told it was the "Stonewall," said: That's the one I want. It was ordered forward, and rushed over the prostrate Carolinians, carried the day after a desperate struggle. In this affair Chas. Calhoun, Joe Ryan and so many others fell.

[deleted: (I am not certain that the above story is entirely true.)]

Joe says it is true, but he was not wounded there

The following account of the recent great battle on the Rappahannock is considered the best that has yet appeared. — The tribute to the conduct of our men, coming from an enemy while the war is still raging, is remarkable. —

"Latest News from the North. The Battles about Fredericksburg—What is Thought and Said of Them— Review of the Week's Operations—Hooker's Defeat Admitted—Stories, Rumors and Speculations in the North," Image 1

"Latest News from the North. The Battles about Fredericksburg—What is Thought and Said of Them— Review of the Week's Operations—Hooker's Defeat Admitted—Stories, Rumors and Speculations in the North," Image 2

"Latest News from the North. The Battles about Fredericksburg—What is Thought and Said of Them— Review of the Week's Operations—Hooker's Defeat Admitted—Stories, Rumors and Speculations in the North," Image 3

"Latest News from the North. The Battles about Fredericksburg—What is Thought and Said of Them— Review of the Week's Operations—Hooker's Defeat Admitted—Stories, Rumors and Speculations in the North," Image 4

Monday morning, May 18, 1863.

Northern reports received yesterday evening, state that Vallandigham has been sentenced by Court Marshal in Ohio, to confinement at Tortugas as for two years.69 He is Democratic candidate for Governor, and his offence is opposition to the war policy of the Administration. For words uttered in a public speech, he was arrested by a company of soldiers, and tried for his life, I believe. There was some popular disturbance in the town and county where he resided — a riot +c — but so far as now appears the people submit to any tyranny. Every vestige of civil liberty seems to be gone in most of the Northern States. New York and New Jersey claim to be the only free States left — they have opposition Governors. Much anxiety is felt in regard to affairs in Mississippi. Some days ago the newspapers reported that the enemy had possession of Raymond, having advanced from Grand Sulphur, and a more recent rumor says they have captured Jackson, the capital of the State. If this be so Vicksburg must fall, so far as we can see. Jas. N. Skinner writes to his mother that in the late battle on the Rappahannock, disparity was so great. A rumor this morning that Gen. Hood has crossed to the North bank of the Rappahannock.70

Wednesday night, May 20, 1863.

Bad news from Mississippi! Gen. Johnston telegraphs to Richmond that Gen. Pemberton, after a fight of nine hours, had to retreat across the Big Black, towards Vicksburg. — That town is therefore in a state of siege by land and water, and unless Johnston has a force this side to prevent it, the fall of the place is inevitable. Alas! alas! The enemy under Grant have been to Jackson and done as they pleased. Edward Waddell came up to supper this evening. He returns to the army next week. Poor fellow, he is sadly disappointed. He has been in the army since the very beginning of the war, was at last first Sergeant of his company — West Augusta Guard (Co. L. 5th Reg), and was hoping for a Lieutenancy, but learned that an election had taken place when many members were absent, and another man had been chosen. Promotion does not run our way. From all accounts he is a good soldier. Joe Ryan arrived yesterday — complains of great pain at times in the sole of his amputated foot — as if some one were cutting it with a knife. — Gen. Jenkins' Brigade of cavalry is collecting here, and an inspection takes place to- morrow, near town. Jenkins is to command in the Valley, Jones, and perhaps Imboden having been ordered to join Gen. Lee.

Saturday, May 23, 1863.

The news from Mississippi is very unintelligible — I cannot understand whether there has been one or two battles. Perhaps there has been a series of fights. The Richmond papers speak encouragingly as to the result, and Col. Preston, of Lexington, who was at our house last night, just from Richmond, says a gentleman who had come from an interview with the President and several members of the Cabinet, informed him that our authorities felt confidant — that they did not expect to hold Jackson longer than the 1st of January last, and that Vicksburg being prepared for a six months' siege, it would be able to hold out till the Federalists would be compelled to suspend operations by the coming on of the Sickly Season — that as Grant did not occupy Jackson till the middle of May, he would have the less time for the reduction of Vicksburg. Preston is generally more hopeful as to the termination of the war, than most people about here have been. Thousands of Yankee soldiers are going home, their terms of enlistment having expired, and no troops (new [illeg.]) are ready to take their places. Lincoln is however carrying it with a high hand in the North, and so far he meets with slight resistance from the people. A great meeting was held in New York city a few days ago to denounce the proceedings against Vallandigham. Reported yesterday that he (Vallandigham) had been sentenced to confinement in Fort Lafayette during the war. We hear of no popular commotions in Ohio in consequence of the sentence. Matters are getting rather worse with us in regard to the means of living. A few days ago I purchased a fore-quarter of veal for $13.50; which makes the whole calf, a little over four weeks old, come to about $70. For a pair of common cotton pantaloons, formerly costing $1.50 to $2.00, I have paid $12. At these rates my money will be exhausted very soon. Can get no pasture for my cow, and as we now have a dry spell, she can pick up very little on the common. Had a cup of genuine coffee recently. Va, had saved a little, and brought it out for company. Tate was in town day before yesterday. He seems rather disgusted with N. W. Virginia. He gives a ludicrous account of some scenes he witnessed — a council of war +c. About 3000 cattle were brought off — the country affords nothing else. Gen. Jones has come back to the Valley. Imboden was reported to be at the Warm Springs a day or two ago.

Night. — Very gloomy news from Mississippi. — No heart for anything. See the dispatch annexed.

Monday night, May 25, 1863.

Our fears in regard to affairs at Vicksburg were somewhat relieved yesterday evening. The Richmond papers of this morning, repeat the same intelligence with some additions. — See the Telegraphic dispatches on next page. We have not seen the end of the matter yet, however.

Telegraphic News. From Mississippi — The Enemy Repulsed at Vicksburg — Reported Capture of Helena, Ark., by Gen. Price — Reinforcements at Vicksburg

From Mississippi. A Fight on Saturday—Burning of Big Black Bridge- -Vicksburg Closely Besieged

MOBILE, May 21.—The special reporter of the Advertiser and Register, at Jackson, sends the latest news from Vicksburg, down to Tuesday night.

In Saturday's fight we lost thirty pieces of artillery, which were spiked and abandoned.

On Sunday the Federals advanced to take the Big Black bridge, but were repulsed. They crossed higher up, and took us in the rear, when the bridge was burned and the works abandoned and loss heavy.

Vicksburg is closely besieged, the enemy closing in one every side.

General Loring has assumed command at Jackson.

[The above is all we have from this important point, upon which the public mind is now centered with so much anxiety. Up to a late hour last night this dispatch was without official confirmation, and we yet indulge the hope that our situation is not so painful as its contents would seem to indicate.]

Wednesday night, May 27, 1863.

The reports from Vicksburg, received this evening, are still more encouraging than the above. According to rumor we have captured 17,000 Federalists there, and killed 10,000. These figures are doubtless too high. Reports from the South West are generally confused and unreliable. If the Yankees are compelled to abandon their attempt upon Vicksburg, we may hope for a termination of the war before very many months. It is rumored that Gen. Stuart has started upon another raid. Imboden's Brigade is at Stribling's Springs to-night. Jenkin's, which has been collecting in this vicinity for some days past, leaves to-morrow — moving down the Valley. A large number of women and children from N. W. Va arrived in town last night — about sixty. They were sent off by the Yankee authorities for sympathizing with the South, and were allowed to bring only necessary wearing apparel and a hundred dollars each. Some of our soldiers from the N. W. Now, I hear, that they will never taken another Yankee prisoner. A small batch of prisoners captured in the N. W. were brought in to-day. A dispatch from Tullahoma, Tenn., published in to-day's papers, says that Vallandigham has been brought under guard to a point between the two armies and turned loose. Northern papers had reported previously that the sentence of the military court had been changed by Lincoln to banishment South.

Friday night, May 29, 1863.

Bloody fighting around Vicksburg still reported. Gen. Johnston sends word that we are holding our own, and all the reports from our side are encouraging; but we have not seen the end yet, and there is room for anxiety. The effluria from the Yankee dead, has filled the atmosphere, so that tar has been burned in Vicksburg, so said. Northern accounts, on the other hand — not so late as ours — represent affairs as highly favorable for Yankees. The peace men in New York seem to be putting forth more vigorous efforts. Our papers are discussing the question as to how Vallandigham shall be treated. Doubtless we should regard him as a citizen of a country at war with us, and therefore as an alien enemy; but being here under such circumstances, the rights of humanity should be extended to him. He should neither be detained as a prisoner, nor honored as a guest, but allowed to pass through the county to any neutral ground he may select. The accounts of refugees from N. W. Va of the barbarities practiced upon our friends in that region, are shocking. I could begin to recount them. It is generally thought that Gen. Lee is on the point of some important movement.

June 1863

Tuesday night, June 2, 1863.

The fate of Vicksburg still undecided. No news from there for several days — indeed any intelligence at all reliable is generally about a week behind hand. Our last reports stated that the Yankees had been repulsed, and a dispatch via Mobile, received here on Sunday, said that Grant had fallen back and was entrenching. Since then we have not received a word more. Reports from the North, which came by the Richmond papers this evening, admit the repulses of Grant's army with heavy loss, on Friday, 22nd of April, and there is a rumor said to have come from a Federal officer on James River, that Grant has been killed. Northern papers had it a few days ago that Vicksburg was captured — now they say it will require a week to reduce the place. A dispatch from Fredericksburg says that the Yankee officer who came across in the flag of truce boat, refused to exchange papers with our men, from which it is inferred there is something in their papers they do not wish us to see. Betty Lyle writes from Wetumpka to Virginia that Oscola Kyle, now Lt. Col. of the 46th Alabama Regiment, was taken prisoner at Grand Gulf. It was a great relief to Va and her mother + sister to hear he was not killed. Weather very dry, and very windy yesterday and day before. Prices still going up. A calf eight or ten weeks old will bring from $80 to $100. A cow + calf bring from $250 to $500. The 25th + 31st Regiments which accompanied Imboden in his Northwestern excursion, returned to-day to the Rappahannock. The two do not number more than five or six hundred.

Wednesday night, June 3, 1863.

The papers of this morning have a dispatch dated Jackson, Miss., on the 1st inst. It states that on Thursday last Grant sent a demand for the surrender of Vicksburg in three days, which was refused. (We had supposed that he was hardly in condition to make such a demand); that one corps of the Federal army was demoralized and refused to renew the assault on Saturday (one of the papers has it the whole Federal army); that the Federal loss is from 25,000 to 30,000, including five Generals killed. It is also stated that Port Hudson has been invested. I feel little doubt that the enemy will ultimately take both places. We have not the means of resisting the hordes they are able to bring against us in that quarter. Reported, however; that Gen. Johnston, who is on or near the outskirts of Grant's army, is receiving reinforcements from Charleston. A reported to-day that Stuart with 40,000 cavalry had started on a raid in Pennsylvania — It is hardly possible that he can muster 20,000. A more authentic report is, that a cavalry review will come off to-morrow in Culpeper.

Saturday night, June 6, 1863.

No Railroad train from Richmond this evening, — Reason not given, but it is presumed that Gen. Lee's army is moving. This is indicated by various other facts. It is believed that Lee is advancing North of the Rappahannock by way of Culpeper. For some time past our cavalry have been assembling at Culpeper C. H. and a grand review was to have taken place yesterday. Yesterday and day before persons in different and remote parts of this county heard cannonading. A rumor to-day that it was the shelling out of a party of deserters who for some time past have occupied "Shiflet's Hollow," in Rockingham. Gen. Trimble is coming to the Valley to take command. News from Vicksburg very unsatisfactory — often unintelligible as given by Telegraph, but there is now a general feeling of security in reference to affairs at that point. I, however, never feel that all is safe till we have heard the end of the matter. Religion seems to be prospering in our army of the Rappahannock — quite a revival. At prayer meeting this evening Mr. Baker read extracts from letters received from Chaplains and from two young men of this place who have lately professed conversion. I have felt this evening that if God would grant to us a universal awakening and revival, it would be better than the peace we desire so much. Five of our town youths belonging to the army have lately united with the church — several of them heretofore decidedly unpromising. To-morrow is communion day — Dr. McFarland preached this morning. Gardens and fields (particularly oats and grass) beginning to suffer for want of rain. A heavy shower yesterday South of town. Locusts have been very numerous and noisy for a week past.

Monday night, June 8, 1863.

Passengers by the freight train yesterday morning brought a report that the Yankees had been signally repulsed at Port Hudson. The mail train arrived in the evening, bringing the same report. There is nothing more definite or authentic to-day. The rumors, by way of Mobile, and none later than the 1st, are numerous and conflicting. One States that Gen. Banks (Federal) lost an arm, another that Gen. Sherman (Fed) was killed. One that all of Banks' army (40,000) were destroyed except 3000; another that 3000 men were killed +c. The Yankees, it is said, placed their negro troops in front when the attack was made, and vast numbers of them were slain. Most of these reports purport to have been brought from New Orleans by Confederate Officers lately discharged on parole. From Vicksburg, we hear of further fighting, but all accounts of recent transactions are confused and brief. It seems probable that Grant has set down to a regular siege.

It appears to be settled at last that Gen. Lee is advancing by way of Culpeper. Rumor says a portion of his army was moving to-day from Culpeper C. H. towards Sperryville, in Rappahannock Co. A considerable force of Yankees came across the Rappahannock near Fredericksburg a few days ago. But were frightened back. Weather still dry + very cool — threatening frost.

Thursday afternoon, June 11, 1863.

I have been confined at home for two days by sickness — Took opium yesterday, and experienced very pleasant sensations. — Walked to the office after dinner to-day, but had to return in a short time. A cavalry fight took place day before yesterday, in Culpeper Co, very unexpectedly to us here. We have not received a full account of the affair, but, from the reports, we got rather the worst of it, losing 600 men taken prisoners, although capturing 300 of the enemy. — The Federalists seem to have been advancing, as the reports state that they were driven back. Our troops under Gen. Jones, late of the Valley, were surprised!

Saturday night, June 13, 1863.

Northern reports of affairs at Vicksburg differ greatly from those received from our side. The Yankees say that Vicksburg is in extremity and must soon surrender, while the Richmond papers state that our soldiers in the besieged town a confident of success. Rumored this evening that Gen. Ewell's corps was near Winchester, en route for Pennsylvania. Steps have been taken to call our 8000 militia by the 1st of August next. Further accounts of the fight in Culpeper on Tuesday, show that we had the advantage in the end, although suffering heavy loss. — It would seem that Jones' Brigade was not more surprised than our other troops.

Monday night, June 15, 1863.

Reported last evening that Gen. Ewell had reached the vicinity of Winchester — to- day that Early's division had taken the enemy's fortifications by storm. The weather getting drier and drier — oat crop almost entirely a failure — grass cut short — corn suffering + gardens ditto.

Tuesday night, June 16, 1863.

Passengers from Winchester report that Gen. Ewell had captured a large number of Yankees at that place — the entire force, except the cavalry — and also a Brigade coming up to reinforce them. The number is stated at seven thousand. Milroy, according to rumor, had not been captured, but was supposed to be lurking in the town. All this is received with many grains of allowance. It is evident from the large amounts of ordnance and other stores to be brought to Staunton, that the Valley will be the scene of protracted operations.

Wednesday night, June 17, 1863.

Passengers from Winchester state that our army had crossed the Potomac into Maryland, at three points. — All of the Yankees at Winchester, except Millroy and his body-guard were captured. The number is given as 5000. A rumor has it, however, that Milroy had been captured, and is confined in Charleston jail, while his wife is in Martinsburg jail! A stuttering soldier at the stage office asserted, on the other hand, that he knew positively that the wife had gone to Ohio six weeks ago. Gen. Lee, with another portion of our army, has disappeared somewhere, and it is not known when or where he will turn up. Longstreet and his corps are cooperating with Ewell across the Potomac. These movements are wonderful — so rapid and secret. — The Richmond train has not arrived yet (10 o'clock) — passed Charlottesville at the usual hour — a breakdown between that point and Waynesboro — no Telegraph station between the two places. The drought is becoming very alarming. Weather very warm for three days past — the earth and all vegetation drying up. All signs of rain have failed.

Friday night, June 19, 1863.

Still no reliable information as to the amount of captures at Winchester, Martinsburg, +c. of men and stores. — Reports very conflicting. Staunton is again a great thoroughfare for the army. Many soldiers passing through to join their commands. A. P. Hill's corps has come into the Valley from Culpeper, and the whole army is evidently tending in the same direction. We now have authentic information that a portion of the army is in Maryland. Maj. Gen. Trimble has been in town all day. He is to have command of the Valley district. — Reports from Port Hudson encouraging — nothing from Vicksburg. Yesterday afternoon we had a furious storm of wind — the dust filling the atmosphere — slight rain. To-day we have had delightful showers.

Milroy's Reign in Winchester," Image 1

Milroy's Reign in Winchester," Image 2

Saturday night, June 20, 1863.

Report of a sharp fight in Fauquier yesterday, A cavalry force of the enemy attacked a wagon train belonging to Longstreet's Corps (it is presumed), but we happened to have a guard of three Brigades, and the Yankees were handled rather roughly. We took 400 prisoners — So said. The prisoners captured in the lower Valley are footing it up the McAdamized road — The first detachment (officers) will arrive here on Monday next. The whole number is now put at 6000. [deleted: Maj.] Gen. Trimble, [deleted: who has] sat with us this morning in our room at the Q.M. building and talked and behaved very differently from some of the military grandees. He is a plain, unpretending elderly man, and is evidently as much in the dark as to Gen. Lee's plans as the rest of us. He went down the Valley to-day. A great hubbub has lately been going on in the Northwestern States, on account of the suppression of the "Chicago Times," by the Lincoln authorities. The paper is edited by the husband of Mrs. Storey, of whom I had a good deal to say two years ago. He then lived in Detroit.

Monday night, June 22, 1863.

About 10 o'clock upwards of sixteen hundred Yankees taken at Winchester, arrived. They were guarded by the 58th Va Regiment, of which Jim McClung is Quartermaster. The Yankees seemed to be very cheerful — several of them, upon being taunted with their getting to Richmond at last, said they were going just as they wanted to go. They seemed to have none of the feelings of captured robbers as they are. Some of them sold their overcoats, blankets +c, which were bought by our people for their servants. The prisoners were much better clad then their captors who guarded them. They were immediately put aboard the cars, and started for Richmond in the evening. Extracts from Northern papers, published in the Richmond journals, show a wild excitement in Yankee land on account of Lee's anticipated invasion. Lincoln has called for 100,000 six months men. New York, Philadelphia +c are in a blaze. Large numbers of men hastily off to Harrisburg, which is presumed to be the point aimed at by "the rebels." Alarm bells were rung at midnight in Brooklyn. Some of our cavalry have certainly been at Chambersburg, Pa. Oh that the Yankee advocates of this war may [deleted: feel] experience at their own firesides and in their own persons some of the horrors they have inflicted upon us! Perhaps they will then be more disposed to desist from their attempt to subjugate or devastate our country. They say that our cavalry at Chambersburg respect private property — Mrs. Milroy went off from Winchester several weeks ago, with trunks filled with the spoils of our citizens. They have destroyed crops, and even burnt agricultural implements, in order to produce starvation. The Yankees who arrived to-day belonged to five or six different Regiments, from Maryland, N. W. Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Connecticut. Large numbers of our soldiers have been passing through town for several days past — coming up by Railroad, and going down the Valley a foot. Most of them are from the various hospitals. I was engaged the greater part of to-day in issuing clothing to such of them as needed it. They were from every State in the Confederacy — Va., North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas and Arkansas — I was struck with the depressed appearance of most of them, and upon mentioning it to one of the officers in charge of a squad, he said they were just recovering from sickness. But they seemed cowed — like men who had been disciplined into complete subjection. Such is the effect of military authority. It hurts my feelings to see some of the poor fellows enter the office and approach any of us whom they imagine to be superior to them in rank, with all the deference of a slave to his master.

Tuesday night, June 23, 1863.

Nineteen hundred (1900) more Yankee prisoners were brought up to the vicinity of town to-day, and a part of them sent off to Richmond by Railroad this evening. The remainder will leave to-morrow morning. They certainly will think from the eagerness of some of our people to purchase their overcoats and blankets that we are very destitute of such articles. — Many boys were selling bread and cakes to them, at high prices I have never spoken to one of them, feeling too much detestation of the vandals. These are the wretches who would have come to invade our homes, if it had been possible. The Richmond papers Say that Gen. Kirby Smith has taken Millikin's Bend, 25 miles above Vicksburg, which cuts off Grant's supplies, and that he must therefore give up before long. — Jim McClung came up to-night with a dispatch just received from Richmond, stating that the Yankees made another assault upon Vicksburg on Saturday, and were repulsed with great slaughter, and that it was reported they were leaving. As usual we are entirely ignorant as to the movements of Gen. Lee's army.

While the Yankees occupied Stafford county, a little girl four years old was asked by an Officer to "say some poetry," and she promptly responded:

"Jeff Davis rides a white horse,
Lincoln rides a mule;
Jeff Davis is a gentleman,
And Lincoln is a fool."

With such feelings are the children growing up.

Wednesday night, June 24, 1863.

Twelve hundred and forty-two (1242) Yankee prisoners passed through to-day, taking the cars for Richmond — there were Seven hundred (700) in yesterday's crowd. — Many of those who were brought in to-day were better looking than any I have seen — Some of them quite handsome young men. — Still they invaders of our homes. The Richmond papers of to-day publish the reports we heard last night of the great slaughter of Yankees at Vicksburg on Saturday. An order has been received here for the mustering of all white males between the ages of [deleted: eighteen] sixteen (16) and fifty five (55), not in Confederate service. A Similar order has been sent to all the larger towns in the State. I saw, this morning four young men who were among the "registered enemies of the United States," sent from their homes in New Orleans. They say that from 15000 to 20000 persons, including women and children, left the city in pursuance of the order of Banks, and the number was so great that the order was recalled to prevent the depopulation of the place. These young men are going to join [deleted: the] our army. No intelligence from Gen. Lee. — As the Yankee prisoners were passing down the street yesterday, one of them, probably seeing some of our crippled soldiers, asked if there was a wooden-leg factory here — A person on the street replied: "You met one wooden-leg man down the Valley" — Gen Ewell. Selena and our other servants hurried down to the lower street yesterday to see the prisoners, when one of them called to her — "Well, what do you think of the Yankees? — Did'nt you think they had horns?" The guard of the prisoners, a North Carolina Regiment, although generally dirty and in some instances ragged, looked stouter + more hardy than the Yankees. Several of our poor fellows were bare-footed. One strapping youth marched in alone, away behind the crowd, without shoes or stockings, the tops of his feet being black as if scorched. He lagged behind in the same manner, as the guard retired, walking very tenderly. I understand that Judge Thompson now declares the war is virtually over!

Thursday night, June 25, 1863

Another batch of prisoners were marched in the evening + sent off to Richmond. These were captured in a recent fight near Aldie, Loudoun Co. The whole number was upwards of 600, but only 500 arrived, the remainder having been allowed by a very negligent guard to escape. — Most of them belonged to a cavalry regiment from Rhode Island, and were very small, ill-looking men. A number of female Yankee camp followers have been brought up from Winchester and sent to Richmond to pass beyond our lines. — Reports to-day of an affair in Loudoun, in which three of our cavalry regiments suffered very severely. Wade Heiskell arrived last night from Philadelphia. He heard on Saturday evening before last of the investment of Winchester by our troops, + started immediately, hoping to get through the confusion. — Came to Baltimore, where he staid a day — from there to Frederick city. — hear that the "rebels" were advancing upon Hagerstown — determined to go there — the stage stopped two miles off, fearing that the horses would be captured — hired a buggy and drove into Hagerstown, as our troops were entering on the other side. The Provost Marshall (Confederate) gave him a pass to come on. He is a sanguine man, and says the war will be over in three months! — that Lincoln cant raise troops in Pa. More fighting at Vicksburg. — Talk of a Yankee advance upon Richmond, from the Peninsula.

Friday night, June 26, 1863.

One hundred + two (102) more Yankee prisoners captured in Loudoun, were brought in this morning. The whole number of prisoners who have arrived this week, is 4321, including 45 women and children! 1000 to 1100 sick and wounded in the Hospital at Winchester Some 4 or six negroes were in the crowd this morning — one of them a women — and several wore Yankee uniforms. Sundry rumors to- day — First that a rising had taken place in Baltimore, and the Mayor killed — I do not remember how often we have had similar reports. — Second that a portion of our army was in Harrisburg, Pa., and had burnt the public buildings — this brought by a traveler from Winchester — Rather long in coming considering we have telegraphic communication with W. Third that the Yankees were at Hanover Junction, near Richmond. This is the most probable report, as the Richmond papers of this morning state that several thousand Yankees had landed on the Pamunky or in that region. A number of persons from this region, who followed the army into Maryland to procure goods, have returned. They say that our soldiers have taken large numbers of very superior horses, cattle +c in Pennsylvania. Plenty of goods in Maryland and prices very low — as it seems to us. Our cavalry would meet men riding along the road in Pa, and take their horses, leaving their own if they were worn out. A young man named Maxwell, who was with Addy Stuart in his last illness spent last night at Mr. Stuart's. Sister was highly gratified to see him, but his account of the dear boy proved the flood-gate of her feelings again. Maxwell has been transferred to Gen. Lee's army, and was in town on his way down. While loitering about the town, not dreaming that Mr. S's family now lived here, he was attracted by the sight of Mr. S. on his porch, having seen him in Christiansburg when he took the remains home. Sister being here at the time, did not see him. Among other things he told of Addy was the manner of his becoming acquainted with him, which shows the generous spirit which always characterised him. When their command was encamped in S.W.Va, Maxwell and an associate started off on an excursion, without leave of absence. Addy had gone somewhere in company with the Colonel, and while separated from him, perceiving these young men in the road, rode after them, and when he got near enough called to warn them that the Col. was coming. As they did not know him and thought it was some one who was drunk, they went on, when he pushed forward till he overtook them, and then gave them such information as saved them from punishment. Maxwell says he was so impressed with the kindness of the act that he sought his acquaintance immediately. He (M) is from Missouri, and says his mother does not know what has become of him. — He is something of an artist, and carries with him drawing paper and pencils in a tin case - - but has no blanket.

Saturday night, June 27, 1863

It seems to be a fact that a party of Yankees, probably several regiments of cavalry, came up to the Central RR. yesterday, between the Junction and Hanover C.H., and burnt the bridge across the South Anna river. The Eastern train arrived late this evening, and it is said that passengers came through from Richmond, coming to the Junction on the Fredericksburg R.R. A fight is reported on yesterday, in which we lost 60 killed and wounded, but the Yankees were driven back. A large force of Yankees was reported at the White Horse York River. "They say" Gen. D. P. Hill's troops have arrived in Richmond, from North Carolina. The 102 prisoners who were to have gone down this morning, were detained. No intelligence from Lee's army. Recent rains have improved the gardens wonderfully. Found my yearling heifer this evening, opposite the small-pox hospital, below town, on the railroad. She has been enclosed in a lot for two weeks. Heard that an animal answering to her description was there, and went for her myself. Feel quite broken down.

Monday night, June 29, 1863.

Much anxiety felt last night on account of the threatened attack upon Richmond — reported to-night that the Yankees have gone back. Nothing definite in regard to Gen. Lee's movements — a portion of our army certainly in Pennsylvania.

Tuesday night, June 30, 1863.

We still have no satisfactory intelligence in regard to Gen. Lee's movements. Ewell's corps was, according to Northern papers, within 25 miles of Harrisburg, on the 25th inst. while our cavalry have been "raiding" round generally. — doing much injury particularly to the Baltimore + Ohio Railroad and the Chesapeake + Ohio Canal. Large numbers of cattle +c +c are said to have been collected in Pennsylvania. We really know nothing as to the position and recent movements of our army, nor of Hooker's. The main body of our cavalry, under Stuart, has been fighting constantly on the Va side of the Potomac. More than 200 Yankee prisoners (presumed to be cavalry) were brought in this evening. Many of them seemed quite merry. The enemy still threaten Richmond. A large force of citizens is organized for the defence of the city. Wagon trains going to Winchester are now required to be guarded. A train is waiting till a guard of 500 men can be formed of convalescent soldiers, passing through town from the Hospitals to their commands. The enemy still persevering at Vicksburg and Port Hudson, which causes new solicitude. A momentous crisis is at hand. Gen. Lee will achieve some signal success, or his army may be annihilated. Grant must retire, or Vicksburg must fall soon. A concert at the Seminary to-night — I did not go. Gave my [illeg.] to-day for a barrel of sugar - - $380.80 for 238 lbs — $1.60 per pound. The rent of my stone house for a whole year pays for 78 lbs — $125 — 78 lbs formerly cost $7 or $8. House rent has risen with other prices, but I did not raise on mine.

July 1863

Wednesday night, July 1, 1863.

Various reports in regard to the movements of our army in Pennsylvania, but no authentic information. Doubtful whether Gen. Lee himself has crossed the Potomac. Some Northern papers seem to think that Ewell was sent into Pennsylvania as an inducement for Hooker to move in that direction, and then that Lee (with Longstreet's + A.P. Hill's corps, I presume) would fall upon Washington. We do not know how it is. — When Jim McClung was here his mother referred to some intelligence about the army she had got from the newspapers — Jim told her she need not believe anything of the sort she read in the papers, and the good old lady exclaimed with great earnestness: "But it's the only way we have of knowing what's going on." We told her Gen. Lee did not consider it necessary to communicate intelligence to us. As Jim was leaving on Sunday, she told him if he went to Princeton he must go and see Janetta (Alexander)! Kate and Aunt Sally wrote to Janetta, and I enclosed the letters to Jim, sending the package by courier, that he might forward them if possible.

Some complaints in the newspapers of Gen. Johnston's dilatoriness in assailing Grant. For seven weeks he has allowed Grant to invest and assail Vicksburg, strengthening himself in the mean while, without interference — — Reports of successes over the Yankees in Louisiana.

Vallandigham has arrived at Nassau.

Thursday night, July 2, 1863.

From Northern newspapers it appears that a portion of our army occupied York, Pa. But all of that region, including Western Maryland, is in our possession. At Harrisburg, on the 25th, the men were flying from the city. — The country people arriving there seemed to have no idea of fighting, but were loud in their denunciations of Lincoln for not sending troops to protect them. In Carlisle, on Thursday last, the inhabitants were horrified by hearing the rebel drum corps, a few miles distant, beat the "assembly" at 8 o'clock in the morning, and immediately took to their heels. The "contrabands" as the Yankees call runaway or stolen negroes, won the race to Harrisburg, but arrived there with feet swollen and bleeding — They say the scene was "enough to touch the most obdurate heart." — it has been all right and humane, however, to drive Southern women and children from their homes! The unanimous testimony of Northern papers so far is, that our soldiers now in Maryland and Pennsylvania, offer no ill treatment to any one — What a contrast to Yankee depredations on this side of the Potomac! A correspondent of the New York Herald, writing from Baltimore on the 23rd ult., is astounded at the transfer of the seat of war from the South to the North. He asks — "Are Maryland and Pennsylvania to witness and to suffer the horrors and the devastation that have desolated Virginia? Is Baltimore to be bombarded like Fredericksburg? Is Harrisburg to be pillaged like Jacksonville, in Florida?" Well may the North anticipate and dread retribution; but our troops are restrained by rigid orders, as license to pillage would soon demoralise the army. Horses and beef cattle and whatever else is needed by the army are taken, and paid for as far as possible. Apple butter is so abundant in Pa, that as one of our Staunton boys writes, they called their camp "Applebutter Spread!" — Northern papers (received at Richmond by flag of truce boat, which comes to City Point to exchange prisoners,) are full of accounts of our rebel division marching upon one town and another division upon another town. We are still ignorant as to Gen. Lee's intentions, and a good deal apprehensive, considering the vast odds against us in a war of invasion — On the 27th Our cavalry under Stuart occupied Fairfax C.H. (Va) and the main body of Hooker's army had gone towards Leesburg, Loudoun Co. Gen. Lee's ordnance supplies all go from this place. Nothing new from Vicksburg, or that region. Fine showers to- day. Wheat said to be of superior quality. All men up to 55 years called out — a general stir. 8000 between 40 + 45 to be drafted for six mos.

Friday night, July 3, 1863.

The Yankees have approached quite near Richmond, and a tight skirmish took place yesterday. All of the citizens were under arms. A cavalry force of Yankees was said to be moving from Hanover C.H. towards a bridge on the Fredericksburg Railroad. Gen. Lee's movement still involved in mystery. A man passed through town to- day, who professed to have left Harrisburg, Pa., on Sunday last. He said our troops had possession of the place, and after burning the capitol were moving towards Baltimore. — Not very credible, as the Richmond Enquirer of this morning publishes a telegraphic dispatch, taken from a Northern paper, and dated on Sunday. It said the "rebels" were fifteen miles off. Some Northern papers are contrasting the conduct of our soldiers in Pennsylvania with that of their troops in the South, — in a way highly complimentary to the former. Not a word concerning Vicksburg or Port Hudson. Excessively warm to-day.

Saturday night, July 4, 1863.

A number of wagons loaded with hardware, stationery +c purchased by our Quartermasters in Chambersburg, Pa., arrived to-day. The benighted Yankees have been excluded by the blockade, from Southern market for so long, that they are away behind the times in regard to prices. — For example, hand-saw files which sell here at three dollars each, they sold to our Quartermaster at twenty cents. Among the articles brought on were about 500 reams of military paper, and a quantity of sole leather, — the latter, however, was not paid for. A youth arrived in town to-night with reports from Gen. Lee's army. He belongs to the 2nd Va cavalry, and says he has been one of Lee's couriers. States that on Tuesday he left Lee, with Longstreet's + Hill's (A.P.) corps at the Relay House, ten miles from Baltimore — that the army was about to move upon Baltimore — that Ewell had captured Harrisburg, with 1200 U.S. soldiers, and burnt the public buildings — and that Hooker was at or near Washington. - - Letters from Winchester give very much the same reports — as reports. Nothing from Richmond or the South. Heavy rains and flood in Lewis' creek to- day. Legh's fences washed off. The R.R. train which arrived from the East this evening, came from Gordonsville — did not go through to Richmond yesterday, on account of the Yankee raid. No train from Lynchburg to Charlottesville to-day, on account of injury to the track by floods. Telegraph wires not working — prevented by the storm — presumed so.

Sunday night, July 5, 1863.

An Extra from the office of the Richmond Sentinel, dated yesterday evening, which got here by some means this evening, is full of news from the North. Gen. Lee's army seems to be doing pretty much as he choose in Pa + Md. Gen. Early had levied a heavy contribution upon York, Pa., of money, clothing + provisions. Bridges had been destroyed far and near. Some of the "rebels" had been within five miles of Washington, at Silver Spring. Harrisburg had not been taken at the latest dates, but a battle was expected there. A report from the South represents Gen's McGruder and Dick Taylor as having crossed the Mississippi, and being near New Orleans, which was defended by only 1500 Yankee troops. I met Judge Thompson this morning, and he was in a state of great elevation — thought the war would soon be over — I am not so sanguine. Two young men from Ga. staying with us to-night, sleeping on a mattress in the parlor. One a Capt. Hunter, the other named Prichard, they applied for lodgings, Hunter very sick. They have been in camp blow town, during the rains. Gentlemanly and intelligent — Presbyterians. The R. R. train came from Gordonsville, and we have no information as to affairs at Richmond. A rumor that a fight occurred in the vicinity yesterday evening. Strange that the Sentinel's extra had nothing on the subject.

Tuesday night, July 7, 1863.

The atmosphere seemed full of exciting rumors yesterday morning, but I was too sick last night to record any of them. Great battles at or near Gettysburg, Pa., were reported, with results favorable to our side, although with a heavy loss of life. Up to this time we have received no satisfactory intelligence. Some three or four of our Generals are reported killed. The telegraph has been working badly, owing to the state of the weather. Northern accounts are, on the whole, favorable to our side — that is brief dispatches copied from Northern papers into the Richmond papers of to- day. Northern papers are received in Richmond by various means, principally now by the flag of truce boat which comes up James River to return exchanged prisoners. Among the rumors was one that Johnson had routed Grant at Vicksburg — not confirmed. Reported this evening that our Gen. Taylor has captured Brashear City, above New Orleans, without stores, and that Banks has returned to New Orleans with 5000 men — having abandoned the siege of Port Hudson, it is presumed. The R. R. train came through from Richmond to-day — the first since Friday. The Yankees have left the vicinity of Richmond. Miss Agnes started this morning for Dr. Mills's — had heard that he was very ill. Heard by telegraph this evening that he was better.

The vicissitudes of the war are very strange — Just two months ago (May 7th) we thought the Yankees were advancing upon Staunton — now the war is raging a way off in Pennsylvania. Two months hence the Yankees may be around us again. When I read of wars in my boyhood, I thought of them as belonging to the dark ages of the world, and never expected to witness horrors of the kind. — The thousands now lying slaughtered in Pennsylvania, and the thousands mangled by wounds, the thousands who are anticipating evil tiding! Such is war — to say nothing of the destruction of property, fields laid waste, and all the innumerable outrages and griefs which follow in its train.

The lawyer in the fable found a great difference in the merits of the case when he learned that it was his bull that had gored the farmer's ox, instead of the contrary. Our enemies are exhibiting the same nice sense of justice. Witness the following extracts:

[From the Virginia Correspondent of the N. Y. Times.]

"The counties of Mathews and Gloucester were SCOURED. All the warehouses containing grain were SACKED, the mills BURNED, and everything that could in ANY WAY aid the rebels were DESTROYED or CAPTURED. Three hundred horses, two hundred and fifty head of cattle, two hundred sheep and one hundred mules, together with a large number of contrabands, were brought back by the raiders."

"The rebel farmers were all taken by surprise. They had not expected a demonstration of the kind. Not only were they made to surrender everything that could be of the LEAST USE to us, but they were compelled to be SILENT SPECTATORS TO THE DESTRUCTION OF THEIR AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS."

Now read the following. A portion of the 4th Kentucky cavalry have invaded Indiana, and, it is said, made free with things.

Hear the Louisville Journal:

"It is said to be hoped that these thieves will be caught and executed as murderers and common pirates. War has enough of horror and bloodshed without the heartless brutality which has characterized the march of these men, and we believe that a swift and terrible retribution is close at hand. It is hardly possible for them to escape out of the State, and, if caught, the Hoosier blood is too much up to spare the life of a single one of them."

THEN AND NOW. — "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so. - President Lincoln in his Inaugural Address.

"I order and declare that all persons held as slaves in the said designated States and parts of States are and hereafter shall be free." — Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.

Wednesday, July 8, 1863.

The first report this morning was dolorous — A Maj. White, belonging to the ordnance department, arrived last night by stage from Winchester, and stated that our army had been seriously worsted in a recent battle, that Ewell's corps had been ordered back to the Potomac, that his Commissary was in Winchester where a good deal of alarm existed, that a train of 80 Ambulances was captured by the Yankees, +c. +c. It was told at the same time that passengers who came in the same train with White, gave an entirely different account of affairs. Later in the day Towers came into my room, with a glowing face, to tell that Mr. Phillips told him that Judge Thompson told him that Stump (telegraph operator) told him, that in a battle on Sunday we had a glorious victory, from 40,000 to 60,000 Yankees laying down their arms. Price went to the Telegraph Office to enquire about the matter, and said on his return that Stump said the news must have come by some other line. Next Wm. M. Tate came in — D. S. Young had just told him he did not tell Judge T. +c +c. Coming up to dinner I encountered Mr. Michie and J. B. Baldwin — Michie had seen McGuffin who told him that Judge T. Told him +c. Baldwin said Judge had told him — the whole story. Michie said he believed it, he was determined to believe it — that Stump had communicated to the Judge confidentially what he had no right to divulge, and was now endeavoring to repair damages, while the Judge was relating the news in strict confidence to every body he met. I told Mr. Michie I would try to believe with him, and I have succeeded to some extent or I could not have the heart to give the narrative of morning's adventures in search of the news. (I failed to mention several days ago that Hooker had been relieved of the command of the Yankee army, and is succeeded by Gen. Meade.

Wednesday night. — Passengers by the Richmond train this evening bring a report that Vicksburg with 19,000 men has surrendered to the Yankees!! We were totally unprepared for any such intelligence. Many persons profess to disbelieve it, while others fear that it is true. The Richmond papers contain dispatches from Martinsburg, Va., (which passed through this place), stating, as reports believed there, that Gen. Lee had captured 40,000 of the enemy. I am not prepared to believe that he took half the number stated. But what if he has? It will not compensate for the loss of Vicksburg. Better have sent a part of Lee's army to assist Johnston to raise the siege, keeping the other part to guard the line of the Rappahannock, instead of marching into Pennsylvania and capturing over 40,000 Yankees, but arousing the war spirit at the North and recruiting their ranks by means of the instinct which induces men to repel invasion. Brig. Gen. Kemper was among the killed at Gettysburg. We were boys together at Washington College, and belonged to the same society.

Thursday night, July 9, 1863.

Blue! blue! The Richmond papers of to-day publish a dispatch from Gen. Johnston dated Jackson, July 7th stating that the garrison Vicksburg capitulated on the 4th. Johnston seems to have made not the slightest attempt to relieve the place or annoy the enemy. — Some persons are still incredulous as to the report, denying the genuineness of the Johnston dispatch +c +c. Catching at straws! Gen. Lee is certainly falling back, and our 40,000 prisoners seem to have come down to 4000! Thus terminated another attempt at an invasive war — impolitic from the first, as tending only to unite the Northern people and recruit their armies.

Harvest is much retarded by the continued wet weather. The crop is said to be unusually good, contrary to all reasonable calculations last Fall, when the extreme drought threatened a famine. Wounded soldiers from Gettysburg generally give discouraging accounts of the disasters in our army. One man says we have 25,000 wounded.

Friday, July 10, 1863.

Rumored that an official dispatch from Gen. Pemberton confirms the report of the fall of Vicksburg. — Soldiers wounded at the battle of Gettysburg give fearful accounts of the slaughter of our army. Pickett's Division annihilated. Many persons known to us killed — A disastrous affair. The news comes to us in very unintelligible forms. So far as we now see the tide is running fearfully against us. The road leading into town from Winchester is lined with wounded soldiers, coming up from the battle field. They all say that after they left they heard that Lee had another fight and took a great many prisoners. It is a sad sight to see so many poor fellows dragging themselves along to get nearer home. Some come in vehicles, but most on foot. They are, of course, those who are slightly wounded, comparatively.

Friday night. No train from Richmond yet (near 10 o'clock) and no tidings of it when I came home. No telegrams from Richmond or any quarter, so far as I have heard. Cannonading heard yesterday in the country.

Saturday, July 11, 1863.

The report concerning Vicksburg fully confirmed — I have no heart for the details which have reached us. Great solicitude felt in regard to Gen. Lee's army. — A fearful list of casualties among the soldiers from this county. If there is the same proportion from other quarters, the army must be greatly reduced. The fall of Vicksburg protracts the war indefinitely, and if Gen. Lee's army is crippled or the enemy not seriously injured, we shall be overrun again in a short time, and worse than ever. Pontoon bridges going to the Potomac — came up from Richmond by R.R.

Saturday night 10 o'clock. — The Yankees are assailing Charleston, S.C., and Gen. Johnston at Jackson, Miss. The garrison at the former much reduced by troops sent to reinforce the latter. — The crisis is a momentous one for us — intense anxiety prevails. Nothing further from Hagerstown, Gen. Lee's head quarters at last dates — nothing given to the public, but I hear — by a telegraphic dispatch communicated to me, that the Yankees were advancing yesterday in two divisions, and a battle probably took place to-day. Wounded soldiers have come into town to-day in a constant stream — some of them in vehicles and on horseback, but most on foot — most of them very dirty and many without shoes. After hearing for several days that a great battle took place on Sunday last, 5th at which Lee captured many thousands of prisoners, I am now inclined to think no such battle was fought. A cavalry man, who said he left the army on Wednesday, asserts that up to that date no considerable battle had occurred since the previous Friday (3rd), and that all the prisoners taken amount to 12,000. He gave, on the whole, a hopeful view of things. Another man, well known to me, who came from the vicinity of Charlestown, said the great fight on Sunday was a matter of universal talk, and he had the fact of its occurrence from undoubted authority. A third person (Quartermaster to a cavalry regiment part of whose wagon train was captured) knew of no fight on Sunday, but he heard heavy firing that day. He seemed, however, to know nothing except that his wagons were lost. A fourth, a young Lieut. wounded in the army, left the army before Sunday, but had heard a great deal about the fight and large number of prisoners. What a contrast between this night and a week ago! Then everything in our affairs looked prosperous. — Now every heart is filled with anxiety. Oh that we could look to God with a proper spirit! May He deliver us! — Called at the American Hotel Hospital, with Va, this evening to see two young men from Wetumpka, Ala. who wrote to Mrs. McClung that they knew Mrs. Kyle. Found them unable to come down, from wounds in the leg, and as they were undressed and without clothes to put on (theirs being at wash) Vacould not go to their room.

Sunday night, July 12, 1863

An officer who arrived this afternoon from Lynchburg on a train with troops, states that there was a rumor of the fall of Charleston. No such intelligence had been received here by telegraph when I came home after dark. But our people are prepared to believe any bad news. Judge Thompson and Mr. Michie are as much depressed now as they were uplifted a few days ago. Last Sunday the Judge told me he had no doubt that Lincoln and Seward were fugitives from Washington — this morning he said to me almost in a whisper, that "between us, we were in a very bad way." The stream of wounded arriving has been uninterupted, and not a third part has arrived yet. The wounds generally are not severe, and are doing well. It is stated that comparatively few were killed — not so many as at Sharpsburg, last year. We continue to hear of skirmishes and heavier fights in Maryland, but can get no reliable information. The pontoon bridges were sent off this morning, each one on a wagon drawn by four horses, making a heavy load. — the wagons constructed for the purpose. Many of the wounded have been sent off by Railroad. Yesterday evening a Lt. Col. rode up to the Q.M.'s office to get transportation by R.R. home — upon his going away, a young fellow sitting with others by the house remarked: "Col. W. has a hole in him that's good for a sixty days' furlough — I'd like to have one myself." — He was on his way to join the army. Such is the feeling of weariness, that even a wound that relieves from service is welcome.

Monday night, July 13, 1863.

Up to the latest date the attack upon Charleston had been repulsed. Nothing has occurred at Jackson except some skirmishing. Some reason to fear that the Yankees are at Winchester! The telegraphist there reported last night that the enemy were within five miles of the town, and since then not a word of intelligence has been received, the telegraph not working. It is presumed that the object of the enemy was to rescue some 4000 prisoners coming from Martinsburg. Gen. Lee's line of communication is too extensive — he must fall back, followed by a horde such as we have not had upon us before. Most persons express very gloomy feelings. The fall of Vicksburg has caused great rejoicing at the North. Gen. Sam. Jones's Brigade is going to reinforce Gen. Lee — two regiments have arrived here, one yesterday and another to-day. Heavy rains again to-day. Much of the wheat must be lost. Legh began to cut his crop week before last, and has not been able to finish on account of the wet weather. The young men from Wetumpka, whom I went to see Saturday, were sent off to another Hospital yesterday morning. Va not knowing that they were about to leave sent them a supply of provisions just before they started. We hear that they received the articles. A note from one of them, written Saturday night, came to me this evening thro' the Postoffice.

Tuesday night, July 14, 1863.

The news of this evening by Richmond papers is more somber still. Port Hudson fallen — the Yankees fortifying on Morriss's Island, Charleston — Many persons are disposed to regard our cause as desperate — hopeless. — I do not feel so yet, though cast down. Reported that Bragg's army is coming to Va, abandoning the whole of Tennessee — Also that Gen. Johnston has been superceded by D. H. Hill. Another battle in Maryland expected soon - - and whatever the result, another stream of wounded. The report of Yankees approaching Winchester, was carried by the advance of one of our brigades from Culpeper. Miss Agnes and Tate got back to-night.

Wednesday, July 15, 1863.

No intelligence from any quarter to-day, so far. It is expected that the Yankees will have Mobile in the next ten days — The whole Southern country will probably be abandoned to them, and our fortunes staked upon one great battle in Maryland or Virginia. What a change in the tide of our affairs within one week! Last Wednesday we were indulging in the most cheering anticipations — now, alas —

Thursday night, July 16, 1863

News this afternoon that Gen. Lee's army is back on this side of the Potomac. The Yankees are rejoicing over their recent successes as if the war were ended. Henry Mitchell of Georgia arrived yesterday, and is staying with us. No news from Charleston. Rain, rain — threatening to destroy the wheat. I have been quite unwell since yesterday.

Friday night, July 17, 1863.

Lincoln having called for 300,000 more troops, President Davis has ordered out all the men up to 45 years of age. Imboden arrived to-day in charge of the prisoners. He has nearly 4000, who are encamped to-night at Middle River. The public mind begins to recover from the blow received by the fall of Vicksburg. The injury received is more from the moral effect in protracting the war, than any thing else. Henry Mitchell leaves for Richmond in the morning.

Saturday night, July 18, 1863.

I went to the Depot early this morning to assist Henry Mitchell in getting off. Had some difficulty in finding a seat for him as the Yankee officers (about 180) were sent off to Richmond. — There were besides many other passengers, including a large number of our wounded soldiers. About 10 o'clock the remaining Yankee prisoners (nearly 4000) were brought in, marching down Augusta Street to Main and out through New town to a camp in that direction. Nearly all the prisoners were in good spirits, apparently, and many rather defiant. They were a motley set — as a whole poor specimens of humanity, and many of them dressed no better than our own ragged boys. As soon as the prisoners had left the street, a battalion, belonging to Gen. Sam. Jones' brigade marched through town towards Winchester, presenting a very soldierly appearance. The men looked stout, carried their guns and marched well, and the ranks were full. Their clothing was only uniform, however, in its ashy hue. A regiment belonging to the same command started down the day before yesterday, the fullest and apparently most effective body we have seen for many a day. On both occasions the men marched to the drum and fife. Soon after the troops passed this morning, I heard a rumor of a great riot in New York city, caused by the attempt to enforce the conscription act, which was said to have been received by Telegraph. — Stuart (A. H.) received a dispatch from Richmond. The papers which came in the evening give a good many particulars, taken from New York papers. It was a serious affair, and was still progressing at the date of last accounts, although Lincoln had suspended the draft. About 200 persons killed, principally negroes, and many houses destroyed. Disturbances have also occurred in Connecticut and New Jersey.

No news to-day from Gen. Lee's army. The enemy put Johnston at Jackson and Beauregard at Charleston. Reason for apprehension in regard to both. There is great diversity of opinion as to the policy of Gen. Lee's movement into Pennsylvania. I felt opposed to it, instinctively from the first. The plan of the Constable Montmorency, when Charles V invaded France, seems to me undoubtedly the best for us. See Robertson's Charles V.71

Monday night, July 20, 1863.

The town has been full of soldiers, ambulances and wagons all day. The soldiers are going down to join their commands in Lee's army, many of them just released from imprisonment in "Castle Thunder," Richmond, — Ambulances and wagons going + coming to + from Winchester. This evening a long train of the former came in, loaded with wounded or sick men. The enemy, under Meade, are now thought to be making for Richmond again, and there is no doubt that Gen. Lee is about moving into Eastern Virginia. Our losses in men + arms at Vicksburg, Port Hudson and in Pennsylvania are represented as enormous. x The papers of to-day give nothing from the New York riot later than the 15th; we learn by Telegraph from Richmond that the riot was progressing on the 16th. As usual after all our reverses, the matter of our recognition by European powers is on foot, again. Last night we had a young Staymaker and two Harts to supper — members of Otey's Battery. ( x Talked about — not published in the newspapers) Beauregard telegraphs that he has repulsed another assault at Charleston.

Wednesday night, July 22, 1863.

Not even a rumor to-day. No doubt, however, that Gen. Lee's army is moving East of the Blue Ridge. Soldiers coming this way are now stopped at Gordonsville, and in a few days Staunton will be relieved of the great crowds which have thronged the streets for weeks past. The wounded and sick are still coming in from Winchester. The condition of many of them — weary, famishing and suffering in various ways — would be heart-rending, if we were not so accustomed to the spectacle. The Otey battery goes down towards Winchester to- morrow, and, it is said, will be left in the Valley. Have not seen the Richmond papers of this morning, as the train arrived after dark. Yesterday we had further particulars of the New York riot, which was still going on, and outbreaks had occurred at various places in the North. Some hope of European intervention, as there generally is after we have met with a reverse. Europe, it is thought, does not desire and will not permit a restoration of the Union, and will therefore prevent the subjugation of the South; but so long as we can maintain our ground, foreign powers will not interfere. The French Emperor expressed a desire for our recognition, but at the same time he declared his determination to co-operate with England. The policy of England is cold-blooded. She seems to wish the total destruction of both sections. Slavery cannot be the cause of prejudice against us, for she waged war against Russia in bhalf of Turkey, where slavery in its worst exists. I hear that many young men have lately come out from counties in N. W. Va. to join our army, in consequence of Lincoln's call for troops from that section.

Saturday night, July 25, 1863.

Both armies pushing towards Richmond — Lee's in advance. One corps of the latter at or near Gordonsville to- day. The Federal army is said to be very large. John Alexander said to have been taken prisoner in Maryland. Things look tolerably discouraging for us all around — The late repulse of the enemy at Charleston was a bloody affair to them. Riot in New York died out — Ditto the prospect of foreign recognition, which lately brightened up. Our streets quite deserted to-day — but many ambulances and wagons on the road from Winchester. That place abandoned by our army. With a large force of the enemy East of the Blue Ridge, we could not safely keep a small force at Winchester. Weather very warm — a thunder storm and rain to- night.

Tuesday morning, July 28, 1863.

Crowds of sick and wounded soldiers have been arriving in ambulances, wagons and on foot, and many of the inhabitants of the lower Valley with all the property they could bring off. All of that region is now, or will be soon, in the hands of the enemy again, and the people apprehend greater oppression than ever. This is indeed a dark hour in our history. The siege of Charleston continues, and most persons expect the place to fall. The sight of our poor dirty, suffering sick and wounded soldiers is most distressing. The President has appointed another Fast Day.

Tuesday night. — This morning, upon going down street, I found a good deal of commotion among the people. Officers had come to town to procure horses for artillery service, and posting sentinels at all the outlets presented every person with a horse from leaving. During the day the mounted guard went to every stable and took off the horses. Many of them were returned to the owners, however, some because the horses were unfit for the service, and others on account of some peculiarity in the circumstances. The officers were gentlemanly in their deportment, but said that no one out of the Department could know the extreme need of horses for the army. The same thing has been done at Richmond and other towns. Farm horses are to be spared as far as possible. The maximum price paid to owner is $350, which in many cases would be very inadequate. These proceedings and the calling into service of all men up to 45 years of age, discourage me more than any military reverses we have sustained, of which, however, they are the consequences. Our affairs must be reduced to an extremity, when such means have to be resorted to. Wounded + sick soldiers and refugees still coming in to-day. We hear that the country below us is filled also with stragglers, principally cavalry. Crops have been ruthlessly destroyed by teamsters and others turning horses in fields to graize. — Another great freshet this afternoon - - water much higher than the last flood. Morgan on a great "raid" in Indiana and Ohio. It will do not good — far better for us to fight on our own soil. Cannonading heard yesterday and to- day. Supposed that a fight was under way in Culpeper — Oh, the devastation, slaughter and mourning caused by this war!

Wednesday night, July 29, 1863.

A Quartermaster sent here to attend the collection of "taxes in kind" in the Congressional district, has applied to me repeatedly to take charge of the business in Augusta county, but I have refused to leave my present position. It has been almost ludicrous ever since the beginning of the war to see the inferiority of the chiefs to their subordinates and assistants, in some of the departments. Most of the Q.M.'s of my acquaintance are perfectly dependent upon their clerks. Why the clerks are not the Q.M.'s, I cannot find out. No news to-day from any quarter — An untraceable rumor that Gen. Lee had resigned. Not believed. As Mrs. McClung was going into church Sunday morning just after quitting hold of my arm on the portico, her foot tripped in an old carpet and she fell at full length on the floor. Her forehead was severely bruised and her right wrist sprained. We carried her in a chair to the carriage, and from the latter to her room at home. The sight of the dear old lady thus used (hardly used as it seemed for a moment) was most affecting to me, but her cheerfulness has been admirable, as usual. It might have been much worse, she says; and although her wrist and head were painful, it was not more than she might expect.

Friday night, July 31, 1863.

No news to-day, expect the capture of Morgan in Ohio. Many dirty and half-clad soldiers still on the streets — frequently see them sitting or lying on the side walk, picking vermin off themselves. They are from Hospitals down the Valley, and are sent off from here as rapidly as the Railroad trains can convey them, temporarily lodging in the church lecture rooms +c. Have been quite beset by Quartermaster Smith, who continues to urge me to take the tax matter in hand — J. B. Baldwin also presses it upon me. — Under all the circumstances, I prefer to remain where I am.

August 1863

Sunday night, August 2, 1863.

Oppressively hot to-day. Mr. Stuart preached this morning and the Rev. John Miller (late Capt.) in the afternoon. The latter a discourse upon the war, from the text "The rod of the wicked shall not rest upon the lot of the righteous."72 Both Mr. M. + Mr. S. took supper with us. We hear of a cavalry fight at Brandy Station, in Culpeper, on yesterday, the enemy being driven back several miles, with a loss on our side of 200 killed and wounded. Morgan's capture in Ohio is a fit termination of an enterprise which was foolish from the first. Such raids are justified on the ground that they show to the enemy that they are not safe from invasion so long as the war lasts. But the reasons against them are more convincing to my mind. It is bad policy to imitate an enemy without inflicting a serious injury; better lull him into security till an opportunity offers for giving an effective blow. Morgan could only scratch the elephant's hide with a pin. He tore up some miles of railroad, burnt depots +c, and seized horses along his route; but inflicted no injury which could not be repaired in a few days, and left the people aroused, vindictive and more [illeg.] upon war than ever. Gen. Lee's expedition into Pennsylvania and Morgan's into Indiana and Ohio have helped Lincoln to recruit the ranks of his army. I thought Mr. Miller's sermon (I call it so by courtesy) rather calculated to depress. He took a discouraging view of our affairs at this time, so far as we can judge by sight; but having faith in God we have a right to feel hopeful. Almost too "spiritual" for the mass of his audience.

Wednesday night, Aug. 5, 1863.

We have no news from the army. A universal feeling of depression. No body seems to have any hope of saving Charleston — its ultimate fall is regarded as almost a matter of course, and the fall of Richmond even is alluded as probable event. There is a rumor of a victory for our side at Donaldsonville, La., (enemy's loss 6000, including 4000 prisoners), but so many flattering reports which proved untrue have come from that quarter, that little credit is given to this one. Gen. "Dick Taylor" has performed many exploits which are never heard of except by telegraph. About 800 of the Yankee prisoners from Pennsylvania +c were shipped to Richmond. — all except those who escaped within the last week. — No body could tell how many prisoners were actually here (!) and therefore it is not known how many escaped. Ten certainly went off, but five of them were recaptured in Highland, and brought back this morning. The army is now taking in all the men fit for service up to forty-five years of age. Necessaries of life going up, up in price. — Flour promises to reach $50 per barrel. Ten dollars paper money only worth one in specie.

Saturday night, August 8, 1863.

Still no news of special interest. The feeling at the North is evidently one of great confidence. Federal currency is at comparatively slight discount, while ours is going down, down. As for example, $1.75 and $2 cash are demanded for spring chickens. Yet when we look at our military resources, our affairs do not appear desperate, or even worse than they did some weeks ago — our armies are at least as large and as efficient, while the Yankee armies are not more so, than they were then. A victory for us now would put a very different face upon affairs both North and South. But it is impossible to keep the courage up by whistling, and I am considerably depressed, like every body else. Judge Parson, of N. C., called to-night to see Mrs. McClung — he has been to Winchester, where his brother, wounded at Gettysburg, died on Monday last. Frank Wilson staid with us Thursday night. It is rumored that a battle between Lee and Meade will take place soon. Grant is supposed to have designs upon Mobile.

Monday night, Aug. 10, 1863.

About dark this evening, Mrs. Thompson and the two Miss Thompsons came rushing over with a report that "they were arming convalescent patients in the military hospital, as the Yankees were expected here tonight." They came to enquire what we had heard about it, and seemed quite alarmed. I paid little attention to the matter till we heard a crowd (we could not see in the darkness) passing up the McAdamized Street, which the young ladies supposed to be the Yankees coming in but which I thought might be the citizens going to the armory at the old Valley Hotel, for guns. Mrs. McC. + Miss A. urged me to go down and ascertain the cause of the excitement; but the Misses T., rather hysterically, entreated me not to leave them. Finally I went off — Found a number of persons out of doors and on the pavements, heard rumors that the Yankees were at Brock's Gap, Rockingham +c. +c. went to the Quartermaster's Office, Telegraph Office, Provost Marshall's Office +c, and came home without any definite intelligence. The convalescents were arming, but why or wherefore, no body could tell, except that there was a flying report that the Yankees were at Brock's Gap. Imboden telegraphed to-day that the enemy, 4000 strong, were at Moorfield.

Saturday night, August 15, 1863,

Imboden was up to-day, and came home with me to dinner. Says the Yankees who were in Pendleton recently have gone back, and there is no present danger of a raid from that quarter. No military movements on foot, so far as we know. It is said the soldiers of Gen. Lee's army put an unexpected interpretation upon a recent proclamation of the President, offering pardon to all deserters who return within twenty days. — Many of them are going off to their homes without leave, expecting to get back within twenty days! Imboden is very sick of the war — he was keen enough for it at the start. Jim Skinner ditto.

Saturday night, August 22, 1863.

Yesterday was Fast Day, appointed by President Davis. I think there was an unusual feeling of solemnity, the people generally being depressed in spirits. I remained at home all day, except when I went to church, morning and evening. In the evening it was rumored that the enemy were advancing upon Staunton in two columns, of 12000 and 8000, from Greenbrier and Highland. After night the number was reduced to 800. Col. Jackson, who has a small force in Highland sent in a courier to give notice. The Bank officers were packing up to leave — otherwise there was no excitement, so far as I heard. This morning, I was informed at the office that 7000 Yankees were coming into the county from Pendleton, by way of Mt. Solon. The mail carrier, however, arrived at 12 o'clock, and stated that he heard nothing of this news till he got to Staunton! Imboden has moved up within three miles of town, and to-night we have not heard a rumor. A company (horse) organizing for home defense, had a first turn-out this afternoon — regarded as rather a burlesque. I met Mrs. Effinger, of Harrisonburg, on the street late in the evening, and she came up with me and remained till quite late. Wm. L. Alexander came up after supper and is staying here. The various armies are quiet at all points except Charleston. The enemy is still assailing that city vigorously. They have certainly made some impression upon Fort Sumter, and the fall of the city is generally anticipated. In pursuance of the policy adopted by our authorities, to put disabled soldiers in the Departments, a shoemaker who lost his leg by an accidental shot in camp, has orders to report for duty here, in place of a clerk, who is ordered back to his company! Revercomb!

Sunday night, August 23, 1863.

News this evening that the South side of Fort Sumter has been battered down, and that the North side is crumbling. Col. Jackson has sent a dispatch that he had a skirmish with the Yankees near the Warm Springs — we heard this morning that they were going West, instead of coming this way. But it is reported this evening again that the Yankees are at Brock's Gap, Rockingham. A delightful day — if we only had rest from this war! God's will be done. May I be able to say so from the heart!

Monday night, August 24, 1863.

I was aroused at 5 o'clock this morning by a messenger who said I was needed at the Office as the Yankees were at Buffalo Gap — ten miles from town. Was surprised upon going down street to find everything so quiet. Was told, however, that a courier had arrived during the night with the intelligence. No preparation was made for removing public stores, as further intelligence was awaited. As the day advanced, the convalescent patients from the Army Hospitals were armed, the citizens formed companies, and Imboden's command (said to be 1000 cavalry, artillery and infantry) came up from their camp three miles blow town. Cannon were planted on the hill west of town (immediately opposite our house), other preparations made to repel the enemy. Towards 10 o'clock most persons concluded there was no enemy near — persons from Buffalo Gap had heard nothing of the Yankees till they came to town, and a man from Highland reported that they had gone towards Pocahontas. Afterwards scouts came in and reported that no Yankees were near the Gap. Various accounts are given of the origin of the reports — one that the scouts were taking oats from a farm, and mistook the people who chased them off for Yankees. By evening the citizens had dispersed, the cannon were brought down from the hill, and Imboden's men returned to their camp. There is not a bright spot for us all round our horizon — all is dark — discouraging. There seems to be no prospect of a termination of our trouble except in death.

Thursday night, August 27, 1863.

On Tuesday we heard that the Yankee "raiders" — from 4000 to 5000 strong — had driven Col. Jackson across the Warm Spring's Mountain, that he was retreating to Millboro, and that Staunton was again threatened. We next heard that the Yankees were going back, and Jackson after them. Reports uncertain and unreliable. A stampede from the Rockbridge Alum Springs. Nannie and Matty Tate there — have written about the great excitement on Monday and Tuesday. This evening we hear of a fight in Bath or Alleghany, in which, rumor says, McCausland routed the Yankees. Dont know what to believe. No intelligence from Charleston for several days — ominous. [deleted: heavily deleted and illegible text] Much sickness and many deaths in town. to-day the man who carries round notices of funerals had two on the same paper. He has had two at a time on several occasions lately. Mrs. Moffett Cochran died on Monday, David Wise yesterday, and Mrs. N. C. Kinney to-day. The land is full of grief — Oh, that God would by means of all these troubles turn the hearts of our people to himself.

September 1863

Tuesday night, Sept. 8, 1863.

On Wednesday last I went to Richmond to get information in reference to an order requiring me and others to report at the Camp of Instruction upon the expiration of thirty days. [deleted: heavily deleted and illegible text] I reported immediately, was enrolled and underwent the ordeal of inspection. After a most disagreeable time of it, on the second day I received a discharge, on account of "excessive myopia," as they call near-sightedness. I was treated with great courtesy, but would not have stood the trial if I had been permitted to join the army. As it is I am back in my old place. Legh's case is up again — I have advised him to go again to the army, and join a company, although he is even more near-sighted than I. Being physically much stouter, he is more likely to be accepted for service. I do not see, however, that he could render much service. Glasses correct the defect in vision so perfectly that for all the ordinary purposes of life, "myopia" is not regarded as an infirmity, or affliction; but if they should be lost, or become coated with steam from the face, as they often are when the wearer is heated, total blindness ensues. Even a drop of rain or perspiration on a glass will greatly obstruct the vision, so that frequent wiping is necessary. —- - I put up at the Powhatan House in Richmond, which is probably more comfortable than any hotel in the city. It was melancholy to observe everywhere the ravages made by the war — or rather how the war, by preventing repairs, gives a general appearance of decay and ruin. Old worn out knives, cups +c at the table. — +c. +c. — water brought to you in a dingy teacup. — The charge for board was eight dollars ($8) a day. Going down I fell in with Capt. D. H. Todd of Kentucky, a brother-in-law of Lincoln, who seemed rejoiced to see me, as his mother and mine were old friends. He insisted that we should take a room together at the hotel, which of course I acquiesced in, although he is not very congenial. Todd is in the Confederate service, and is now a paroled prisoner, having been taken at Vicksburg. Traces of the war every where — could not avoid sights which kept it constantly in mind — fortifications to protect the bridge over South Anna river, and soldiers on the train and everywhere. Gen. Lee's army lying inactive along the Rappahannock river. It is supposed, however, that some of the troops will go to Tennessee; as the Yankees are pressing upon Buckner near Knoxville. — The siege of Charleston still going on.

Wednesday night, Sept. 9, 1863.

I found this morning that the papers of yesterday contained intelligence of the evacuation of Morris's Island, below Charleston, by our troops. The enemy had gradually worked up to the moat of battery Gregg or Wagner. Longstreet's Corps, or a part of it, is said to be in route for East Tennessee, via Lynchburg. We are said to be mounting some very large guns at Charleston, from which great things are expected. Arch Alexander and Frank Wilson were here Monday night, the former remaining all night. James H. Waddell took breakfast with us this morning. Peaches have been quite abundant — sell at $23 to $25 per bushel.

Friday night, Sept. 11, 1863.

Things look rather brighter for us — A severe repulse to the Yankees at Fort Sumter, and report of a victory in Tennessee. Northern papers too seem discouraged. Dr. McGuffey of the University staying with us to-night.

Monday night, Sept. 14, 1863.

Reports of a cavalry fight in Culpeper on yesterday, in which we were considerably worsted. Chattanooga evacuated by our troops, so that the Yankees now have nearly all of Tennessee. I think, however, that we are at last pursuing the right policy — fight no great battles unless we are confident of victory, but give up to the enemy every place we are not sure of being able to hold, and harass them by assaults at many points and cut them up by detail. A gentleman named Bell, from Winchester, was in town on Saturday, having left home on Wednesday. He said parties of Yankees frequently visited Winchester, sometimes coming to escort Union men who wished to visit their families. A Union man was to be married there Wednesday night, and it was supposed he would have a Yankee escort. As Mr. Bell was coming up the road this side of W. he met a party of our cavalry going down — he asked where they were going and they said "to the wedding." Some 30 of our cavalry dashed upon the enemy at Bath, in Morgan county, last week, and captured 19 or 20 men and 50 horses. The prisoners arrived here on Friday night last. Great disaffection in North Carolina. General feeling of apprehension as to subsistence next winter.

Wednesday night, Sept. 16, 1863

Henry C. Alexander here to-night, on his way to the Rockbridge Alum. No very good news. Some 2000 of our troops with all their equipments captured at Cumberland mountain, Tennessee. The S. W. Va Salt Works threatened by the enemy. The big gun at Charleston is said to have busted at the first fire. Another remains to be tested. Some 147 Yankees captured in Hardy county arrived in town yesterday evening, and were sent on to Richmond this morning. I paid a rough carpenter to-day $8 for one day's work. The currency is getting lower and lower — prices of everything increasing daily. I rode up to Legh's yesterday evening — the first time for a year or more — Have felt sore all day, in consequence.

Sunday night, Sept. 20, 1863.

Rumored this evening that Gen. Lee is advancing upon the enemy near the Rapidan.

Monday night, Sept. 21, 1863

A fight is said to be going on along the Rapidan. Reports of a battle between Bragg and Rosecrans, in which the former took 2500 prisoners. The last reliable intelligence from Bragg indicated that a battle would soon take place.

Tuesday night, Sept. 22, 1863.

The Richmond papers of this morning contain a dispatch from Gen. Bragg — See slip on next page.73 H. W. Sheffey telegraphs from Richmond, that we gained a considerable victory. People generally are disposed to await further intelligence, before giving way to much joy, having been so often deceived by the first tidings of battles, from the South-West. There are still rumors of fighting between Lee + Meade. Va and I walked down to J. K. Woods' to-night to see Miss M. Gilkeson, who will start to Maryland to- morrow, doubtful, however, of getting through the lines. Va gave her a letter for Janetta Alexander, wrapped in a ball of cotton yarn. We have an abundance of grapes, but they ripen slowly, and frost is upon us. Some peaches which, it seems, will never get ripe. A wonderful phenomenon has been seen in Greenbrier — a vast number of men dressed in white shirts and pants, marching in military order, up a mountain in a Northern direction.

Wednesday night, Sept. 23, 1863.

Reported this morning that a general engagement was going on near Gordonsville. As the telegraph line was not working, no intelligence could be received, but it was feared that our army was rather hard pressed. In the evening we learned, however, by the R. R. train that a cavalry fight had taken place, and nothing more. The papers of this morning have quite full telegraphic reports of the battle between Bragg and Rosecrans. They speak of a "decisive" victory for us, but still we must wait a day or two longer. The Federal army was not routed at the last dates. A series of brilliant successes, won by large battles, would leave us exhausted. We should certainly avoid pitched battles as far as possible, and confine ourselves to worrying the enemy by petty assaults. Hotel board in Staunton, for transient guests, is now ten dollars a day! Miss Agnes and Mary J. Baldwin are at the Seminary to- night for the first time to sleep — Mrs. McC. will go to-morrow. Capt. Smith and Mrs. Thompson took supper with us this evening. Judge T. came in afterwards — also Mary Stuart and young Wade (Lt) from Christiansburg.

Saturday night, Sept. 26, 1863.

We have received no detailed account of the recent battles in Georgia. Rosecrans is said to be at Chattanooga and I fear that it is not in Bragg's power to drive him further. The latter telegraphs that he took 7000 prisoners, 36 cannon, 15,000 small arms +c. Our loss not reported yet. Several frosts lately — a heavy one this morning. Prices of food +c getting higher + higher — flour $40 a barrel. A great disposition on the part of producers to hoard up supplies — Extremely difficult to procure anything, even with plenty of money to pay for it. At present rates it requires a great deal to maintain even a small family, and many persons have limited means. Mechanics and other laborers, as well as farmers, are able to get along much better than persons who have fixed incomes, however ample heretofore, because the prices of labor and produce of all kinds go up almost daily, to suit the times. Indeed working men (or many of them) seem to have more surplus money now than ever before, which shows that their enhanced charges are not fully justified by their necessities. It is surprising to see what large sums such people will lay out at auction sales, for furniture +c. Miss Agnes, her mother +c are fully installed at the Seminary, and have had a constant run of visitors. There seems to be a universal interest in their enterprise. They have the prospect of a good school, and a full house of boarders; but no man would have undertaken the business at this time, nor could succeed at it. It remains to be seen what measure of success these females will have — women, however, receive assistance which men cannot get. They have borrowed one article from one person, and one from another, and bought some things, thus furnishing the house. Miss A. bought a sofa at auction for $155 in currency, but paid for it $15 in gold and $5 Confederate note. I sold the same article last winter (at the sale of the Sowers property) for about $50.

Wednesday night, Sept. 30, 1863.

On Monday last (Court day) Gen. Smith (Ex-Gov. and Gov-elect of Va) and Senator Wigfall, of Texas, addressed the people of this county on their duties at this crisis of the war. The latter is a polished speaker — having heard the former frequently before, I did not listen to his address this time. The people "resolved" that they would sell produce at the rates fixed by Government to all consumers. — Doubt if many of them ever have anything to sell — that will be the excuse. Reported that Meade's army considerably reduced by reinforcements sent to Rosecrants, is falling back from the Rapidan. Nothing recent from Bragg — the last report represented that he had surrounded Rosecrans. The session at the Seminary opens to-morrow — twenty boarders engaged. Great vexation expressed by many persons in town in consequences of the disappointment to get rosin for the Gas Works — and some disposition to complain of me. I am perfectly satisfied with what I have done, and what I have not done, in the premises.


Wednesday night, October 7, 1863.

Jimmy Tate leaves to-morrow to join the Rockbridge Artillery, Gen. Lee's army. He is in the finest spirits, but I feel very much depressed. I attended a meeting of the Gas Company to-night, called to consider a request of Waterhouse + Bowes, the lessees, for permission to raise the price of gas — Quite an exciting discussion between Mr. Michie and M. G. Harman on one side, and H. M. Bell + myself on the other. I think the former exhibited a very illiberal spirit. The meeting adjourned to another night. Henry C. Alexander is with us again, having come from Lexington on Monday.

Saturday night. Oct. 10, 1863.

B. J. Lacey (Rev.) here to-night, just from the army. — Henry Alexander here also, having returned from Waynesboro this evening. Gen. Lee's army is moving, the enemy backing out towards the North. It is said that a large part of Meade's army has been sent to reinforce Rosecrans. Jimmy Tate left on Thursday, and we have heard nothing from him. — Feel some solicitude, as a battle may occur soon.

Tuesday night, Oct. 13, 1863.

Va received a letter from Jimmy Tate last night — he was near Orange C.H., having been left behind with some broken-down horses. We are glad to know that he is not likely to be in a battle soon. — Henry Alexander left on Monday morning, going to the University on his way to Synod, at Salem. B. T. Lacey went to Lexington this morning. [deleted: He does not fully command my respect, being too fond of anecdotes and jokes.] After supper to-night, I went down for the morning papers, and calling at Mr. Stuart's ascertained that the Richmond train had not arrived. Sat with Mr. S. and Sister till half past 8 o'clock, and as I was having to come home heard the rumbling of the train. Did what is unusual for me — went to the Depot to enquire the news. Met a number of persons who had just arrived, hurrying to the hotel. — At last fell in and returned with a man who seemed rather less flurried than the others, and in answer to my questions he said reports on the train stated that fighting was going on yesterday and to-day — that Ewell's corps would be at Manassas to-night, in the rear of the Yankees, and that 300 captured Yankees were at Gordonsville to-day. He quickened his pace and left me, and I then addressed myself to an officer (apparently — it was dark) who said he understood it was Hill's corps that had got in Meade's rear, that a severe cavalry fight took place yesterday at Culpeper C.H., that no body was now permitted to enter the lines of our army from Gordonsville — not even officers — and that a general battle would take place soon if Meade would stand. Our Commissioner, Mr. Mason, has retired from England, which he ought to have done long ago. I had Philip hauling in my winter's wood. Many interruptions — have two indifferent government horses — fear I shall have no corn and fodder left for the cow. Forage very difficult to procure. My crop, raised by Philip on the land I got from Legh, is a short one. Miss Agnes and Mary J. Baldwin are succeeding beyond all expectations at the Seminary — more than eighty pupils, and 22 or 23 of them boarders. I am again at Lord Campbell's "Sins of the Lord Chancellors" — reading now the life of Clarendon.

Thursday night, Oct. 15, 1863.

President Davis has dismissed all of the British Consuls from the Confederate States — a good more. Nothing definite from Lee's army. Supposed that Meade has got to his fortifications near Alexandria, though there is a rumor of a general battle to- day. Reported that (700) seven hundred Yankee cavalry, men and horse, were captured a few days ago near Warrenton. Trouble among the officers in Bragg's army. I have been engaged for several days past in the great work of having a suit of clothes made. Va bought the cloth several weeks ago at the Factory near town. It is gray jeans, and cost $10 a yard, but similar cloth sells now at $14. The price will go up to whatever sum people are able to pay. Va furnished as "trimmings" four yards of unbleached cotton cloth, (for pockets, sleeve linings +c) and a piece of black alpaca74 which her brother Jim had worn as a neck cloth, for coat lining. I bought two yards of Osnaburg,75 at $2.50 a yard, (formerly cost 8 or 10 cents), and have ordered two dozen buttons from the manufacturer. The Lushbaughs turn buttons out of maple wood — one dozen I may use for the coat and vest, and the others I will probably swap for some suitable for pantaloons. The suit will probably cost me from $130 to $140 — formerly it would not have brought more than $12 or $15. The great meeting on last court day has amounted to nothing — Farmers have no produce to spare! Legh went to Mt. Solon yesterday, with wagons, and authority to break into granaries, to obtain army supplies.

Friday night, Oct. 16, 1863,

Legh returned to-day, having been compelled to take wheat from one man by force, or without his consent. It is a very bad sign — this withholding of necessary supplies. — Rumors of more Yankees captured beyond the Rappahannock, making about 1300 since Gen. Lee began his advance. Passengers by the train to-night report that the Yankees have taken Bristol, are approaching Abingdon, and will reach the Salt Works.

Saturday night, Oct. 17, 1863.

Reported to-night that a considerable battle took place day before yesterday at Bristow Station, on the Orange + Alexandria Railroad. — Result not known, but it is said we captured 3000 prisoners. The enemy seem to have complete possession of East Tennessee, now. The weather has been delightful to-day, after the rain of yesterday. Mrs. Mary Lacy and three children arrived from Lexington this evening, and are staying at our house. Maximilian is said to have accepted the offer made him of the Mexican throne. Our people have for some time past expected something highly favorable to the Confederacy from this event. France, it is thought, must form an alliance with us to carry out its designs in Mexico.

Brown sugar up to three dollars ($3) a pound. A few grains of Rio Coffee mixed with the rye are now considered a great treat. Yesterday Adeline actually gave me a slice of pound cake, very indifferent, however. She had company at dinner.

Sunday night, Oct. 18, 1863.

There was a report this morning, said to have come by Telegraph, that Lee had completely routed Meade's army — This evening it is stated that no such news was received, and passengers by the train are doubtful whether a general battle has come off — Indeed an officer of Ewell's corps, just from the army, says it had not when he left. B. Hansel writes from Highland Co. that some 8000 Yankees at Beverly, were preparing a few days ago to come this way. Not very probable.

Tuesday night, Oct. 20, 1863.

Imboden sent a dispatch to-day, stating that on Sunday morning he surprised the enemy at Charleston, and captured 434 of them. He was pursued by Yankees from Harper's Ferry, but reached Shenandoah Co. with his prisoners and some valuable stores. It seems that Col. Jackson was repulsed at Bulltown, Braxton Co. It is said that Gen. Lee is falling back. We suffered severely at Bristow Station. Many of our wounded have been brought to Staunton. Jimmy Tate was at Gordonsville when last heard from. The Legislature seems determined to pass a law fixing maximum prices for all articles of subsistence, which has often been tried with ruinous effects.

Wednesday night, Oct. 21, 1863.

No news from the various armies to-day — a report that Col. Jackson, after his repulse at Bulltown, repulsed the enemy who pursued him, capturing several hundred of them. Pennsylvania and Ohio elections have gone in favor of the Lincoln candidates — Vallandigham being defeated in the latter state. No hope for us in any "conservative sentiment" at the North. To end the war some influence must come from abroad — but where is it to come from? Possibly France — but "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick."76 Rode up to my land, opposite Legh's, this afternoon, to see how much wood remained to be hauled. Philip says there are twelve cards — he has delivered about twenty. Sister + Mary and Adaline and her children were at Legh's, the two former having walked out. — the latter went in Alick's one-horse spring wagon. I brought them all in in the wagon. Nathan riding my horse. The country looked delightfully tranquil — the weather fine.

Saturday night, Oct. 24. 1863.

The prisoners taken by Imboden at Charlestown (almost 450) arrived this morning. Among them are two natives of Staunton — John Wise and William (or Gerald) Henderson! The former had to pass immediately by the house in which his sisters lived, and was permitted to go in and see them. I hear there was great lamentation over his being caught in such company. All of the prisoners are from Baltimore, and were enlisted for six months. No exchanges of prisoners are taking place now, as Lincoln insists upon placing his negro soldiers on the same footing with the whites. Upwards of (700) seven hundred Yankees were captured in Tennessee a few days ago. We must have largely the advantage of the Yankees by this time. Some of our men came off with rich spoils from Charlestown. One had three or four overcoats, which are hard to get with us.

Tuesday night, October 27, 1863.

A number of persons on this county and Rockingham have been arrested for encouraging desertions from our army, among them a man named Yates, of Mt. Sidney, formerly a militia Major, whom I have known for a long time. Several of Imboden's men went to him, pretending they were deserters. He took them in, revealed to them his mode of operating, and gave them instructions in regard to stopping places, passwords +c. They then went on in pursuance of his directions, from place to place, over the mountains, till they got near the Yankee lines. On their return they arrested all the men at whose houses they were harbored. A notorious spy named Coffman was arrested a few days ago by a party of Imboden's men, in Pendleton. He has a family in Rockingham, and has been making trips between that county and the enemy's post at New Creek, on the Balt. + Ohio Railroad. When Imboden moved down the Valley the last time he sent fifty men to Pendleton county in search of Coffman. Not finding him, all of them returned except nine of the party, who secreted themselves and watched the roads at night, when, it was believed, Coffman did his traveling. On the fifth night a picket discovered a man going to a barn, and informing his associates, the building was surrounded and Coffman captured. He had a large number of letters to persons in Rockingham and Augusta, which implicate several Dunkard preachers and others. — He had also a passport from the Yankee officer commanding at New Creek, which he attempted to swallow but was made to disgorge by choking. For the last year it has been evident that parties were conveying intelligence to the enemy of all movements in the Valley. —— I had a very severe attack of sickness last night. Mrs. Lacey and her children left for Richmond yesterday morning. The Yankee government has announced its determination not to exchange prisoners again during the war, as our army is recruited by the return of our men. They hope to capture all our armies in the course of time, and also, perhaps, to starve us out by the aid of the prisoners in our hands. It would be a curious state of affairs if they should capture most of our armies, and we most of theirs.

November 1863

Wednesday night, Nov. 4, 1863.

The enemy still cannonading Fort Sumter, at Charleston, furiously. — Astonishing how the place, battered all to pieces, can hold out. Fighting again near Chattanooga. — A want of information, but it is evident that important movements are in progress in that quarter. We hear frequently from Jimmy — He still seems to be contented.

Thursday night, Nov. 5, 1863.

No news to-day from any quarter — I was offered this morning a situation in the Commissary Department, at a salary of $150 a month, but as it would require me to go from home (to the Salt Works) I declined it.

Sunday night, Nov. 8, 1863.

The Rev. Dr. Boyd, of Winchester, and Mr. Stuart dined with us to- day. Dr. B. preached in the morning and also at night. Va and I [deleted: and] Sister Cornelia spent last evening with him at J. K. Woods' — Mr. Stuart + Mary returned late Saturday from a visit to Rockbridge. — Great excitement there about a Yankee raid from the Western counties. The Home Guard had been called out and mustered 1100 — No arms for the companies formed in this county. The Yankee General Averell has driven Col. Jackson's command back to the Warm Springs.

Monday night, Nov. 9, 1863.

The first news this morning (brought by the train last night) was that two of our Brigades, except 600 men who escaped without their arms, were, on Saturday, captured by the enemy on the Rapahannock. The both belonged to Early's Division, Ewell's Corps. One of them was on picket duty, in an intrenchment, and upon the approach of the enemy, the other was sent up as a reinforcement. But the enemy proved too strong for them, and after a fierce resistance and slaying many of the Yankees, they were overpowered. The Richmond papers received to-night, have no details of the affair, but regard it as a great disaster. Passengers, however, state that the Brigades were not full ones. There is a report also that we captured several thousands of the enemy at Culpeper C.H., on yesterday. I fear this is not so. A general engagement is expected. More that 800 Yankees were captured a few days ago at Rogersville, Tennessee. Imboden sends a dispatch that he had met the enemy's cavalry at Callahan's and driven them back. It was supposed their infantry had gone towards Covington. The Home Guards of this county will probably be called out.

The enemy still firing away at Fort Sumter, Charleston, though not so briskly for the last few days, as previously. The first snow-storm of the season to-day. I have finished hauling in my wood — now at the corn.

Tuesday night, Nov. 10, 1863.

Various rumors in regard to the approach of Yankees to Staunton. — One that a force had come up the Valley as far as Woodstock — another that a party was at Monterey. It is said that Echols was repulsed with considerable loss, at Frankfort, in Greenbrier. Our loss in the affair of Saturday, on the Rappahannock, is reported from 1000 to 1500. No further news from that quarter. Laborers are throwing up defensive works in the vicinity of Staunton. Very cold to-day.

Wednesday night, Nov. 11, 1863.

Feeling quite unwell to-night, I did not go down street for the news after the arrival of the Eastern train — if indeed it has come. Another report this afternoon of the enemy being at Woodstock and threatening an advance. Imboden came down with his command to Buffalo Gap, to-day. He says the Yankee Averel was at Hightown, Highland Co., at last accounts — uncertain what track he was on. Between 9 + 10 o'clock to- night we heard shouting on the street below our house, and on going to the door found that one of more vehicles, probably cannon, were passing out of town. I went down to the street, but as men and all had got by, I could not learn the meaning of the affair. One horseman galloped by, and otherwise the street was deserted.

Thursday night, Nov. 12, 1863.

A dispatch from Imboden, received last night, stated that a body of Yankees were coming down through Pendleton, to unite with Averel, in Highland, and that they contemplated a raid upon Staunton — that he would try to reach the Shenandoah mountain last night, and the county "Raid Guard" must meet him there. I did not state last night that the various companies were, on yesterday, organized into a Regiment, J. B. Baldwin, Colonel. Harper Lt. Col., and J. M. McCue, Major. — Alick Surgeon. Notices were sent out early this morning for the companies to assemble in town as possible, and to-morrow morning. They are expected in to get guns +c. We have had no further news during the day. Gen. Lee has fallen back this side of the Rapidan.

Friday night, Nov. 13, 1863.

Seven or eight companies of the "Raid Guard" were on parade to-day — several of them, however, being quite small. But as the Yankees had gone from Highland towards Hardy, the companies were dismissed till tomorrow at 10 o'clock. — it was encouraging to see that we have so many men left. They are mounted infantry, except an artillery company, organized in town. Flour is now selling at about seventy dollars ($70) a barrel! I hear that corn is at $10 a bushel in some parts of the county. Thus the currency is going lower and lower. A general feeling of distrust — apprehension of repudiation ultimately.

Monday night, Nov. 16, 1863.

I have not read a Richmond paper for several days, but I hear of no news. I have made about 58 bushels of corn, besides what the horses have eaten during the last two months. Flour sold a few days ago in town at $80 a barrel. Young Armstrong, who belongs to a company in Imboden's command, relates some interesting army incidents. When his command captured Charlestown recently and entered the Courthouse, one of the Yankees endeavored to hide in a closet and held the door from the inside. One of our soldiers, with some difficulty forced the door open, and then, in a petulant mood, shot the Yankee and kicking his body down the steps into the cellar locked the closet door. The other men were shocked at the cruelty of the act, but all of them are so weary of the war as to often to perpetrate such things without compunction. On another occasion, a Yankee soldier was shot, and as he fell threw his hand upon his breast. Some of our men went to him; and on turning him over discovered a youth of remarkable beauty. He was shot in the head, and his hand covered the miniature of a lady supposed to be his mother. The spectacle moved all of our men to tears. Oh, miserable war! This morning I got Mr. Tate's buggy and took Va out to old Mrs. Karre's, about a mile from town. The old woman is to weave some linsey77 for us. She lives by herself in a small room, which contains her loom, bed, stove, and, I suppose, all she possesses. Her nose was covered with a cloth, as she has cancer. What a comfortless state! Many years ago her husband was a sort of overseer on our farm — He was at the battle of Waterloo — an "Irish Dragoon." After him John Maybush lived in the same house, in the same capacity — He also was at Waterloo, having been one of Blutcher's men, a Prussian.

Saturday night, Nov. 21, 1863.

"No news" for several days — that is no important battle, and no immediate prospect of one. The assault upon Charleston continues, but what progress, if any, the enemy has made in the capture of the city we do not know — we thought Vicksburg safe, till we heard of its fall, and the public was slow to believe the report. Some skirmishing on the Rapidan, and now and then an affair "down the Valley." In the mean while prices are going up, or the currency down. Pork which used to sell for $5 or $10 per 100 pounds, now goes off at $150 to $200 per 100. (By the way, my sow had a litter of seven pigs last night — three of which have wens78 on their foreheads — what does it portend?) A general feeling now that the war will be interminable. All round the horizon there is not a glimmer of light or hope. Yet the war does not weigh as heavily as it did for many months after it began. The recollection of the security and abundance formerly enjoyed seems like a dream. — I picture to myself the scenes in our streets three years ago — piles of boxes before every store door, shelves and counters within filled and piled up with goods, merchants begging customers to buy; groceries running over with sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, cheese fish +c; confectioners making the most tempting display of fruits, cakes and candies; wagon loads of country produce calling at every house and farmers earnestly inquiring who wished to purchase flour, corn, potatoes, beef, pork, apples — Now, the stores (still so called by courtesy) will furnish you thread, buttons, pins, and other light articles which "run the blockage," cotton cloth of Southern manufacture (at $3.75 per yard!), vessels made of clay instead of glass or china ware, and occasionally a few yards of calico or linsey; the confectioner's saloons are like "banquet halls deserted"79; and you will be lucky if, by dint of entreaty and as a special favour, an "independent farmer" will sell you at a high price a barrel of flour or a few bushels of corn. In consequence of this state of affairs, each family manufactures and produces its own supplies as far as possible. Alick, however, with an extensive practice as a physician, can scarcely procure forage for his horse, and had to notify his patrons that he could not answer their calls unless they furnished him with produce. People are willing to pay any price (in "currency") for what they want — money is plentiful, but alas! it cannot be used as food or clothing. But I discover no change in female attire — the ladies seem to dress quite as much as formerly — How this happens I do not know; perhaps women's ingenuity "Gars auld claes look amaist as weel's the new" (see Burns)80, but I presume, from the sensation caused by a new bonnet at church, the sex do feel the purpose of the times in this respect. Men dress in home-spun, or in broad-cloth coats of antique cut. As apropos to this subject see No. 277 of the "Spectator." — French fashions were imported into England by means of dolls dressed in the latest styles, and the Spectator says that during the hottest period of the war between England and France the dolls continued to come. (Va says she wishes one would arrive here now — she would like to make up her linsey by it) Our ladies are just as eager as formerly for the "fashions" from Philadelphia and New York. Every now and then some female comes through "the lines," and the patterns of her bonnet, cloak, dress and cape is spedily adopted by the whole sex.

Monday night, Nov. 23, 1863.

Reports came last night that Gen. Longstreet had captured 2200 Yankees at Knoxville, was in possession of the place +c. Also reported that a long train of cars on the Balt. + Ohio RR. full of Yankee soldiers, was blown up by torpidors a few days ago. A man went from here for the purpose. I have been quite unwell again to-night — am so two or three times a week generally.

Friday night, November 27, 1863.

The RR train from Richmond, due at 6 o'clock last evening, did not arrive till about 10; — Consequently we did not get the news till this morning. Then I found the papers had dispatches from Gen. Bragg announcing that he had met with reverses, and was withdrawing his army from the neighborhood of Chattanooga to Chickamauga. The terms of his dispatches have room to expect tidings of serious losses in that quarter. There was a rumor also that Burnside, with 7000 men had surrendered to Longstreet at Knoxville — This is not credited. A battle on the Rapidan is looked for. Flour sold to-day in town for $85 a barrel — a whole wagon load. What with the small crop of wheat and the indisposition of farmers to sell, we are in a bad way.

Sunday night, Nov. 29, 1863.

Mr. Wayt told me this morning at Sunday School that Reulen Gillock had been mortally wounded in a battle on the Rappahannock — the result of the fight not known — This much had come by telegraph. The cars to-night bring word that a fight occurred on Friday between Gen. Johnston's Division and a portion of the enemy, and that the latter were driven back two miles — our loss in killed and wounded 400. Our army in line of battle yesterday, but no fight occurred. We are anxious to hear from Jimmy Tate. I am sad to think of Gillock's family. At last accounts Gen. Bragg was in line of battle at Chickamauga. He lost, it is said, 5000 men taken prisoners at Lookout Mountain. Longstreet was shelling Knoxville. This is a dark period of the war - - many persons think we are on the point of being overwhelmed. Rumors of a large Yankee force coming in from Western Virginia. Thefts + robberies are the common occurrences — Overcoats, cloaks and dresses are stolen from halls and chambers, meat from smokehouses, and grain from fields + barns — Such things are almost regarded as matters of course — Multitudes of families will put up no pork this year. The price is from $150 to $200 per 100 lbs. Flour up to $95 a barrel. At this rate of depreciation we shall soon have no currency, as the money we have will buy nothing at all. Many persons, however, have no more of the depreciated currency than they formerly had of good money, and upon them the purpose of the times is very severe. But the slaughter wounds, anguish, anxiety, [deleted: anguish] constitute the great burden. May God turn unto us in mercy!

Monday night, Nov. 30, 1863.

The cars had not arrived when I was down street after supper to-night, and there was no news by Telegraph during the day. Some passengers in last night's train reported that Johnston had united with Bragg, and defeated the Yankees, taking 20,000 prisoners. I have seen no one who attached any importance to this rumor. It is doubtless only the wish or hope which is apt to be entertained after a disaster has occurred. Reported that the loss of men from this county in killed and wounded in the late fight on the Rappahannock, was 150. When, about three years ago, I began this journal, I little imagined that war would now be raging. It seems now more likely to continue for three, or twice three, years to come. Very cold to-day.

December 1863

Tuesday night, Dec. 1, 1863.

Bragg has been driven still further by the enemy, and was at Dalton, at last accounts. At Ringgold he is said to have checked his pursuers severely, but they were still pressing upon him. According to telegraphic reports he has lost more than fifty pieces of artillery, 1000 men killed + wounded, and 5000 men captured by the enemy. Northern papers, however, claim only 2000 prisoners. On the Rappahannock, the opposing armies have been skirmishing for several days past — a general engagement cannot be delayed long. The crisis is momentous. If Lee is driven back to Richmond, all this section of the state must fall into the hands of the enemy, and Richmond must soon fall by starvation.

Wednesday night, Dec. 2, 1863

The battle on the Rappahannock has not begun yet. It will probably take place tomorrow. Stated this evening that at Lookout Mt. our right wing inflicted as much injury upon the enemy as our left sustained. — that we captured about as much artillery as we lost.

Friday night, Dec. 4, 1863.

To the surprise of every body, rumors came last night that the Yankee army was backing out of its position confronting Gen. Lee. It was thought probable, however, that Meade was endeavoring to secure possession of Fredericksburg for winter quarters. Intelligence came to night that the Yankees left Wednesday night, and went towards Culpeper C.H., Lee pursuing. The advance and all the pompous array of this enemy certainly were indicative of a battle — why they have backed out in this manner we do not know, unless it was that Lee was too well prepared for them. After their repulse at Ringgold the Yankees abandoned their pursuit of Bragg, and came back to Chickamauga, destroying bridges +c behind them. Bragg telegraphs that their loss at Ringgold was very heavy — the New York Herald, it is said, estimates their loss at Lookout Mt. and subsequently at forty thousand. It is reported again that Burnside has surrendered to Longstreet at Knoxville. The cannonading ceased on Saturday, from which it was inferred by some that Burnside had surrendered; by others, that Longstreet had been compelled by Bragg's reverses to raise the siege and retire. But if the latter be the correct supposition our army would have been heard of before this time, near the Virginia line. Moreover, information, apparently authentic, as late as Monday, states that the Yankee army at Knoxville were on very short rations. Bragg has been relieved of his command at his own request. There has been much clamor about him for some time past. I am not prepared to unite in it. After the battle of Cannae, which reduced Rome to the last extremity, — the Senate, after adopting means of defending the city, went out to meet Varro, their defeated General, and presented him a vote of thanks because he had not despaired of the Republic — The historian remarks: "If he had been a Carthagenian, he would have been crucified."81 On the whole things look much brighter for us than they did a few days ago. The most discouraging feature is the difficulty of procuring supplies for the army. Farmers are resorting to every expedient for secreting their produce, because the Government does not pay the present exorbitant prices. — I had my five hogs killed day before yesterday — turned out badly only averaging 117 lbs. We got six hogs weighing 999 lbs from Mr. Tate — or rather Maj. Tate. The lots make 1584 lbs, which at $1.50 per pound = $2376!

Saturday night, Dec. 5, 1863.

Four reports to-night there seems to be no doubt that Longstreet has raised the siege of Knoxville and is retreating towards Virginia — Grant's burning of bridges was probably to prevent Bragg's (or whoever is in command now) following him, so that he might relieve Burnside at Knoxville without interference. Gen. Morgan and his staff officers have certainly escaped from the Ohio Penitentiary to Canada. No prospect of a termination of the war — So far as present appearances go, it may last for twenty years — I see no way by which it can cease, except European intervention, or a separation of the Northwestern States from the East, which will doubtless occur some time or other. South Carolina certainly made a great mistake in bolting from the Union as she did. My views and feelings in regard to the impolicy of that step have not changed. Zealous original secessionists were so fully persuaded that they had a right to secede, that they did not believe war would follow. It seemed them too absurd to wage war with a State for doing what it had an indubitable right to do. Not believing in secession as a Constitutional measure, others did expect war to follow, and the present war is not worse than I anticipated. Instead of quitting the Union on the election of Lincoln, Southern representatives ought to have held their seats in the Congress at Washington; with the aid of conservative Northern men, we would have had a majority against Lincoln, and by withholding supplies could have tied his hands completely. — if war arose it would have been civil, not sectional, and mainly at the North, where the people were divided in sentiment. Thus we should have had the cooperation of nearly one half of the Northern people. But as things were managed, those who were disposed to stand by us, in the Northern States, were driven off at the first step. They were left in a minority, and could not render us active assistance without incurring the perils of incident to treason. To save themselves from suspicion, multitudes embarked in the war against us, and have been led on step by step to sustain all of Lincoln's usurpations. The war with Mexico and conquest of a large portion of her territory, were the origin and cause of these troubles — [deleted: heavily deleted and illegible text] We may see the hand of retributive justice in what we now suffer. I have always believed that the Mexican war was unnecessary and wicked. The territory acquired by it, gave rise to the controversy about slavery, which has not ceased, and probably will not till the whole country is overwhelmed with ruin.

Monday night, Dec. 7, 1863.

From intelligence received last night, the report that Longstreet has abandoned the siege of Knoxville, was somewhat discredited — The reported stated that he raised the siege and began a retreat on Sunday, the 29th ult.; yet on Friday following, he had not approached the Va line, to which he was said to be coming; — Atlanta and Dalton dispatches of the 4th (Friday) stated that he was retiring towards Va; but on the same day a dispatch from Bristol, which point he might nearly have reached by that time, stated that the siege was progressing. The train arrived late to-night, and consequently I have not heard the news brought by it.

Tuesday night, Dec. 8, 1863.

The cars came in again to-night, too late for me to get the news. There was nothing last night — Not a word about Longstreet — It is no longer believed, however, that he retreated from Knoxville on Sunday, the 29th. We hear of movements in West Tennessee by Buckner and Ransom, but nothing definite. Reports from trans-Mississippi state that we have lately had some successes in Louisiana. Mr. Stuart and Sister took supper with us to-night, and Mr. Campbell and one of his daughters came in afterwards. Most people we meet are now talking about the difficulties of getting food +c.

Thursday night, Dec. 10, 1863.

Intelligence night before last that Longstreet had really been compelled to abandon the siege of Knoxville. Reports of movements in that quarter very unintelligible to me. Great commotion among persons who have put substitutes in the army, on account of the President's recommendation and movements in Congress to send them to the ranks.

Friday night, Dec. 11, 1863.

Another Yankee raid reported — The Home Guard called out.

Saturday night, Dec. 12.

No definite intelligence in regard to the Yankee raiders. The Home Guard is to be on hand again to-morrow morning. I have no idea that the Yankees will come near to Staunton while Gen. Lee's army is disengaged and at hand, on the Railroad: Congress is full of schemes, financial +c. Everybody feels that something must be done spedily, but every plan proposed for the improvement of the finances is more or less objectionable, in some of its features. The one recommended by the Secretary of the Treasury is the worst of all. Several days ago I purchased twenty bushels of wheat for a dollar per bushel, payable in gold, which in Confederate notes (currency was more than four hundred dollars for the lot! The wheat was delivered at the Steam Mill yesterday, and this evening, I had the flour brought home. We had been keeping a little gold (between $20 + $25) to expend when nothing else would do. Dr. McGuffey of the University is in town, assisting Mr. Baker in a meeting. He + Mr. B. and Mr. Stuart dined with us to-day.

Sunday night, Dec. 13.

The Home Guard (mounted infantry) started for the Shenandoah Mt. this morning, about the time services began in the churches. While Dr McGuffey was preaching we could hear the sound of work men in the street, fixing up an artillery wagon for the expedition. The artillery company, however, had not gone yet. Alick and Legh went — the former this morning, and the latter in the afternoon. I hear that Imboden sent a dispatch stating that the Yankees were at McDowell, and he expected to be attacked at Shenandoah Mt. The communion services of our church were not interrupted, notwithstanding the bustle. Several of the county preachers went with the Home Guard, and a number of our congregation were absent from the Church today. Many persons exhibited a feeling of anxiety, but I have had a strong impression that the expedition will turn out to have been useless, and consequently have been almost unmoved. If, however, reports we hear to-night might be true, there may be cause for apprehension. It is said that a large body of the enemy — part of Meade's army — is in the Page Valley. Possibly the object is to draw Lee this side of the Blue Ridge, in order to clear the way for an advance of the Yankees from Fortress Monroe upon Richmond. I have no apprehension that Lee will be caught in any trap, but we may have more serious alarms of an advance of the enemy towards Staunton. I do not expect anything of the kind to be seriously attempted at this season of the year. — Five persons — all females — united with the church to-day — two of them the wife and daughter of Gillock, lately killed. Very mild, sun-shiney day, after a hard rain last night.

Monday night, Dec. 14, 1863.

Kate informed me at breakfast this morning, that she heard a great noise in the street for several hours before day — the loud voices of men, the blowing of horns +c. Upon going down street I learned that a dispatch had cavalry from Imboden, ordering out the remainder of the Home Guard. There were wild reports from various quarters, but the sum and substance of the truth was that Imboden had had some skirmishing on the other side of the Shenandoah Mt., that Echols had been driven back again from Lewisburg, and that a force of two or three thousand Yankees had come up the Valley as far as Woodstock. The Home Guard Artillery, convalescent patients from the Military Hospital, the hands in the Government shops +c. moved out to Buffalo Gap during the morning, under Col. Nadenbousche, the Commander of this Post. — About 2 o'clock a dispatch was received that the Stonewall Brigade would be here, from Gen. Lee's army, between 4 + 10 o'clock to-morrow morning. There was no further intelligence from any quarter till the Richmond train arrived, near 9 o'clock to-night. I went to the Provost Marshal's office to get the news, and while I was there the train arrived. Several officers soon made their appearance in search of rations for their men, about 600 of another Brigade having come. They stated that a body of cavalry could come to-morrow, and the Gen. Fitz Lee would command. Reported from Richmond that the Potomac is full of transports — that 30,000 Yankee troops from Tennessee have joined Meade. Supposed that an assault upon Richmond from a new quarter, or upon Charleston, is intended.

Tuesday night, Dec. 15, 1863.

Two trains of cars filled with soldiers (part of whom came last night) past through to Buffalo Gap about 2 o'clock to-day. Another train full arrived between 9 + 10 to-night. Gen. Fitz Lee is in town, I understand, and I presume his cavalry is in the vicinity. Where these troops are to operate we do not know. It may be, as rumored, that the enemy, in large force, is advancing from Lewisburg. From all accounts there is no considerable number of the enemy near the Shenandoah Mt. Alick writes as if he were enjoying himself — he has left many patients at home, who need his services. Legh send to me a supply of provisions, and we have put up a box for him.

Wednesday night, Dec. 16, 1863.

Maj. Gen. Early arrived last night, and several more trains with troops have come up and gone West. Lee's cavalry stayed within a few miles of town last night + many of them were riding about the streets all day. The command has not moved yet, so far as I know. The community has been at a great loss to know the meaning of these movements, as it is now certain that no force of the enemy is threatening Imboden, who, at last accounts, had moved his camp from the Shenandoah to the Western base of North Mt, at Buffalo Gap. It was rumored this evening that a party of the enemy had reached Salem, Roanoke Co., and destroyed the Va + Tennessee Railroad at that point. The troops passing here must be intended to cut off the retreat of that party. None of the officers whom I met had any knowledge of their destination or the objects of the expedition. The weather was cloudy and cold to-day, and it was distressing to see many of our poor fellows who had just arrived, without blankets and overcoats. As a mass they were dirty, ragged and badly clad, but lively as usual, extracting fun from everything. I mentioned several weeks ago that a man named Coffman, who had long acted as a spy for the Yankees, had been captured. He is now in our jail, sentenced by Court Martial to be hung on Friday next. (The Stonewall Brigade is not among the troops that has come up) There was no mail from Richmond last night. The last papers I have seen contained Lincoln's message to his Congress and his Proclamation making known the terms upon which he is willing to receive individual "rebels" under his protection — all intended for effect in Europe. The genuine Yankees (New Englanders) remind me strongly of the ancient Greeks. The Greek was the Yankee of old times — ingenious, excelling in art +c +c, but utterly faithless and corrupt.

Thursday night, Dec. 17, 1863.

When I awoke this morning, it was raining hard, and the trees +c were coated with ice. I wondered how it was possible for our poor soldiers to stand exposure to such weather, not only without tents, but many of them without blankets or overcoats. The Home Guard are better provided, but not inured to exposure. I ascertained, upon going to the office, that it was undoubtedly true that the Yankees had reached the Railroad at Salem — supposed to be Averell's command — It is a bold affair. At one o'clock Lee's division of cavalry passed through town, and went up the Greenville road. None of them know where they were going, and no body could tell there the enemy were to be found. The men were dripping wet, but seemed in fine spirits. The horses, generally, are in good condition. The Home Guard returned to-day, having been dismissed to assemble again at a moment's warning. Alick appears to have enjoyed the excursion very much. I have not seen Legh. The troops which went west by Railroad, are all returning; even Imboden's command is coming in — These movements are involved in mystery to us. Raining all day, and the trees + shrubs still covered with ice. Billy Graham, of Lexington, captain of cavalry, called and took dinner with us to-day, bringing a friend with him. We have frequently heard the engine whistle since dark, as if trains were arriving.

Saturday night, Dec. 18, 1863.

All the troops returned from Buffalo Gap last night, in the rain, and must have had a miserable time of it. They were taken about 2 miles from town, on the Greenville road, and spent the night without shelter from the cold rain which ceased, however, at 10 or 11 o'clock. Some, I hear, who applied for permission to warm and dry themselves were repulsed by citizens! Legh told us of two who went to his house and asked for shelter, one of whom seemed nearly frozen — they had repeatedly been turned off. He, of course, took them in and did the best he could for them. During the morning, he learned that part of the troops were to go to Millboro, to intercept Averell on his return from Salem. — Accordingly at one o'clock, Thomas' Brigade marched from their camp to the Railroad. A wood train was expected down the road at that hour, but from some accident it did not get in till after dark. Consequently the departure of the Brigade was delayed. After dinner, I took two loaves of bread and a paper of sausage meat (which we had sent to Legh and returned as he did not need supplies) and gave them to a young soldier I met in the street. He seemed gratified — said he was looking out for some place where he could buy food. Poor fellows! they have been kept moving so constantly, that they could not prepare the rations issued to them. As soon as the men found they would not start immediately, they had blazing fires in the open space between the American Hotel and the RR Depot. After supper I took more bread + meat + gave them to a crowd of five soldiers, who seemed highly gratified. Large fires were kindled along the Railroad (too near the platform for safety) and crowds of dusky, clay soiled and smoke-begrimmed men were gathered around them. I spent some time walking around and looking at the different groups. Their behavior and the language of most of them, was unexceptionable. I felt the strongest desire to do something for their comfort, but what could I do for so many? Oh the hardships of this terrible war! Many of these men were tenderly raised — look at them now! — dirty, ragged, exposed night and day to the pityless storm, drenched to the skin, and without sufficient food. — But the cowed spirits of the men, their submissive manner to every one having a show of authority, is worse than the physical suffering. Military discipline has subdued many a haughty temper. When the wood train arrived, other trains full of soldiers started off to Millboro. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry went up to Lexington — Imboden's command was at Brownsburg last night or this morning. It is reported that Averell was at Salem last night, high waters having prevented his getting off. New clothing was issued to many of the soldiers, some of whom took off their old boots and shoes in the street and left them there. One man met me at the door of the Quartermaster's office, and asked quite humbly if there was any place where he could change his breeches. I took him into my room. The execution of Coffman did not take place to-day, a writ of habeas corpus having been sued out.

Saturday night, December 19, 1863.

No news to-day from any quarter — A rumor that the Yankees were coming up the Valley, and were near Harrisonburg. A telegram was received about dinner time directing the Commissary to prepare rations for Roper's Brigade of cavalry; but it had not come when I returned home after dark. Dont know from which quarters it is coming. A few days ago the Brigade was foraging at Ivy Depot, Albemarle, but I hear it moved down the Eastern base of the Blue Ridge and entered the Valley in Rockingham.

12 o'clock. — Between 10 + 11 o'clock, we were startled by the report of a cannon quite near us. I started out immediately to ascertain the cause, Kate calling to me that she had heard cannon passing up the street by our house. — Coming to the open space this side of the Academy, I heard voices and could discern in the moon light objects on the hill, near Col. Lilly's house. I went up and found a squad with a twelve pound gun giving the signal for the assembling of the Home Guard of the county. They fired thirteen times. I could get no information from them, except that it was reported the Yankees were at Harrisonburg, and they were ordered to give the signal. After coming home to tell what I had heard, I went down street, leaving Kate, Kitty, Nannie and Mattie sitting around the fire with Va in our room, all in their night clothes. On the street I met soldiers hurrying out (in the direction of Harrisonburg) several of whom asked me if the Yankees were near. Found afterwards that a body of troops had passed on before. Called at Mr. Stuart's, and was told by him that a dispatch was received at 7 o'clock from Harrisonburg, stating that the Yankees were near that place +, since then nothing more had been heard from there. Went on to the Q M's office + office of Command of Post, but could get no further intelligence. Met Alick, who had heard that the Yankees were 8 miles from town! The streets were crowded with the remainder of the Brigade, brought in from their camp two miles from town, White's Battalion +c. Several pieces of cannon have moved down the road, besides the infantry. The signal guns seemed loud enough the arouse the country, but aunt Sally was undisturbed — no lights in her house, and I did not arouse her. All dark and quiet too at the Seminary. Every body in the house except myself has now gone to bed, and I hear no noise in the street. The soldiers seemed to be in high spirits, calling for the Home Guard and cracking jokes upon oneanother as they passed along.

Sunday night, Dec. 20, 1863.

Much bustle during the former part of the day, but no definite intelligence was received in regard to the enemy. In the afternoon the Home Guard moved down the McAdamized road two miles to encamp for the night. Weather cold, but dry and the atmosphere still. Trains began to come in from the West, bringing back the troops who went up to Millboro on Friday night. These also moved down the Valley road, and will spend the night with or near the Home Guard. They bring word that that Jackson captured one or two hundred of Averell's men at Clifton Forge, his cannon and more or less of his baggage, and that seven or eight hundred were separated from the main body. The latter effected their escape. The troops sent to Millboro — could go no further on account of the high waters, and therefore accomplished nothing. The news of Jackson's success was communicated by a cousin. Young Gallagher of Charlestown, who belongs to the 12th Cavalry, and has been waiting with a small party in the Valley, arrived about 4 o'clock in the afternoon. Says he spent last night within two miles of the Yankees — that they formed four Regiments (Massachusetts) and numbered only sixteen hundred men. — Our troops, he thought, would not be able to overtake them. — They would undoubtedly hurry back as soon as they found we had a force in the Valley. It is said that the Home Guard scouts sent from this place on Friday, had a skirmish with the Yankees, having got among them before they were aware of it. Many of them are boys, entirely inexperienced. Gallagher left the Yankees about two miles from Harrisonburg. Many rumors, but no authentic intelligence as to what has become of Roper's Brigade. Fitz Lee's Division, went to Fincastle, and, it is said, will be here again to- morrow. While we were at dinner to- day, two soldiers from Tennessee came to the door and applied for something to eat — We gave them a meal of what we had, for which they seemed grateful. They following after their Brigade, which started down the Valley last night. They were well clothed and well filled out every way. I have been struck with the robust appearance of all the men — none of the poor delicate looking fellows we used to see in the army.

Thursday, December 24, 1863.

I returned yesterday evening from an excursion with the Home Guard. They started Sunday evening — On Monday Alick and I started to overtake them. Alick expected to go in an ambulance, but after waiting till the last moment, and not being able to get one, determined to go in his buggy, as he had medicines, surgical instruments +c to take. I intended to join the artillery as soon as we should overtake the battery. We fully expected to come up with the party about North River (Mt. Crawford). On the road we learned that the Guard had gone on to Harrisonburg. Further on we learned that the guard had passed through Harrisonburg that morning (Monday) at a rapid pace, in pursuit of the Yankees. The road was full of straggling soldiers, following on after the two regular Brigades which had gone down. Many members of the Home Guard also overtook us, or we overtook them. The Mt. Solon company and another company were on the road. At Mt. Crawford we met a man from Harrisonburg, who told us that the Yankees fled from Harrison about 11 o'clock, just before the Guard entered the town, and there was no telling when we could overtake the latter. We stopped at Mt. Crawford to feed the horse, + while we were there the sick +c from the Harrisonburg Hospital, who had been removed to Mt. Sidney, passed in stages, on their return. We arrived at H. some time after dark, and spent the night at C. C. Strayer's, by invitation. Mrs. S. gave us many particulars about the the occupation of the place by the enemy. A party of them entered Saturday night, broke open the stores, and destroyed or carried off the goods. On Sunday more of them came and camped by the town. Many of them were very insolent. Tuesday morning, at an early hour we started again — weather very cold and cloudy — passing soldiers and members of the Guard — One of the Brigades in camp near the Big Spring, the other four miles this side of New Market, and our artillery with them, but some distance from the road in a forest. Numerous fires along the road, kindled by the soldiers — at some points no fences to be seen. We found the Guard (the mounted portion) bivouaed on a hill to the left of New Market. Large fires, every body cheerful, and full of the chase down the Valley. From Harrisonburg to New Market the pursuit was a hot one — at the latter place our men gave it up, as they had gone as far as the character of their organization required. Mrs. Stoyer (her husband was not at home during the occupation) insisted that the enemy numbered nearly five thousand — people along the road, who saw the whole force, estimated them from 1600 to two thousand. Late in the afternoon we could see one of the regular infantry Brigades moving slowly down the road — it was said the Yankees had made a stand at Edinburg — but no certainty of it. Late in the afternoon Col. Baldwin returned from Gen. Early's Headquarters at New Market, with orders for the Home Guard to return home. The bugle was sounded and immediately all was bustle. Legh had gone off from the camp in search of corn, and was ignorant of the order to move. As the Regiment moved off the large number of men in it surprised me very much. Our company (the West View) was absent, picketing North Mountain, at Buffalo Gap. I encountered several members of the Artillery, and supposing we would camp together that night, made an arrangement for enabling them to ride part of the way home, by taking my place in the buggy. At New Market, we learned that Roper's cavalry had come across the Blue Ridge and was in our vicinity. Eleven prisoners captured by them in Fairfax county, were handed over to the Guard at New Market, to be brought to Staunton. We marched for an hour or two after dark, meeting the Second Brigade (Walker's) going down. The men were full of jokes at the Guard — grinning through their dirty faces in a comical manner. About nine miles from Harrisonburg, near the Big Spring, we turned off the Turnpike to encamp in the woods. There was every prospect of a heavy snow, but the night was not dark. After passing through a stoney field, we halted at the woods to arrange the [deleted: plans] for the different companies. — Alick complained of cold feet, and proposed getting out of the buggy, still holding the reins. He probably stepped on the wheel which turned at any rate from some cause he fell prostrate on the ground, and the horse moving off, I supposed that the buggy ran over him. The reins were trailing on the ground and the horse moved so slowly at first that I could have safely jumped out. My feet and legs, however, were entangled and before I succeeded in getting free, the horse was running at fearful speed. As I was in the act of getting over the back of the buggy, I was dished out and felt as if I were thrown some distance. My forehead against a tree or stone, and for a moment I did not know but that I had received a mortal injury. I rose to my feet immediately and felt satisfied that the hurt was not dangerous. My next solicitude was about Alick, which was quickly relieved by his calling to me and running up. Then Legh, who had just arrived, came up, and Burdett, Wm H Peyton, William Waddell + others Alick was very slightly hurt. Besides my head, my shoulder and legs were bruised, but the most painful injury was in my back, just above my left hip. During the first night I could not move without suffering severely, and it is still painful when twisted in any degree. The horse took a circuit through the woods, and came to a stand with very little injury to the buggy. While the animal was running the 75 or 100 yards before I was thrown out, I realised fully the fearful peril I was in. It was but for a minute. The thought of God and eternity was uppermost in my mind. I hope I duly acknowledge the mercy which spared me, and earnestly pray that the dispensation may be blessed to me. I spent the night in the tent at Headquarters, with Col. Baldwin, Lt. Col. Harper, Alick, Mr Bowman (Chaplain), Marquess (Adjutant) and others. Every body was very kind to me. My feet suffered from cold, and I slept very little. As I could not move about without pain, neither turn over or change my position in any way, I could not warm myself well by the fire. Long before day I dragged myself out to the fire, and pretty soon our whole mess were up. The Col ordered the bugler to arouse the camp, and by day light we were ready to march. I was helped into an ambulance and came home very comfortably. The artillery camped some miles from us, and did not get home till to-day. Having one disabled man to bring home in an ambulance, and eleven prisoners, some of the Guard proposed to make a display in Harrisonburg. We had a little rain and snow Tuesday night, and very cold weather all the time. — After the Guard (the mounted men) had dispersed, a dispatch came from Gen. Early for them to go to Conrad's Store, Rockingham, as a body of Yankees were coming up Page Valley in pursuit of Roper. But as Conrad's is out of our bailiwick, the Col. declined to recall the men. Kitty + Mary Stuart went to Richmond yesterday on a visit, and Nanny + Mattie to Jenning's Gap, to-day, to spend a week with their grandmother. I omitted to state that I lost my spectacles, when I was thrown from the buggy which causes me much embarrassment, particularly as I cannot procure others these times.

Friday night, December 25, 1863.

Rather a poor Christmas — So most persons think. But some of the children must have enjoyed it. Addy (Alick's boy) was in a bad humor this evening because the day was almost gone. He wished "there was only one day in the whole world, and that day was Christmas." Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry passed through town to-day again, and went down the Valley turnpike. One of the men, I heard, call to two negroes and ask if they had had any Christmas (poor fellows! there was none for them — the soldiers, I mean) — another was humming the song: "When this cruel war is over." Imboden's command is within a few miles from town, and young Armstrong came in this morning. He gives a fearful account of the sufferings of the men, during the last two weeks — Two of them froze to death. And after all they accomplished nothing, as Averell with most most of his command escaped. Gen. Early has not added to his military reputation since he came into the Valley. It seems to me I could have done better myself! The House of Representatives has passed a bill for sending all persons who have employed substitutes, into the army. I think it a piece of flagrant injustice which nothing can palliate. It is bad faith, and miserably impolitic. — Why increase the number of soldiers in the field, when we cannot maintain those already there? Longstreet cannot follow up his next success in East Tennessee because a large part of his army is bare-footed. But our politicians and editors seem to think the army self-sustaining, and wish to thrust every man, woman and child into it — except themselves. —— Mrs. Strayer, of Harrisonburg, told us that during the recent occupation of that place by the Yankees, they frequently came to her house and demanded food. To one man who applied for something to eat, she said she had nothing — He replied, "I do think you d—n secesh women are the d——st liars I ever saw." She said she had nothing cooked, and would not cook for him — he must do it himself. Another came and asked her to leave him a cooking utensil. She urged that she had none except those belonging to the store, and could not get others if they were lost. He pledged his honor to return it to her. Just then another Yankee stepped up and said, "What is it you want? d—n her, I'll take it." She remarked, "As this one (the first) is a gentlemen, I'll lend it to him," which threw the second into a rage which vented itself in curses and threats of revenge. On Sunday night, she heard some one at her front door, and upon opening it she found a Yankee soldier, who manifested a desire to come in. He asked, "Are you afraid?" She replied, No. He then said, "Take me where you stay," which caused her to make some demonstration, when he said, "I would not hurt you or yours for the world — I wish to make a communication to you." She then took him to her chamber, where he asked if anyone was about. She replied, no one but her children and two Yankees in the kitchen. He said, "Dont betray me, or my life is lost." He proceeded to tell her that he was a Southern man in the Northern army, that he lived in Pennsylvania and wished to go back to his parents, that he enlisted for six months to escape the draft, and his term of service was nearly up, that he had never fired at a Southern soldier, but availed himself of every opportunity to give useful information to our side, that the Yankee force at H. was nearly five thousand men and twenty-three pieces of cannon, that he was a cousin of Fitzhugh Lee, who would know him +c +c. She give some food, and hurried him off, fully persuaded of the truth of his story. I am as fully persuaded that his object was either to get some particularly good fare from her, or to entrap her into giving information in regard to the position +c of our troops — His information as to the number of Yankees in and near the town was positively false. The Yankee to whom she loaned the vessel, took his departure with the others in a hurry, but left it with a neighbor, so that she got it back. On one occasion she went into her kitchen and found there two Yankees snug and warm by the fire. One of them yawned out — "Oh how I wish I was by my mother's fire! I'll be there soon and they'll not get me away again. I dont know why I'm fighting these people here — I have nothing against them — and I aint the only one that thinks to."

Saturday night, Dec. 26, 1863.

As it is holiday at the Seminary, and all the girls are gone but one, the ladies there determined to have a dining to-day. The company consisted of Mrs. Baldwin, sn., Mrs. Donaghe, sn., Mrs. Heiskell, Mrs. Crawford, Mr + Mrs Wayt, Mr + Mrs Baker, Mr + Mrs Woods, Mrs J. M. Baldwin, Miss Augusta Stuart, Sister (Mr Stuart being away from home), Kate, Va + me and Mr Tate.

Thursday night, Dec. 31, 1863.

Snow and rain all day. I did not come home till about 4 o'clock, when we had dinner and supper together. Sue Campbell came up last evening to spend the night with Kate, and has been detained by the storm. There is nothing new in regard to military affairs — The siege of Charleston still continued. Our condition is certainly not as favorable, to all appearances, as a year ago. It is with the utmost difficulty that our men now in the field can be maintained, on account of the scarcity of food + clothing; yet Congress is apparently bending all its energies to bringing more men into the ranks. If the various measures proposed are carried out, there will be no body left in this section to cultivate the fields, and in other regions to manage the slaves. Our Congressmen and editors (both of which classes are exempt by the way) seem to think it is only necessary for us to have every body in the army (themselves excepted), but exhibited no concern as to how they are to be fed and clothed. Men who have employed substitutes have been watching the action of the Senate on the House bill in regard to them, with great solicitude. While it still seems to me impossible for the Yankees to succeed in their scheme of subjugation, unless the Confederacy chooses to submit, I see nothing ahead but a long and dreary war, and incalculable miseries. Neither party would have entered into the contest if the present state of affairs had been anticipated. Neither can now quit.

We were at a large wedding party at D. A. Kayser's night before last. There was a rare display of good things — which the company devoured with a keen appetite. Such feasts are not common these days. Agents have been sent down the Valley to purchase or impress all surplus supplies, and I infer that our force is keep them mainly for the purpose of bringing off whatever may be collected.


January 1864

Friday night, January 1, 1864,

A bitter cold day. Va with Mr. Walters' this morning, and will return to morrow, bringing Nannie + Matty. Kath has little Jinny Stuart with her to-night. Betty Lyle arrived to night and stopped at the Seminary, as I failed to meet her at the Depot, not hearing the usual whistle on the arrival of the train. Mary + Kitty are expected also, but they did not come. Gen Early made an advance yesterday - half of his troops going towards Winchester + part towards Hardy Co. The Senate has passed the House bill in regard to men who have substituted in the army. It is proposed to extend the conscription to all men under fifty-five years of age. These measures indicate a panic among our lawmakers, and must encourage our enemies. There seems to be not the least statesmanship in Congress. Our affairs look very gloomy — very gloomy. "Blast Butler," alias B. F. Butler, now commanding at Norfolk, and outlawed by our authorities for his atrocities at New Orleans, was lately appointed by the Lincoln government to arrange matters for a renewal of the exchanges of prisoners; but the Richmond authorities refused to receive him under a flag of truce, or hold intercourse with him.

June 1864

Sunday morning (June 5/64)

Sunday morning (June 5/64) after lining up my papers at the Quartermasters office, I came up home and saw several persons going to the top of the hill above our house. Encountering Alick, who was riding in the same direction, he informed me that the Yankees were burning mills and other buildings, and the people were going on the hill to look at the fires. I then went up, and could see smoke rising at several points. A column would assend, and after a while spread away towards the Northwest and disappeared. Another column [deleted: of smoke] would next [illeg.] from a point apparently a mile or two distant from the former, and seem to float near the ground, spreading over a considerable space. With my spectacles I could see it quite distinctly. There was various opinions as to which mills were burning, every one presuming that the smoke was caused by conflagrations of the kind. Later in the day we heard that it was the smoke of the Battle of Piedmont! It is strange that we heard no musketing, and reports of cannon only occasionally during the day, and then very indistinctly, also though the battle field is only twelve miles distant, we have often heard the cannonading below Richmond very distinctly. No citizen of Staunton above the age of infancy, then living, will ever forget Sunday, the 5th of June, 1864. For a week or more we had heard that a Yankee force under Gen. Hunter (the same force defeated by Breckinridge at New Market) was coming up the Valley, and that Crook and Averell were pushing in from the West with another large force. Imboden, with his Skeleton cavalry regiments and a company of artillery, was in the Valley; while McCausland and Jackson, each with a small force, were between Staunton and Crook + Averell. The Reserves (men over 25 + boys of 17) were also with Imboden, and during the previous week all men in the county able to bear arms — detailed workmen, farmers +c — were hastily collected and formed into companies, and joined him at North River, near Mt. Crawford. On Thursday and Friday troops arrived from the South West under Gen. W. E. Jones - probably 2500. Gen. Jones joined the army at North River Saturday morning and assumed command. The army, finding our men very strongly posted and entrenched moved to Port Republic and arrived there before Jones knew or could believe they had gone from his front. During the night our army moved to a point between New Hope and Mt. Meridian, near a village called Piedmont. Skirmishing commenced early Sunday morning. From 8 or 9 o'clock in the morning till 3 in the afternoon citizens of the town were on the hills observing the smoke rising from the battle field. The firing could not be heard, except occasionally the report of a cannon. It was Sacrament Sunday in our church, but many of us could not attend. In the meanwhile diligent preparations for departure in case of disaster were going on at the various Government Depots and offices - packing up goods + papers, loading wagons +c. I had my trunk taken down to the Q.M.'s office, containing not only clothing but a tin box with every valuable paper I had in the world — public + private bonds, vouchers +c, $11.000 coupon bonds belonging to Mr. Stuart + similar papers belonging to other persons. I still hoped, however, that the enemy would be repulsed and we could remain at home, especially as several persons told me that the smoke was receding, as if our army was driving the enemy back. Just before my trunk arrived, the wagon already fully loaded waiting for it, I heard some one say, "Gen Jones is killed and our army routed." Such was the intelligence from the battle field. I cannot depict the horror of the feelings. The wagon train was ready to start and I was about to go with it, to be near my trunk, on foot, but a Government mule was provided to me. I then rode back home to take another farewell, and about Six o'clock rode slowly out of town by the Greenville road. I was inexpectedly sad and anxious, especially as I could learn nothing in regard to my brother Legh's fate. I felt perfectly indifferent in regard to myself. My sister Cornelia's anxious countenance as I last saw her on the porch, haunted me during the night. We moved on without stopping, till we arrived between 12 + 1 o'clock at Smith's tavern, three miles above Greenville. There we rested till morning to feed horses +c. The road was full of refugees, with wagons, horses, cattles, wagons and nearly all kinds of movable property. Before day light several parties came to Smith's, and early in the morning we were joined by a large number of Government officials and employees from Staunton. We turned to the left at Midway, to cross the Blue Ridge at Tye Run Gap. Reached the top of the mountain at 12 or 1 o'clock. Pitched our tents — Mrs. Jno. B. Baldwin + two sisters, of Staunton, came up + spent the night in one of our tents. Many other persons from town, not of our party, were near us. The remainder of our wagons, four of which left Staunton at one o'clock Mondy morning, caught up to us. Mrs. B. the Bank officers +c went on Tuesday morning — we remained till Wednesday morning. Several messengers were sent to Midway for intelligence. We heard that Jackson was at that point, that 1500 of our cavalry had passed down the Valley to join Gen. Vaughn (who took command after Jones fell) at Waynesboro. — then that Crook was driving McCausland up the Brownsburg road, then that McCreary occupied Staunton on Monday. Wednesday morning C. C. Francisco and others passed by with their trains and droves. The soldiers from our hospitals, able to walk, also passed — some 300. From Francisco I got the first intelligence of Legh. — he was at home Monday morning and was going to the army again, his company having been temporarily disbanded to take off their property. I afterwards learned that he was in the fight of Sunday and was highly commended for his conduct. His company was mounted and after skirmishing as cavalry, they were dismounted and taken in the fight as infantry. Legh was one of the men detailed to take their horses to the rear, but a man next him begged to have the place, and surrendering it to him, he went into the fight with the company. He did not lose his spectacles, otherwise he would have been almost blind. — John Opie commanded the company, and it, with Peck's, both composed of farmers hastily collected, is said to have saved our army from total rout. On Wednesday we descended the Mountain, and after a painful ride to me, reached a comfortable place owned by a Mr. Hubbard, five miles from Arrington Depot, Orange + Alex RR, in Nelson Co. Here I hoped to stay several days, but at dusk a courier arrived from Gen. Vaughn, with an order for the wagons to come on to him at Rockfish Gap. I had orders to come on with the train next day (Thursday). Bell, Price, Baily, +c came on early Thursday morning — I started later with the wagons, leaving Capt. Phillips, A. D. Wren, Blackley, Candler +c at Hubbards with our private property and a considerable amount of public stores. I gave my tin box and another containing Va's and Kate's jewelry to Capt. P. as I could not bring a trunk with me, requesting him to leave them with Mrs. J. N. McCue, who lived in the neighborhood, if he thought they would be safer there. I also left in my trunk with my clothing, a book containing my diary from January 1st to June 15 1864. From notes taken on slips of paper before my return home I extract the following:

Friday evening, June 10th. 1864,

We left our quarters yesterday morning after a late hour. Nothing of interest occurred till we arrived in the evening at our camping ground. Lushbaugh + Son, Short and Bunch went to a house near at hand to get cherries, where they heard a report that a party of Yankees had passed on to the Depot on the O + Alex RR. They sent back to inform me, but when inquiring I ascertained that the party consisted of twelve men and several women, with carriages and two guns! So we had a quiet night. Slept in a tent, and boiled genuine coffee in a skillet. Kate's servant John being one of the teamsters, took charge of my horse. During the day we passed through Livingston.

Started this morning (Friday 10th) at an early hour and have had quite a pleasant ride. Soon one of the Maj's "couriers" met us with a "dispatch" a part of which, relating to the party [illeg.] [illeg.], we could not understand; but Thomburg sent the courier on, directing him to order the party (Phillips') up. As we rode along, heard the report of cannon in the direction of Rockfish Gap — five or six shots. I met Wm. Taylor of Westview in the road, and he informed me that Legh's two negro boys were in a camp near the road a few miles ahead with a party of Augusta men. We passed Garrett Martin's where Thomburg engaged some clover for the horses and mules. I was sent for to go back + settle the account. Arriving near dinner time, I accepted a hearty invitation to wait for dinner. Those of our party who were on horseback moved very irregularly — up and down the road, often stopping. Contradictory reports from Rockfish Gap — First that Breckinridge had 7000 or 8000 reinforcements — then that the whole number was 4000. Every body we met was talking about the burning of property + mills in Staunton, but we could get no particulars. Found W. J. D. Bell, W. H. Peyton and J. D. Craig +c in quarters on the road side, with their negroes and stock. Miss J. S. Stover and Dr. Churchman, of Augusta, in the road. They had heard that the Yankees made a first this morning against our men near Waynesboro, while their main body was moving towards Lexington; but that Imboden was about to start in pursuit with 4000 cavalry. I called to see Legh's boys. Met Price + Baily coming from Afton Depot, on the Mountain, to Bell + Peyton's quarters, to spend the night. They repeated the rumor about the skirmish at Waynesboro and the movement of the many towards Lexington. Said that the Yankees burned the Government work shops in Staunton, but got out our engine and hose and threw water on Lyttleton Waddell's house and saved it. Here we are now at Hebron Church, five miles from Afton. Have possession of the church for quarters.

Saturday evening, June 11, 1864.

We were up early this morning, and had a miserable breakfast, as usual. I rode back to Stover's camp to see Legh's boys, and got some very good corn bread. — put a large piece in my haversack. Rode on and passing our wagon train to Afton. The reports of last night were all encouraging, and I expected to ride straight through to Staunton. But on arriving at Afton my hopes were dashed. We were told that we had no force competent to meet the Yankees, and if Breckinridge returned to Staunton he would be gobbled up. I went on to Waynesboro. Found the people there cheerful, got no information as to friends in Staunton. Met Legh there — he had been scouting intensively through the country — was found with a few officers when the Yankees burnt Mt Torrey Furnace (that is he was in sight), he and Wash Patterson captured two Yanks having a horse and two mules. All reports state that the main body of the enemy have gone towards Lexington, but it is supposed they have a strong force still at Staunton. Parties of them have attempted to pass the Blue Ridge at various gaps. John Opie went on a scout alone last night. On the Greenville road he captured a Yankee who professed to be brother of Gen. Breckinridge's Chief of Staff. Took him with him as he went round to the Middlebrook road down as far as Legh's place. Every body took him for a Yankee, and he got no information from any one except Philip, Selena's husband. Gen. Breckinridge, at Mt. Top, sends four scouts to Staunton to-night for information. A portion of his infantry passed through Waynesboro while I was there and quartered just out of town on the Staunton road. Imboden with cavalry is pursuing the enemy w/i the Valley. Some of the Yankees are said to have crossed to this (Eastern) side of the Mt. The destination of the whole army is said to be Lynchburg. A larger supply train guarded by 1500 men, is said to have reached Staunton today, from Winchester. [It arrived Friday morning.] Opie says the prospects of Staunton have not suffered at the hands of the Yankees, except owners of mills and factories. He brought his prisoner through Waynesboro to Breckinridge's quarters. Our army is on the Mt. and along the Western base — a motley set, too small in number to meet the Yankee force which is estimated at more than 20,000. Some breast works have been thrown up over the Mt. I returned to Afton, and coming back to our camp, 1 1/2 miles towards Lexington, met Tate (W. M.) who came with us. We have a large party for one tent.

Monday, June 13, 1864

Yesterday morning we broke up our encampment taking things very leisurely as we had no advices from the Mt. Tate and I came up to Afton, where we received the gratifying intelligence that the army was open to Staunton — the enemy all gone and Breckinridge in pursuit up the Valley. The Mt was cleared of our men, except a few wagons (!) stragglers and the Provost's Guard. We passed in Waynesboro an hour or two and then hurried on to Staunton. Two horses died, killed in skirmishes lay along the turnpike. From Fishersville to Staunton the Railroad track is torn up and bridges burnt. Upon getting home found the RR Depots, Steam Mill, Woolen Factory, Government Grain Houses, Government Work Shops, stage stables +c burnt. Much private property in the neighborhood — fences +c destroyed + on the mountain we heard that a party of Yankees had got to Arrivington Depot and burnt the buildings and twenty-odd RR cars. Feel uneasy in regard to Phillips and his party. Was gratified and I hope grateful to God at finding all friends safe and well. Nearly all the houses had been searched for provisions and arms. Nothing taken from ours. A Yankee had stole a small coffee pot from the kitchen and some onions were taken from the garden. Every body has a story to tell about the Yankee. Mauzy's printing presses broken up, and the fixtures and machinery of the Shoe Factory destroyed. Several negroes with Phillips have came in — they say the party was surprised and captured by the Yankees — my tin box + papers and trunk of course gone. A. H. Taylor of Staunton with his stack +c were encamped within two miles of Phillips. It is feard Taylor was killed his family are in a state of great suspense. Kate has just come in — has heard that the Yankees while here turned over the tombs of my father + mother and Cornelia (Kitty's mother) in search of hidden treasure. For the first time Kate shed tears. Aunt Sally's Tom went off with the Yankees. He rode round with them here, dressed in Yankee uniform, in high glee. All of our other servants acted admirably. Selena is laid up from the effects of her alarm +c A report that the Yankee force sent against Lexington has been routed. The prisoners taken by them after Sunday's battle were brought to Staunton — among them our nearest neighbor, Jno. Price. The prisoners were sent off under guard on the Parkersburg road. Price and several others escaped and came home. R. L. Doyle of Staunton + Harry Bear of Churchville were killed. I append an account of things which Va wrote to sent to me:

"Monday, June 6th. 1864. — A memorable day in Staunton! I had been very unwell and lying on the lounge all the morning. Fanny Skinner came in, and we were discussing the mobility of the Yankees in getting Staunton, when the door was burst open and Selena, with horror stricken countenance rushed in, calling to me in the most terrified manner, 'They're coming! They're coming! Miss Virginia, they're coming!' Jinney and little Mary followed her, both screaming with terror. Kitty, Nanny + Matty were pale and trembling, and all gathered in my room, as if that were the only safe place to be found. Before I could quiet them, Wright ran in screaming out, 'They shelling the town, and you must fly to the basement!' Forthwith we all pitched to the cellar, and I took a moment to look around me. The scene was so ludicrous that I burst into a hysterical fit of laughter. Added to the scene was Kate undressed, her clothes in her arms, and Fanny frantic because she was from home and her mother would be beside herself lest James should be dragged out of bed and carried off. I undertook to protect her till she got within reach of home, but was so near fainting before we got to our stable that I had to turn back and send Selena with her, although she was as much frightened as Fanny. Just as I got back to our gate a whole company of cavalry dashed by me, over the hill towards Mrs. Skinner's, but did not seem to notice me. We got through the day and night without much feeling of alarm, and without being much annoyed, except by so many coming to the hydrant for water and to the kitchen for food. Mr. Stuart and Alick came up in the afternoon_ Alick much excited, Mr. S. calm as usual. Tuesday morning the burning commenced early — Depot, Steam Mill, Work Shops, Trotter's Shops and Stages, Garber's Mill +c. The wind was high and we expected to see the whole town in flames, but even Nanny's house (Lyt. Waddell's) was saved. She remained in it all the while. Aunt Betty was moved to Aunt Sally's in a bed. I sent for Nanny to come up here, but she preferred to remain as long as she could. A committee of gentlemen waited on Hunter to see if the work shops and shoe factory could not be pulled down and Mrs. Arthur went in person and laid her case before the General — besought him not to burn the Shoe Factory, as the other buildings could not be saved. Mr. Campbell, Mayor Frank, Mr. Stuart, Alick and some others went down — were received by Col. Strother ('Port Crayon'), who represented Gen. Hunter. He agreed that the work shops should not be burnt, if the citizens would bind themselves to pull them down, which they did, but still the fire was applied without notice being given. All the internal part of the Shoe Factory was destroyed, and it must have been ludicrous to see Mrs. A. N. Taylor flying across the street, axs in hand, to assist in the work. She was so much afraid of fire that she went to expedite the destruction as much as possible. After the houses were consumed the Yankees began to track up for a more, and we could hear them saying to one another, 'Bad news,' but could not quite hear what, until it leaked out they were short of provisions and had heard that their wagon train had been captured. Before they began to track up some of the houses were searched, but a stop was put to it, and by dinner time not a Yankee was seen in town. Our scouts were on the hills in a little time, and we felt too happy to think whether the enemy would return. Kate and I went out after to dinner, and by 4 o'clock the town was perfectly alive with Yankees again. I learned from some of the men that they had gone to reinforce Averell, but met him coming in. on Wednesday Crook and Averell came, and it seemed to me that the locusts of Egypt could not have been more numerous. Our yard and kitchen were overrun all the while, and the streets were filled from end to end. There was a camp on Mrs. Suly's lot just opposite our house, and one on the hill near Mrs. Skinner's. The house searching commenced in good earnest on Wednesday. I had heard so much about breaking locks that I unlocked every door about the house. When the officer came I told him he could not take me at a better time — I was out of everything. He was very gentlemanly and went through it as a matter of form, but did not disturb a thing, nor did he open a door himself. He found us so poverty stricken that he had not the heart to take the little we had. Fortunately we had borrowed a barrel of flour on Monday. They took two barrels from Mr. Stuart, two from Alick, and six from Sister Agnes [Augusta Female Seminary]. They got two tons of provisions from Ben Crawford, which our men ought to have had long ago. Nick Trout and Frank Points were arrested and kept in guardhouse until this morning or last night [Points in jail] They picked up Geo. Fuller coming up from Waynesboro. Trout was accused of concealing arms, and Points of showing pleasure when they left town on Tuesday. Fuller was thought to be a spy, as he had letters from soldiers to their families. They cooped up our men held as prisoners in one old guard house. We all made bread for them as soon as they drew rations. Several drunken parties went to Mrs. Skinners — demanded brandy and wine — went into Jim's room, as excited him very much [He is severely wounded in the head] Mrs. Skinner had an acquaintance among the Yankees, for whom she sent, and he put a guard at the house, which prevented further annoyance.

"Friday. — Most of the Yankees left this morning. Since dinner a Regiment has passed, just arrived from Martinsburg. I understand most of the troops took the Lexington road, and I feel so concerned about it. Cant bear the idea of their getting to Lexington or Lynchburg. As a family we have great reason for gratitude to God, for having so far protected us from injury. Our servants were such a comfort to me — they could not have behaved better, and I really feel thankful to them. Quite a number of negroes ran off. Tom asked aunt Sally's consent to wait on an officer who would pay well. Jim Brigham came up to show himself this morning - - very thoughtful. And now if I could only hear from you, how happy I would be! I know you are suffering on our account much more than us here. I cant even know where you are. The Railroad is torn up, of course, and when we shall have another mail is more we can tell. I am so glad you were away from home. The little minutiae I will leave for Kate to relate, who will enjoy going over them more than drinking tea. Wright has been a treasure, and so has Selena.

"I attach this certificate given to me by the Yankee who searched our house."

June 8th 1864

I have this day, searched the house and premises of Mistress Wardell for provisions and found nothing.

Geo. S. Mandock
2d Lieut. 34th Mass. Infty.
Provost General

Tuesday night, June 14, 1864.

This morning I walked up to Legh's to see Belle and the children. Legh left home again yesterday for the army. Found Belle and her mother in a state of great anxiety and very unprotected. The Yankees, who were at the house all the time they were about Staunton, had broken out the sashes of their windows, broken a door and some of the furniture, and had taken off six horses and colts, and some bacon +c. John Hill stood up to them manfully, showing remarkable fidelity. On the way up the road I heard a report that the Yankees were returning by the Greenville road. As I had left McNeill's company in town, and there was no such report here I regarded it as an idle story, and proceeded to nail up the windows and door. Afterwards started home, but met Wright who had been sent by Va to tell me the Yankees were coming. I went back to the house, and taking Legh's fine horse (the negro boys Jim + John returned home Sunday with this horse and another) I rode off into the woods with him, ordering the boys to follow with the other horse. I tied the horse in a retired place and came down to the road in search of information — first to Peaco's, Henderson's and Harrison's — heard various rumors but got nothing satisfactory. Returned to Legh's intending to leave the horses with the boys in the woods, and came to town myself along the old road through the fields. Before I started, however, Wright came back to tell me it was a false alarm. There had been great conversation in town. Some persons have suffered much from the Yankees in loss of property — others escaped entirely. Donaghe's, Opie's and A. H. Taylor's barns are laid waste. Almost everybody lost horses, +c. +c. There seems to be no doubt that the Yankees have taken Lexington after a slight opposition from McCausland and the Cadets — the Institute +c burnt. No news from Breckinridge or Imboden. A party of Yankee raiders is said to have been defeated at Trevilian's, in Louisa Co. A number of negroes who remained with Capt. Phillips at Hubbard's have come in. A. D. Wren has also arrived, having made his escape. Still some doubt as to the fate of A. H. Taylor. All concur in stating that Phillips and most of his party were captured, and the property with them destroyed. Those of us who left Hubbard's on Thursday, were obliged to leave behind nearly all of our private baggage. My trunk was in there, containing clothing and my diary from January, and my tin box with valuable papers — among them $5300 coupon bonds, more than $400 in money, Mr. Stuarts coupons ($11,000) and many others, Va's + Kate's jewelry +c +c. My only hope is that Capt. P. took the horses, as I suggested to him, to Mrs. J. N. McCue's. — D. A. Kayson and others had large amounts of money + bonds with the same party. They were surprised by the Yankees while preparing to move. Alick's Nathan, who was with Mr. Taylor, was captured but escaped and has come home. Says he saw Aunt Sally's Tom with the Yankees. He (Nathan) tried to bring off Alick's horse, but could not. Legh has a Yankee horse at home, he picked up on the road. The cars move up to Fishersville. The town desolate in appearance — no business.

Wednesday night, June 15, 1864

Legh and Mrs. Nelson returned from Midway to- day_ could not find our army. They undertook to capture a party of Yankees near Midway, who escaped and afterwards proved to be some of our men — Rockbridge Reserves — each mistaking the other for Yankees. L. reports many Yankee guns between Arbor Hill and Middlebrook, and puddles of blood in the road. Jim Suthards, captured with Phillips and released near Lexington, got home this morning. Jacob Points, who escaped capture has also got back. Taylor is said to be at Midway, wounded in the arm. Various reports of a fight between Imboden and the Yankees in Amherst. Rumors of a fight in Georgia, in which Gen (Bishop) Polk was killed. We do not know where the Yankee army under Hunter is now. — supposed to be near Lynchburg. No mail yet.

Thursday, June 16, 1864

Heard this morning that Hunter was at Buchanan, in Botetourt, and Breckinridge in Amherst. 10 o'clock at night. — Still no mail and no reliable intelligence from any quarter. It is said the Yankees shot one man and hung another in Lexington. Reported that Crook or Averell brought off Dr. Creigh a prisoner from Lewisburg, and when they got to Rockbridge hung him and left his body suspended to a tree. Since my return home the town has been as quiet every day as Sunday. Stores and shops closed, a few men sitting about here and there talking over the events of the last two weeks, even the little children are less noisy than usual. [deleted: The country and people have] Every thing looks like a tornado had swept the country, and left the stillness of death in its track. Many farmers having lost their horses, are unable to work their corn. Alick is riding a Yankee mule borrowed from a person who picked him up. I saw Jim Suthards this evening, and he gives no room to hope that Phillips took my box to Mrs. McCue's. Selena is quite ill, threatened with an affection of the brain, brought on by excitement and alarm while the Yankees were here. The poor negroes who went off are likely to suffer for it. Price says he heard a Yankee Colonel advise them to come back. An old woman of C. R. Mason's stole all the silver +c that had been hid and went to the Yankee camp. They received the stolen goods, but left her on the hill when they departed. She returned home yesterday or to-day, having no where else to go. She has but one leg! Va and I, Kitty + Nanny + Matty Tate walked to the top of the opposite hill this evening to see the desolation on Donaghe's + Opie's farms. And what does it all amount to? The country is further from subjugation to Yankee rule than before. The last report about A. H. Taylor is that he was near Lynchburg, unhurt.

Friday night, June 17, 1864.

Yankee! Yankee! Nothing but Yankees from morning till night, till the name is utterly loathsome. The last report is that Hunter was at Liberty, Bedford Co. Ewell corps. under Early, was moving to-day by Railroad from Charlottesville to Lynchburg. Heavy cannonading was heard. No train up to Fishersville, and the reports received came by one person on horseback and another who came on a hand-car. To- day as Sunday-like as yesterday. Grant is said to be at Harrison's Landing, north side of James River. Lincoln and Andrew Johnson have been nominated for President + Vice President at Baltimore, and Fremont for President at Cleveland. Va has been enumerating the articles of jewelry in the box captured by Yankees — I did not know she had so much. Many of the Yankees who were here seem to have been gentlemanly persons, having no heart for this business — others were more plunderous. — They appeared to be scared all the time. Made no distinction between black and white, but took two horses from Bob Miller, a free negro. One day two officers handsomely dressed, rode up to our garden, where Wright was working and asked him if he thought his mistress could furnish dinner to them. He said he reckoned not as they had searched the house and barely left us enough — (they had taken nothing) They inquired my name and asked if I was at home. Legh's man, John Hill, told them who were plundering the farm, that he had promised "Maj Legh" he would take care of things, and he would stay if they killed him. Mr. Stuart and Sister gave me a graphic account to night of the entrance of the Yankees into town. They heard they were coming and at the same time saw four or five of our solders passing. Mr. S. warned them of their danger, and they ran back toward the Presbyterian Church but immediately every street seemed to be full of Yankee cavalry, dashing about + firing their pistols. They caught several of our men. The prisoners taken by them on the battlefield and elsewhere, some of them our own citizens, were cooped up in the lot enclosed with a high fence for the use of our Provost's Guard, and crowded to the gate, beseeching persons who were having their rations of flour baked, to send them a little butter or meat. Some would try to climb up on the fence, but were ordered down by the guard. The Yankees boasted of having some of their men in town Sunday evening, while the stampede was going on, and even on the previous Friday. The men were terribly profane — almost every word had a d—n to it — One of them killed by our scouts is buried near an oak tree on the Waynesboro road, opposite the Lunatic Asylum. I saw an ambulance this evening going from the Hospital to the burying ground with the remains of four Soldiers — all the coffins were head foremost. [deleted: We hear that the Yankees burnt Col. Preston's house in Lexington.] (not true reports)

Saturday night, June 18, 1864.

The telegraph is up again and working from Richmond to Staunton. Intelligence this evening that Grant has crossed to the South Side of James River. He captured some entrenchments [deleted: thrown up] by Beauregard, but was driven out by Lee. Fighting near Petersburg. When Lee captured three hundred prisoners. Breckinridge has passed through Lynchburg — Early somewhere about there. It is said there was some fighting at Balcony Falls, on James River, between Lexington and Lynchburg, where McCausland and the Cadets probably made a stand and drove the Yankees further up, so that they crossed the mountain into Bedford. Accounts we have from Lexington, represent the treatment of that place by the Yankees as much more than Staunton suffered. Shells were thrown into the town — the Institute was burnt — the College defaced_ Hunter made the house of Ex-Governor Letcher his head quarters, and rising from dinner one day remarked to Mrs. L. it was the last meal she would eat in the house. It was immediately fired — clothing and bedding were thrown out the windows, but they were cast into flames by the soldiers. Three men citizens accused of bushwhacking were taken out and shot. A large number of negroes went off with the Yankees. It is said the Yankee raiders under Sheridan received a signal defeat in Louisa — last all of their cannon and six hundred prisoners. The Yankees while here threw a number of bomb shells into the creek. — the boys have been fishing them up and opening them to get the powder. One exploded to-day while a negro man was opening it — killed the man, and the fragments flew to a great distance. A. H. Taylor has at last got home, safe and sound — lost only his horses and hogs. Capt. Phillips was still a prisoner, at last accounts, with Candler and Blackley, although the Yankees paroled and released Capt. O. Smith + others. A. D. Wren says Phillips intended to go to Mrs. McCue's the day the Yankees came upon them — Saturday last 11t. The last hope of my papers having been saved is gone. Wren says they were waiting for dinner when the Yankees rode up and shouted "Surrender you d—n rebels!" He ran to a wheat field + hid. We are just finding out what abundant supplies some of our citizens had, even of delicacies, since the Yankee searches. I doubt if there was ever so much flour in families at the same season of the year. Many persons, however, were poorly supplied.

Sunday night, June 19, 1864

Reported this evening that Hunter got near enough to Lynchburg to throw two shells into the city, one of which killed a boy; that Early attacked him yesterday evening, and defeated him, capturing some prisoners and cannon; that he advanced upon him this morning, but found his army retreating in confusion, and was in pursuit. Breckinridge is supposed not to have been present, but in a position to intercept the enemy. There is talk of three of our citizens having given information to the enemy while here. A Yankee officer gave their names to Hite Opie, who was a prisoner in their hands for a day or two. The treachery of the Yankees while they were here was apparently without motive, although characteristic of the people. They promised Mauzy not to injure his printing statt[illeg.]ment and even gave him a written "protection," but turned in and broke up the presses, threw out the types, and tore to pieces and soiled the paper. An officer rode up to the sentinel and stationed at the work shops, handing him written orders from Gen. Hunter, as he said, told him to shoot down any man who should fire the buildings. Mr. Stuart was present and heard it all. In a few minutes the sentinel was withdrawn, and the buildings were in flames. Yet from all accounts there were many persons among them whose hearts were not in the business, and who did not hesitate to express their detestation of the rapacious and destructive spirit which activate the army generally. Averell's men were much worse than Hunter's. The latter general punished two of his men in the public street for breaking into stores, one by tying a rail to his back, and the other by cowhiding. At night the town was perfectly quiet, and the citizens felt safe. During the day, however, there was a reign of terror. Many Yankee soldiers dressed in Confederate uniform, called "Jesse Scouts," were traversing the country, and several persons, taking them for our own soldiers, told them all about their affairs, where they had property hid +c. Dr. Davidson even took some of them into the woods to see a fine horse he had secluded here in charge of a negro boy — horse + boy were both taken off. The first party who went to Legh's met little Lucy, and Said to her, "Sis, where is your father?" She replied, "He was at home last night, but has gone back to the army." Several Yankee spies were in town on Sunday, the 5th, the day of the battle. While the army occupied the town, they told Mr. Dice of the Methodist Church, that they heard him preach, on Sunday, and repeated a portion of his prayers. The officers were handsomely dressed.

Monday night, June 20, 1864

Aunt Betsy died this morning. Death is so familiar to us that we cannot feel as formerly. Many reports to-day — one that Hunter and Averell have been killed. The Yankees have committed great depredations in Nelson. Somebody came up to night with a Charlottesville paper. — I presume the mail came also. The paper states that Early took 404 prisoners at Lynchburg and 3 pieces of cannon, and that the Yankees were retreating — that Grant had got within a mile and a half of Petersburg — and that Morgan was in Kentucky, within 16 or 18 miles of Cincinnati, when, according to Northern reports, he had captured 1500 Yankees, but had at last been defeated. A lady has got through from Philadelphia and reports that the Russell ministry in England, so hostile to us, has been defeated in Parliament. — I have been unwell for several days past. Very listless. The whole community in a state of inertia. Almost all the places of business still closed. I have been trying to amuse myself with one of Scott's novels, but history and romance pale before the realities and excitements of these times.

Tuesday night, June 21, 1864

Aunt Betsy's funeral took place this morning. No news during the day. The mail received last night was distributed this morning — many newspapers — the latest dated on Friday, the 17th. I don't like the appearance of things about Petersburg. The enemy pressing us there vigorously. Strange that we cannot get a word from Lynchburg, or that quarter. I rode up to Legh's this afternoon — wheat and corn look well — the latter needing rain. Coming back I met a report that the Yankees were at Middlebrook! Not believed. We hear of horrible devastations by the Yankees in Lexington. Letcher's house was burnt because he issued circulars, urging the people to fire upon the enemy wherever they could. In one house the Yankees emptied a barrel of flour on the parlor carpet, and poured a barrel of sorghum molasses upon it; they then walked in the mixture and tracked the house all over with it. Such is the petty meanings of our foe. Judge Thompson has returned from Amherst. He was hiding in the woods several times. Says he feels deeply humiliated. The wretches violated three females in Amherst — a young girl who died, and two married women - - Legh says that he did not know we were defeated in the battle of Piedmont, till he had retreated some distance. He was on the right wing of the army, which was successful; our left was broken and fled. After retreating for some distance, under orders, he became suspicious and remarked to W. J. Nelson that he would not be surprised if the Yankees were there in Staunton. This was regarded as absurd — the men generally thought the movement was for the purpose of heading the enemy. Legh insists that it was a retreat, although conducted in good order, his company being in the rear. Upon arriving at Armitage, it was announced that those of the company who were farmers had permission to go home to take off their stock. The information as to the state of affairs, thus conveyed, was astounding to them. The left wing was pretty much routed, and the men not killed or captured came pell-mell into Staunton after night. Legh and several others came into town late at night, very cautiously, not knowing that the Yankees were here. He came to town the next day, and went out the Hebron Church and as the Yankees entered from the opposite direction. — Jackson was there at Hebron Church, 5 miles west of town. He had to take a circuitous route to Greenville, and from there joined our army at Waynesboro. While in the country this evening I heard the sound of cannon at a great distance — twice, very distinctly. It has been heard every day for about a week past. It is singular that, I did not hear a single report of cannon or small arms fired at Piedmont, eleven or twelve miles distant, although I saw the smoke of battle from the hill, but have frequently heard the sound as far off as Richmond.

Wednesday night, June 22, 1864.

Many reports during the day. Some of which came in a Lynchburg paper received this evening. I give a list. 1st Our Gen. Ransom was fighting the enemy yesterday at Buchanan, 2nd That all the people of Rockbridge had been called out to blockade the roads, 3rd That Gen. Early had captured 2500 Yankees at Liberty, and, according to one version, taken all of their artillery, 4th That Gen. Johnston had acquired a considerable success in Georgia, 5th That the enemy had been badly beaten at Petersburg, 6ththat the Yankee Sheridan had been defeated again, this time at Harrison's Landing, with the loss of 800 men, 7th That our cavalry had destroyed all of the Yankee Landings on James River. Too much good news for one day! We now have a mail from Charlottesville three times a week. One came this evening, but was not opened at half past nine to-night. A stage meets the cars at Christian's Creek. The report of Yankees being at Middlebrook yesterday, created quite a stampede in the North Mountain neighborhood last night — people driving off stock +c. Some straggling Yankees who gave themselves up, were brought in to- day.

Friday night, June 24, 1864.

We had most flattering reports this morning in regard to the capture of a good part of Hunter's army, and the dispersion of the remainder; but by evening, what seems to be more truthful accounts were received, from which it appears that nearly the whole concern will escape towards Kanawha. Very heavy fighting near Petersburg on Wednesday. 1st report that we captured 2000 men and 40 cannon — 2nd that we captured 1700 men and 4 cannon. I had made preparations to start to Richmond to- morrow, by way of Lynchburg, on business with Quartermaster's Department, but Tate arrived about dusk with news that Yankee raiders had tapped the South Side Road at Burksville, and there was no connection. No indication of a disposition at the North to abandon the strife, and consequently no prospects of a termination of the war.

Sunday night, June 26, 1864.

Gen. Early, with Ewell's corps, has arrived within a few miles of town, and the soldiers from this county have been permitted to visit their houses. Many of them have come into town, among them Edward Waddell. He says their impression is that they are going into Pennsylvania, and the men indignant at the destruction of property +c by the Yankees under Hunter, declare their purpose to take revenge on the border on the first opportunity. Many of Hunter's inferior officers, from all accounts, were humane and kind in their deportment, but he was cruel and treacherous as a fiend, and many horrid outrages were perpetrated with impunity, if not by command. It makes my blood boil when I hear them recited. Edward says the Yankees systematically burnt the fences in the country near Lynchburg. Mr. Creigh (not Dr.) of Greenbrier, was hung in the yard of the Rev. Mr. Morrison, near Brownsburg. [deleted: He begged for a brief conversation with Mr. M., who also interceded for it, but it was decried.] His body was left suspended, and there being no other man in the neighborhood, except Mr. M., it hung for a considerable time. It seems that the Yankees had Mr. Creigh with them in Staunton, and had a mock trial over him. His offense was defending his wife against a brutal soldier, who was killed, but, according to report, by a negro woman. Gen. Stahl, it is rumored, was under the bann for refusing to burn the village of Newtown, in Frederick County, as ordered by Hunter, because a Yankee wagon train was attacked near that place by some of our men. Report says Averell disapproved of the destruction of the Military Institute at Lexington, and had quite a quarrel with Hunter on the subject. The College Library and Apparatus were destroyed, and a statue of Washington carried off. When a party of Yankees went to search the house of Col. Harper of this county, they were accompanied by a negro man belonging to Isaac or John Parkins, but whose wife belonged to Harper. His conduct was so insulting to the family that a Yankee remarked to them, "That negro out to be shot, but unfortunately he is a great favorite with Gen. Hunter." Wm. Harper finally said to a Yankee, "Give me a gun and let me shoot him." The man replied, "I cant do that, and I advise you not to shoot him now, but when you get a safe opportunity I would'nt blame you." From Kate's account, Va. treated the creatures admirably when they forced themselves upon her notice. Being helplessly in their power, she did not unnecessarily provoke their anger; but she made no concessions and did not fail to express her sympathies and opinions. An officer called in the afternoon and asked, very respectfully, if he could get supper at the house. Va, not wishing to refuse, as his protection might be useful, replied that she had been in the habit of feeding "our own" soldiers, and would obey the Bible injunction, "If thine enemy hunger, feed him." The man apologized — said he was looking for a boarding house, and did not come back to supper. One day she encountered three or four of the Yankee soldiers in our yard, making towards the garden, and hailing them entered into conversation — In answer to a question from her, one of them said he was born in Rockbridge county. She expressed her surprise and mortification at finding a Rockbridge man in the Yankee army — "And you," she said, "are going to Rockbridge to plunder the people you were born among — some of them your own relations!" He hung his head and the whole party turned back and went off. I hear that the officers said, the ladies of Staunton did not insult them, nor at the same time give them any countenance; that no where had they been treated with such cold politeness. It would take a volume to record all the interesting incidents which are daily related. During the occupation, several of our young men belonging to the cavalry in Gen Lee's army, who had come home for horses, called at John Hamilton's, on Christian's Creek. While they were at dinner, their horses tied before their home, a dozen Yankees came upon them. They of course attempted to escape — one of them shot and killed a Yankee, and one, with the horses, was captured. The dead Yankee was taken by his comrades into Hamilton's house and laid upon a bed. They ordered H. to bury him, which he refused to do, and after insulting and endeavoring to intimidate him to inter the man. The second party came and left, without burying the man, and Hamilton had to do it at last. Two or three of our cavalry, at home on furlough, dashed upon the Yankee pickets near the Lunatic Asylum and killed one, and came near stampeding the whole army. While here the Yankees seem to have been in a state of great trepidation. I cannot learn where Breckinridge's command, including Imboden's, has gone. There has been a great disposition to decry Imboden and to attribute to him all the blame of recent disasters in this region. While he was the superior officer no disaster occurred, but those who give him no credit for Breckinridge's victory at New Market, hold him responsible for Jones' defeat at Piedmont. I am disgusted at such exhibition of human nature. His two cavalry regiments (18 + 23rd) have an unenviable reputation. I heard at Waynesboro that Dary Armstrong, of the 18th, declared himself ashamed of his regiment. Legh says that when his company + Peck's were ordered up to support their regiments at Piedmont, they met most of the men dashing down the hill, in wild retreat, many of the horses and some of the men bleeding, and some of the men bare headed, while the guns of the enemy were roaring behind them. The two companies, according to their orders, endeavored to rally the regulars, but it was in vain — they swept by exclaiming, "Yes, you go and try it!" On the top of the hill they encountered the Lt. Col. of the 23rd, who was abusing and swearing at his men, and asking them if they could'nt "stand as long as the ——- Home Guards?" Further on, they found a portion of the two regiments in a wood, whom they reinforced, and finally the enemy retired. Report says, however, that the 18th + 23rd have nearly retrieved their reputation and received the commendation of Gen. Early. RR trains now run from Richmond to Christian's Creek. Reports that 500 Yankee raiders have been captured on the South Side R.R., and 2000 men on the Petersburg + Weldon. Grant seems to be in a position, between the James and Appomattox Rivers, from which he cannot be dislodged. By the way, I had no idea when I began, of spending so much time Sunday night in this manner.

Tuesday evening, June 28, 1864.

Early's army has been passing through town since day-light — off + on. The infantry have gone down the Valley Turnpike, the artillery down the New Hope road, and the cavalry around the western part of the county, without passing through town. The impression is that their destination is Pennsylvania. Whether such a move will not do us more harm than good, by reviving the war spirit at the North and recruiting the Yankee armies, remains to be seen. Moreover I have no very great confidence in Early. It is almost as great a relief to get rid of our army as of the Yankees — in some respects they have done as much injury as the latter. Two rascals among them went to Legh's this morning, in his absence, and took off the Yankee horse he had. I felt this loss more than all the others. J. H. Blackley returned home yesterday, the Yankees having paroled him in Greenbrier Co. They refused to release Phillips, Candler. H. B. can give me no information in regard to my papers. He was discharged because he was unable to travel. I expect to go to Richmond to-morrow, on public business — [deleted: the Central RR is now open from Christian's Creek] — I would gladly be excused from the trip if I could, particularly as I have not been well for some time — suffered very much yesterday + last night. I was aroused early this morning by the music of the troops who were marching out of town. They had plenty of it, such as it was, some very dolorous — several bands. One of them played "When the cruel war is over." It made me sad, Sad, but the soldiers generally seemed in good spirits. Many of those who went out this afternoon, looked really joyous. Poor fellows, I do not know how they stand such a life. As far as dress and cleanliness are concerned, they are a woebegone looking set. As usual, multitudes of them have been calling at private houses for something to eat. We thought the Yankees had left no supplies in the county, but it is hard to refuse a morsel to our men, notwithstanding the beggars are generally stragglers. Quite an army of them were up the road about Legh's after cherries to-day. Early is supposed to have from 20,000 to 25,000 men. One third of them here at the right time, would have presented all these disasters + cut off Hunter's career. [deleted: The loss of the horse Legh had troubles me more than all we suffered from the Yankees.]

July 1864

Wednesday night, July 6, 1864

On Wednesday morning last, a week ago, I started to Richmond to see what could be done in reference to our Quartermaster's affairs which have been much deranged by the loss of the papers, +c. Went to Christian's Creek by stage. Our engine was very much out of order, and we did not arrive in Charlottesville till between 4 and 5 o'clock, P.M. Found that the train we were to proceed in from Gordonsville, had left and gone back to Richmond, or rather to the burnt bridge near the city. Consequently we had to remain in Charlottesville till next day. Slept, or lay, on a miserable, filthy bed. Did not get off till quite late in the afternoon Thursday, and then started with a very long and crowded train. The burnt bridge was repaired by this time, and we went through to Richmond, arriving at one o'clock, A.M., Friday morning. Took lodgings at the Ballard House, where we had delightfully clean and comfortable beds. On Friday and Saturday I was full of business, and was treated with great courtesy by all the officials, but did not accomplish much. Sought information at the same time in regard to our private papers captured by Yankees in Nelson, but got little comfort. On Sunday, I went to preaching in the morning at Dr. Hage's Church, and to prayer meeting in the evening — There was a universal expectation in Richmond that Grant would make a desperate assault, and perhaps destroy Petersburg on Monday, the 4th, in celebration of his capture of Vicksburg last year. It was attended to at church, at prayer meeting, and in the Monday morning papers. A special prayer meeting was appointed for Monday morning on account of the condition of affairs. It turned out, however, that Monday was a day of unusual quietness at Petersburg, between the two armies. Our people are becoming excessively vindictive towards the Yankees. It is very apparent in the prayers of the clergy. At the meeting Sunday evening, Dr. [deleted: Wm.] Brown, after relating the circumstances of Mr. Creigh's execution, exclaimed, "Oh God to whom vengeance belongeth! Oh God to whom vengeance belongeth!" Dr. Feyburn prayed in substance that God would change the hearts of our enemies, or if He did not see fit to do that, that He would utterly destroy them — We paid for lodgings only at the Hotel, eating our own bread and mush. Paid of lodgings from $6 to $10 a day and night. I started home on Monday morning. At Trevilian's met Dr. Mills and Martha waiting for me, to take me to their house. Sunday determined to go with them, and had a pleasant visit. Many marks of the recent cavalry fight in that vicinity, and I heard of many particulars of the battle. One of our soldiers buried in Dr. Wills' enclosure, another on the road, near at hand — indeed graves are so numerous that the lines of Campbell were constantly on my mind.

"And every turf beneath their foot,
Shall be a soldier's sepulcher."

Got home at near eleven o'clock, last night, having walked from Christian's Creek. Reported to-day that Early has captured Martinsburg with 1200 prisoners and four pieces of cannon. A young man named Smith, from Wetumpka, Ala., staying here to- night — He goes on to-morrow to join his company, with Early. Rain greatly needed. I went out to-night to old Mr. Blackburn's with Wright and brought in a bee hive — Va went with me for the walk. Feel much fatigued. Swarm small and very late in the season.

Sunday night, July 10, 1864

The affair at Martinsburg dwindled down considerably — instead of 1200 we captured 220 or 230 Yankees. They arrived here this evening. At last accounts Early was at Frederick City, Maryland. His object, according to current report, is to release our men held as prisoners by the Yankees at Point Lookout. Rumor says that several of our steamers have gone out from Wilmington to cooperate — all doubtful. A refreshing shower this evening. Jim McClung here to-night. — Weather excessively warm for some time past.

Monday, July 11, 1864

Intelligence came last night of the distinction of our famous steamer Alabama at Cherberg, France, by a Yankee vessel. Capt Semms and forty of his crew escaped. No tidings from Early. All our expectations in that quarter have been more or less disastrous, and I expect anything better for this one. We are at last getting some authentic particulars in reference to the case of Mr. Creigh, of Greenbrier. It was said by some that a negro woman shot the Yankee who was threatening outrage to Mrs. C. and her daughters; by others that Mrs. C's mother shot him, while Mr. C. was struggling with the ruffian on the floor; a recent letter from Lewisburg states, however, that he was killed by his body thrown in a well. This occurred six months ago. A negro informed upon Creigh, and he was arrested by the Yankees when they were lately in Greenbrier, and brought in to Staunton by them. Averell and Crook were opposed to his execution, but it was ordered by Hunter, who is a cruel and treacherous wretch. — While the Yankees were encamping one night, after leaving Staunton, at the Rev. Mr. Morrison's, in Rockbridge, near New Providence, an elderly man went to Mr. M's door and asked for him, stating that a prisoner wished to see him. The visitor proved to be a chaplain in the Yankee army, named Osbourne, from Pa. Mr. M. being old and in feeble health, his wife + daughters declined to call him, as they did not understand that the prisoner was any one he knew. Early next morning Mr. Creigh was placed in a small wagon and taken to a spring, a short distance off, and there hung. [deleted: Upon returning to the house, the chaplain asked + spoke to the family on the subject, and they] The chaplain went to Mr. M's house again and some of the family inquired what sort of a man it was that had been hung; he replied that he was a good man if there ever was one, and the soldiers said he did right in Killing the Yankee at his house. It was four days before a coffin could be procured, and in the mean while one of [deleted: his] Mr. Creigh's sons, who is in our army, had arrived. On his return through Lewisburg, the Yankee chaplain called to see the Rev. Dr. McIlhenry and told him the execution of Creigh was the most cruel act he ever beheld.

Wednesday night, July 13, 1864.

Feel much discouraged in regard to the recovery of my coupon Bonds captured by the enemy at Hubbard's in Nelson — I had $4500 Railroad bonds, and $800 Confederate; Mr. Stuart had $11,000 Confederate; and aunt Sally $1000 Railroad. I had pretty well satisfied myself that the papers (all in the box) were burnt up with the house, and proof of that would have enabled me to obtain duplicates without much difficulty; but yesterday I learned that two registered bonds held by me as trustee for Mrs. Heiskell, had been found in possession of a negro, who picked them up in the lane near Hubbard's quarters. It is evident therefore that the Yankees or somebody, found my box and opened it. What became of the other contents is the question. [deleted: I feel much depressed, particularly on Mr. Stuart's account.]

We have no intelligence from Early, except what comes through Northern papers — of great excitement in the North. I apprehend some great disaster to our army in that quarter. It seems to be on a "raid," and nothing more.

Friday evening, July 15, 1864.

News from Richmond, taken from Northern papers, that our troops had possession of Railroads North of Baltimore, and were within three miles of Washington, throwing shells into the city. Passengers say there was later intelligence that Breckinridge entered Baltimore on the 12th, and a telegram from Winchester, dated yesterday, states that Early had routed Warren's or Burnside's corps 14 or 16 miles from Washington. All this news, if only a part of it is true, is strange enough to us, who have known of Early's movement towards Maryland, for more than two weeks — how must it astonish Yankeedom and the world! A few weeks ago the speedy downfal of Richmond was looked for, while Yankee raiders were traversing the State, destroying and plundering at their pleasure — the next things the world hears is that the "rebels" are carrying everything before them in Maryland and cannonading Washington city. The house of Gov. Bradford, of Md., has been burnt in retaliation for the burning of Letcher's house at Lexington. We have it from pretty good authority that the primary object of Early's expedition was the release of our men held as prisoners at Point Lookout. Several of our steamers were expected to come out from Wilmington, to co-operate; but this arrangement having failed of execution, it was said that Early had been recalled. Weather still very dry. The Government offers thirty dollars ($30) a bushel for wheat! Surely it is not intended to pay the public debt. No government can stand such prices. Private consumers always have to pay largely in advance of the Government, and it is not improbable that flour will sell from $500 to $1000 per barrel before next harvest. The wheat crop in this region very abundant.

Monday night, July 18, 1864.

Our army has left Maryland and crossed to the South Side of the Potomac, near Leesburg. Opinions differ as to the policy and results of the expedition. Four thousand prisoners said to have been brought off have dwindled down to six or seven hundred. There is no reason to doubt, however, that a considerable amount of plunder has been secured, I fear that our soldiers have too generally been imitating the example set them by the Yankee raiders in this region. Some camp followers from this neighborhood have returned with pretty rich spoils. It is downright robbery, and I do not [illeg.] what they have gained by such means. — A report from Petersburg that Grant is dead.

I vibrate between hope and despondency in regard to our bonds which the Yankees captured at Hubbard's, the latter feeling generally prevailing. Judge Thompson's view of the case would allow the robbers themselves, as soon as they can do so safely, to come back and demand and receive payment of the bonds. [deleted: He regards them as currency, like bank notes, possession giving a good title unless claimant can bring home to the party knowledge of fraud. The only feature they possess in common with currency, however, is that they are transferable by delivery, without written assignment. But so is a horse and all kinds of personal property. Yet nobody calls horses "currency" or imagines that a lawful owner has not a right to regain such property wherever he may find it, let the holder be ignorant or not that it was stolen or lost. In this case the question is not whether the Confederate States and the several Railroad companies shall buy the principal and interest of their respective bonds, but to whom should they pay them? Her are the true owners (whether legally so or not), who have invested their means, not only to their own advantage, but to the profit of the debtor parties, in this form — The public enemy comes upon them, searching dwellings, burrowing in the ground for hidden treasure, tampering with and intimidating slaves to induce them to betray hiding places, with a force that is irresistable they carry off or destroy whatever valuables they find. If important papers are removed to a distance, they are pursued and captured abroad. Yet in tender consideration of the interests of some possible future innocent holder, who may not have personal knowledge of the robbery, the rights of the innocent owner must be utterly disregarded! Innocent holder, ignorant of the robbery! The public enemy is not pillaging by stealth — he robs in broad day-light, in the face of the world, and the whole world should be on their guard against becoming the purchasers or receivers of his stolen goods. Caveat emptor should apply in this case if ever, whether coupon bonds be "currency" or no "currency." What interest has trade and commerce which must be promoted by giving organized bands of robbers license and encouragement to pillage defenseless people of their whole property!] Past eleven o'clock, and Va reminds me that we have only two more candles. I never before appreciated the Savior's injunction, "Lay not up treasure upon earth" +c but lay up treasure in heaven" +c — Lord, help me to do so!

Friday, July 22, 1864.

Since Monday night, we have heard that the President has removed Gen. Johnston from the Command in Georgia, and appointed Gen. Hood. Johnston was supposed to be too much given to backward movement. Our prospect does not look encouraging at Atlanta. Gen. Early has come into the Valley again. On Monday or Tuesday the enemy, who it seems are following him up closely, crossed the Shenandoah in pursuit, and were driven back with heavy loss. Last evening, a dispatch was received from Mt. Jackson, stating that a portion of our forces had been repulsed two miles below Winchester. Nothing new from Petersburg. — Looking around generally at this time, there is nothing especially encouraging in view. The expedition into Maryland will undoubtedly have the effect anticipated by many of our people — the revival at the North of the war spirit +c, +c. Our men burned several houses in retaliation for the destruction of Letcher's house — The Yankees will come back and harm a hundred for one. However legitimate retaliation may be on our part, it is miserable policy. We cannot compete with our enemies in that kind of warfare, and it would be far better to let their outrages stand out before the world, unavenged — to the disgust of even some of their own people. Our only hope is that public opinion among themselves will compel a termination of the war. We cannot conquer them, nor injure them in their houses and property, as they have injured us.

Saturday evening, July 23, 1864.

A dispatch was received this evening from Richmond stating that a baggage car on the Danville Railroad has burnt this morning, and the books, papers +c of the two Banks in this place destroyed. The effects of the Banks were taken to Danville to preserve them from the enemy, and were on the road back when this catastrophe occurred. The two had probably four millions of deposits — money + bonds — belonging to citizens of this region, and of course the stock of the Banks will be worth little or nothing. Mr. Stuart owned ten shares and I ten, Kate twenty-five and Alick nineteen. I felt please to think that Legh did not participate in this loss, but afterwards recollected that probably his $1500 C.S. coupon bonds, of which he has not the numbers, were with the Central Bank. [deleted: Some persons] D. A. Kayser had bonds to the amount of $15,000, W. H. Harman $30,000, + M. G. Harman $100,000 with the Banks. W. H. Waddell loses everything he had in the world. Uncle Lyttleton + Legh considerable amounts. Legh has just ridden up. He heard at home the news about the Banks, and came in to inquire about it. His bonds were with the Central Bank.

[deleted: Our losses sum up thus:]

[deleted: Mr. Stuarts -] [deleted: Captured by the enemy in Nelson] [deleted: Confederate States Coupon Bonds] [deleted: $11,000] [deleted: On R. + D. R.R. Central Bank Stock — ] [deleted: effects burnt] [deleted: 1,000] [deleted: Mine (Jos. A. Waddell)] [deleted: Orange + Alex. R.R. bonds] [deleted: captured in Nelson] [deleted: 3,500] [deleted: Va Central RR] [deleted: " "] [deleted: 1,000] [deleted: Confed States] [deleted: " "] [deleted: 800] [deleted: Central Bank Stock — ] [deleted: effects burnt up] [deleted: 1,000] [deleted: Catherine S. Waddell] [deleted: Confed. States Bonds] [deleted: captured in Nelson] [deleted: 100] [deleted: Central Bank Stock] [deleted: lost as above] [deleted: 2,500] [deleted: J. Alex. Waddell] [deleted: Central Bank Stock] [deleted: lost as above] [deleted: 1,900] [deleted: Legh R. Waddell] [deleted: Confed States Bonds] [deleted: burnt up] [deleted: 1,500] [deleted: ($24,300)] [deleted: Aunt Sally] [deleted: Orange + Alexander RR. Bond] [deleted: captured] [deleted: 1,000] [deleted: Making a total of losses in our family of] [deleted: $25,300]

[deleted: besides what Uncle Lyttleton's family have lost. — In addition to the above are all our certificates for four per cent bonds. Mine were captured in Nelson. Alick's and Mr. Stuart's were with the Central Bank. My expectation was to get the nos + dates from A. F. Kinney's (the Depositionarys) book, which was necessary to get them renewed; but his book was with the Banks. I alone had certificates amounting to $850.]

[deleted: All these things have surely been sent upon us by God. I feel that it is the old story of Job over again, and desire to say with him, "The Lord gave and the Lord hath taken away. Blessed be the name of the Lord." "Though He slay me yet will I trust in Him."] Legh found two of his colts, taken away by the Yankees, in the upper part of the country. A dispatch from Richmond represents that Hood is fighting Sherman very successfully at Atlanta. If the report is not exaggerated we have had some signal success in that quarter. But we ae incredulous in regard to such reports from the South and West. Early has been driven up the Valley as far as Strasburg. That Maryland campaign has been a miserable affair for us; the pillaging by our troops and destruction of private property were horribly stupid in point of policy — a blunder, which somebody has said was worse than a crime; and the surprise of Ramseur's division near Winchester was disgraceful. The drought continues — corn withering up — everybody wishing praying for rain.

Night. — After supper, Va and I went down to Mr. Stuart's — Sister a good deal cast down — Alick + Adeline came in, and we talked ourselves into good spirits, especially after Miss M. J. Baldwin called to tell Mr. S. that intelligence had come that all the papers of the Central Bank were safe, and only a box of books was lost.

Tuesday morning, July, 26, 1864.

Official dispatches from Atlanta confirm the recent good news from that quarter — if it only holds out! Rumors yesterday of successes on the Potomac, but discredited, as no one knew of Longstreet's corps (now led by Anderson) being in that region. This morning, however, while we were at breakfast Legh came in and told us that Breckinridge had defeated the enemy at Kernstown, near Winchester, yesterday, taking five hundred prisoners. I was surprised last night at receiving a communication from the Secretary of War, appointing me "Commissioner for the 11th Congressional District of Virginia" to settle accounts for property purchased and impressed. — A public meeting was held yesterday at the Courthouse, and a paper adopted protesting against the recent schedule of prices adopted by the State Commissioners — $30 a bushel for wheat +c. The report now is that the Central Bank suffered very little by the burning of the car on the Danville Railroad, but the Valley Bank was almost destroyed — Strange that we can get no definite intelligence. About a week ago it was reported by a Capt. Baylor of Jefferson Co., long a prisoner at the North, who returned home on parole, that two Yankee officers came up James River on the [deleted: same] boat with him, getting off and visiting Grant's army and other points, and that we finally saw them sitting in a Richmond hotel. He called upon the Secretary of War, and informed him of the circumstances, and was told it was no doubt all right. Now I see that Northern papers are attending the secret mission of two officers to Richmond. Some rain Sunday night. Much more needed. Nanny + Matty Tate went to Lexington yesterday. Seven hundred and forty (740) Yankee prisoners were brought into town yesterday and sent off on the Railroad. They were taken in Maryland + down the Valley.

Tuesday night. — Nothing further in regard to the fight at Kearnstown. The Yankees are throwing shells into Atlanta, from which it appears that our recent successes there have not amounted to much. I find that the Commissionership, tendered to me, will not pay + my expenses amounting to more than the compensation, and I shall be obliged to decline it. The Commissioner is required to hold terms in every county in the District, and will receive ten dollars a day, while actually employed, while his expenses, away from home, will amount to at least twenty dollars ($20) a day! The last report in regard to the Banks is, that everything belonging to both is safe, except some books, and a box containing special deposits in the Valley Bank. It is very strange that the intelligence is so vague.

Saturday evening, July 30, 1864.

Grant has sent a large part of his army to the North Side of James River again. It was quite near to Richmond at last accounts — had captured four pieces of cannon belonging to the Rockbridge Artillery. Much anxiety in regard to our affairs in that quarter. Very heavy cannonading heard all morning — At 2 o'clock (P.M.) I sat in our porch and heard it more distinctly than at any time since the battle of Malvern Hill, in 1862. From all accounts the Yankees were utterly routed at Kernstown. We have no authentic particulars of the affair. Peace movements seem to be on the foot in the North Western States. Holecomb and Clay have been at Niagara Falls trying to negotiate with Horace Greeley, but Lincoln refused a passport to Washington except upon terms which were rejected. The effort was not exactly authorized by our authorities, but H. + C. are no doubt in the confidence of President Davis. Their approaches to negotiation are encouraging. [deleted: Many persons who thought they had lost heavily by the Banks have been agreeably disappointed. I feel discouraged in regard to our lost bonds.] Va went to Westview yesterday — expect her back this evening. We have no lights at night — candles so high in price that I cannot buy them — the greatest privation of the war, to me.

Monday, August 1, 1864.

News by the train last night, that Grant sprung a mine at Petersburg, on Saturday. Our loss was reported to be 300 men, but I learn this morning that Gen. Lee's official dispatch says [deleted: only] that 30 men were missing. — A fight ensued in the trenches, and 500 Yankees were killed and 800 taken prisoners, including 76 officers. The movement to the North of James River proved to be a feint — Sol — returning from Hospitals, furlough +c are every day arriving on the cars and going to join their commands with Early. The Reserves from the Valley District, are in town to-day, in pursuance to an order for them to report for organization. The drought still continues. A number of slight showers, only, in the last two months. Corn suffering greatly.

Tuesday night, August 2, 1864.

A delightful rain this afternoon. Every body, as well as the vegetable world, seems refreshed. — Much corn, however, is lost beyond recovery. The losses at Petersburg on Saturday, on both sides was quarter than at first reported. Ours — killed, wounded, and missing — is said to have been 1200. We have 1100 of the enemy taken prisoners, and buried 700 or 800. Their total loss is estimated at about 3000. The slaughter of the enemy is said to have been terrible, yet so blood-thirsty have our people become, that a feeling of regret is expected that it was not greater. The Yankees for the first time brought negro troops against Gen. Lee's army, and the poor wretches advanced shouting, "No quarter! Remember Fort Pillow!" Reports from Georgia state that 700 Yankee raiders have been captured. Early is said to be back at Bunker Hill, near Winchester.

Wednesday night, August 3, 1864.

Stoneman and 500 of his men certainly captured in Georgia. Fighting lately at Atlanta — our army seems to maintain its ground — particulars not known. A rumor to-day that 40,000 Yankee men at Harpers Ferry.

Thursday night, August 4, 1864.

Northern papers report that McCausland had been to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, and burnt the town. I heard it this evening on the street, after the arrival of the train, with mingled emotions. My first feeling was one of horror and strong disapprobation. I soon found myself, however, entertaining a secret feeling of gratification that the miserable Yankee nation, who have been burning and pillaging throughout our country so long, have now been made to suffer in their own homes. Yet it was impolitic. The Yankees can burn a hundred of our towns and where we can burn one of theirs. We may look out for the destruction of Charleston, Winchester and every place in reach of Yankee armies. The same northern papers report that Averell overtook and "whipped" McCausland. Miss A. M. McClung, + Miss M. J. Baldwin spent the evening with us. The Yankees acknowledge a loss of 5000 at Petersburg, on Saturday.

Saturday, August 6, 1864.

No news of any importance last night. A rumor this morning that Gen. Early has crossed the Potomac again. Much talk about the burning of Chambersburg, Pa., and diversity of opinion in regard to it. It may do good for the Yankees to find that some of their towns can be burnt too, and some of their women and children turned out of shelter, without beds to sleep on or clothes to wear. Heavy clouds since yesterday evening, but not rain yet.

Tuesday, August 9, 1864.

Rumors yesterday and to-day that McCausland are surprised and routed, on Sunday, somewhere near Romney or Moorefield. It is represented as a bad affair for us. He was pursued on his return from Pennsylvania by Averell. One or two persons who were with him at Chambersburg have arrived at Staunton. They say that McCausland, by order of Early, made a demand upon the town for a hundred thousand dollars to reimburse the owners of property destroyed by the Yankees in Virginia. The people laughed at the demand, and it was publicly repeated three or four times, with intervals of an hour or two, accompanied with a threat to burn the place, if it was not complied with. As the people persisted in disregarding the demand, the town was finally set on fire. Our men say that the affair was extremely painful to them. There is every reason to believe that H. K. Cochran was killed then, and probably fell a victim to the rage of the populace. Beauregard has been counter-mining at Petersburg, and has blown up some of the Yankee works. Some of our troops have been moved by Railroad from Richmond to Culpeper. Rumors that Grant is moving large bodies from Petersburg. A vigorous assault by water was in progress upon Mobile at last accounts. John Dabney of Roanoke, an old acquaintance, called to see me this morning. I have not seen him before since 1846. Weather still hot and dry.

"Yankee Brigands," Image 1

"Yankee Brigands," Image 2

Such is the war raged against us by the Northern people!

Wednesday night, Aug. 10, 1864.

Va went to Lexington this morning with Mr. Tate for Nanny + Matty. They took Kitty with them. Expect to return on Friday. News from Mobile this evening that one of our Forts has been surrendered to the enemy in a mysterious manner, looking very much like treachery. Our losses at Moorfield is estimated from 300 to 500 men, besides horses and guns. — It was a strange affair. Grant still reported to be moving troops from Petersburg. As all the rest of the family are away from home, Kate + I went visiting this evening. She took supper at Alick's, and I at the Seminary. We are badly off for lights — I have borrowed the kitchen candles from Jinny to-night. My pay during the day would afford me one candle at night, so we cannot buy any.

Saturday, August 13, 1864

We heard several days ago that Early had recrossed the Potomac to the Va side. Now we hear that a large force of the enemy is pursuing him up the Valley. It is thought that nearly all of Grant's army is now on the Potomac, and probably Grant himself. [deleted: The current belief is that a] Rumor has it that Longstreet's corps has crossed, or is crossing, into the Valley from Culpeper. No news for several days from Atlanta or Mobile. We expected Va. with Tate +c back last night, but were disappointed. I was quite laid up from early in the afternoon — went to bed soon after dark, and had a long night of it. — Heavy cannonading was heard all morning from 6 to 11 or 12 o'clock.

Sunday night, August 14, 1864.

Reported that our army and the Yankees were confronting each other at Strasburg, on yesterday. Some apprehension that Averell will slip round this way on a raid. Gen. Lee came up to Gordonsville on Thursday, and it is supposed, is in the Valley now. For several hours to-day the workmen in the armory were firing off guns at intervals. I take it for granted that there was some emergency, requiring the guns to be repaired immediately, as it is not usual for the men to work on Sunday. The "Reserves," who have been in camp near town for several weeks, leave to-morrow, it is said, for North Mt. No news from Mobile or Atlanta. Va returned last evening, with Kitty, Nanny and Mattie, or rather Mr. Tate brought them all. — John Gordon came home with us from Church this afternoon, and staid till 8 o'clock. A little rain to-day, not enough to wet the ground. A large number of army wagons came in to-day — one train of eighty-five (85) — probably 140 or 150 in all.

Wednesday night, August 17, 1864.

We have had no mail from Richmond by RR for more than a week past, as the P.M. General and the President of the Central RR Co. have a quarrel on hand. Papers are brought up, however, every day on the cars. News this evening of heavy fighting yesterday, on North Side of James River, seven miles below Richmond. For some days past Grant having moved troops across from the South Side. It is said the slaughter of Yankee wagons on yesterday exceeded that on the Saturday of the explosion of Petersburg. Reported that Mosby captured a Yankee wagon train at Front Royal, a few days ago, with 400 men (Yankees) 1000 mules +c. Other reports from this lower Valley too vague to be mentioned. Still very dry about town. Heavy rains in some parts of the county. Yesterday evening I heard the cannonading below Richmond very distinctly — about six o'clock. Other persons heard it during the day. The Reserves from the Valley were sent to Richmond on Monday.

Thursday night, August 18, 1864.

A good rain this morning — a regular old-fashioned affair, continuing from breakfast till dinner time, such as I hardly expected ever to see again. After dinner I took my seat in the porch opening on Kate's flower yard, to read a while before going back to the office — Kitty and Nanny came out, and in a minute or two one of them exclaimed "There's a fight!" — "Soldiers fighting." They ran to the front porch, and I followed them. One of them then said, "It's a black man they are beating." I discovered two soldiers beating a negro and upon getting near them found that the latter was Alick's Stephen. He was on the ground, his head bleeding, both of the soldiers having large stones in their hands, and one or both of them pounding him. It was the most brutal and murderous affair I ever intercepted. I rushed up and called to them to desist, which caused them to pause. One said the negro had struck him — that he was a white man +c — All the disgusting slang indulged in by low whites to justify their maltreatment of negros. He seemed disposed to renew the assault, and I threatened them with the Provost Marshal. After some altercation, which they forced upon me — my great desire being to get Stephen out of their reach — the more drunker of the two: a powerful man, seized me with his left hand, and threatened to lay me out with a stone which he continued to grasp in his right hand. The other man stood by with a stone in each hand. They were drunk enough for any outrage, and for several minutes I felt that my life was in peril. The fellow at last released his hold, and I immediately proceeded to the Guard House, and, returning with a squad of the Provost's Guard, had them arrested. They are said to belong to a Georgia Battalion quartered a few miles from town. Stephen says they accosted him as he was going to his dinner, but observing that they were drunk he did not reply, when they caught him and pulled him about. He then no doubt defended himself, as he had a right to do.

Still no news from Atlanta or Mobile. We lost two Generals in the recent fight near Richmond — the Yankees won, so far as heard. When will this slaughter cease!

Friday night, August 19, 1864.

Intelligence from the lower Valley, this morning, that the Yankee army was retiring, and burning farm and mills as they went. Early had passed through Winchester in pursuit. I determined to-day to apply for a transfer to the "Tax-in-Kind" department, as County Agent. Smith has been urging me to take the place, for a Capt year past. It will be less confining, requiring me to visit all the Depots in the county, once a month, and is comparatively independent. J. B. Baldwin told me several days ago that Col. Smith, the head of this department in Richmond, told him he had my name registered for a Commission: Matty Tate is quite sick — we fear typhoid fever.

Tuesday night, August 23, 1864.

Matty still sick — looks very badly — undoubtedly typhoid fever. On Sunday we heard that 2700 Yankees had been captured, on Friday, near Petersburg. They suffered heavily, according to reports on this side of the James, and recrossed to the South Side, making at the same time a movement toward the Petersburg + Weldon Railroad. Notwithstanding our success on Friday, they continue to hold the R.R. It was reported last night that we captured 4000 men prisoners, on Sunday, but the papers received this evening, give no such information. On the contrary they say we were repulsed on Sunday. I took supper at the Seminary to-night — quite a little party — had tea, coffee, frozen custard, cake — and actually white sugar.

Wednesday night, August 24, 1864.

A number of Yankee prisoners were brought in this evening, from the lower Valley, said to be four hundred and fifty (450). They are to be detained here till further orders from Gen. Early. It is reported that when our army was recently retreating before the enemy, a wounded man and another to nurse him were left at Kernstown, this side of Winchester. When Early returned a few days ago, in pursuit of the enemy, the people of Kernstown informed him that the Yankees had hung the two men. Their bodies were dug up, and found with the ropes around their necks. Early therefore hung seven Yankees. The 450 are retained here till it is ascertained whether the enemy will go on with their hanging. [deleted: In order that the work of retaliation may proceed without delay.] These Yankees are miserable Specimens of humanity. I did not hear a word of news this evening from Petersburg, Atlanta or Mobile. Kate, Kitty and Mary Stuart went to Mr. Walters' on Monday, and have not returned yet.

To-night, about 8 o'clock, I heard some one at the front door. I went to the door, and a negro man handed me a straw hat having a piece of paper pin'd to it. I expected to find some writing on the paper, + did not look at the man sufficiently to recognize him; but the paper contained only my name. I then asked who sent the hat, but the bearer moved off without replying. The hat is a very good one, such as the ladies make of wheat straw.

Friday night, August 26, 1864.

Since Monday the reports from Petersburg have not been particularly favorable. The enemy continued to hold the Weldon Railroad and was strongly fortified only three miles from the city. This afternoon, however, the following dispatch was received from Richmond:

"Gen. A. P. Hill attacked the enemy on the Weldon Railroad yesterday, near Reams' Station. — dislodged them from position — captured between 1500 and 2000 — among them a Brig. Gen. Our loss small. Got 9 guns." Reams' Station is 15 or 16 miles from Petersburg, and the mystery is how Hill got there. He must be in rear of the enemy. It is presumed they still hold their fortification on the Railroad, near the city. We continue to have indications, from the tone of a large portion of the northern press, of a strong desire for peace in that quarter. The Democratic Convention for the nomination of a Candidate for President meets in Chicago on Monday next, the 29th.

Kitty McClung, of Rockbridge, is here on a visit, and Kitty and Nanny have her in charge. Matty is much better, but still lies nearly all day. Frequent rains during the last week have brought out the grass as fresh and green as in early Spring. The county presents a beautiful appearance, and all things look brighter to us. I have been indulging in the luxury of a re-hearsal of "Waverly." About 9 o'clock, Capt. Smith called for his keys, having first arrived with his family from the warm Springs. Va sent over to them bread, milk, butter, +c. They were about going to bed without supper. Must be nearly 12 o'clock, now.

Wednesday night, August 31, 1864.

On Monday we heard that Early had a fight at or near Shepherdstown on Saturday, and routed the enemy. Since then there has been no further intelligence in regard to the matter, and we conclude that nothing more than a skirmish occurred. No news of special interest from other quarters. A number of persons who ran off from this region to avoid military service, after the repeal of the law allowing substitutes in the army, and went to the northern States, have recently returned. It is said they replenish the state of society in the places where they have been as utterly wretched. — War and peace men quarreling and ready to fight among themselves — carrying guns to preaching, and sitting down to their meals with arms beside them. Provisions very scarce, owing to a total failure of the wheat and corn crops. Some of these men have reported for military duty, + gone to join the army. For the last week and more I have been vibrating between the two 2 offices — principally employed, however, in the Tax in Kind department. Have been rather depressed in regard to the means of living. My income will not near cover necessary expenses. and I now have no property I can readily sell to raise means. A few days ago, I [deleted: drew, or rather] receipts for a jacket and a pair of pants, and took in place of the articles cloth enough to make a coat and vest. I suppose the five yards of cloth would have cost at least [deleted: $150] $200. In former times I could have purchased a full suit coat, vest + pants of such materials for $20 to $25 made ready. Having got the cloth now, the difficulty with me is, about trimming + making. Two yards of skirt lining will cost $30. (Last year my jeans coat which was lost at Hubbards in June was lined with my old cravat. — Alas everything of the kind is now used up. The back of an old vest must do another tour of duty, to help out the new one. I paid $8 to a tailor for cutting the coat and vest — $7 less than his usual charge — and a woman will charge me $25 for making the coat and $8 for making the vest — not too much considering what the money is worth to her. I shall cut the buttons from an old and very shabby coat, which I expect to wear sometimes, however, and use them on the new coat. Weather almost frosty. Kate, Kitty + Mary Stuart went to Waynesboro yesterday to attend a party last night. Kitty and Mary returned this evening.

September 1864

Thursday night, September 1, 1864.

Some items from the Chicago Convention, which met on Monday, the 29th. It is probable that McClelland has received the nomination. It was not known at our last advices whether the peace or war Democrats were in attendance. McClelland will certainly make a queer sort of peace candidate, if he should be run as such, judging from his speech at West Point. The peace men at the North have curious notions, however. They have an idea that the Confederacy would go with the North into a "National Convention," thus acknowledging ourselves still a part of the United States, and of course agreeing to abide by decision of a majority, which we know at the start is against us. We must be nearly used before such a proposition can be acceded to. The Yankees have cut off some of Gen. Hood's communications at Atlanta, but on the other hand, Wheeler has cut off some of theirs.

Saturday night, Sept. 3, 1864.

Heard to-night of the nomination of McClelland by the Chicago Convention. Dont look much like peace. Certainly a queer thing that the peace candidate should have obtained all the fame which has secured his nomination, as a leader of the war. — The Yankee prisoners sent up the Valley by Early have been forwarded to Lynchburg. While detained here they were bivouacked on the Middlebrook road, near Legh's farm. Legh says one of the number, a Sergeant Major, preached to his fellow prisoners once or twice last Sunday. They frequently held prayer meetings, and on such occasions sang so loud as to be heard over all the country round. Twelve of them, from New Jersey, expressed a desire to take the oath of allegiance to the Confederate States, and all declared themselves heartily tired of the war.

Sunday night, September 4, 1864.

Sacrament Sunday in our church, the sermon unusually interesting. Preaching by Mr. Pinkerton, of Mossy Creek, principally. Liked his discourses exceedingly. This evening Mrs. Candler sent to ask me to call at her house. — She wished me to direct a letter to her husband, a prisoner at Camp Chase, Ohio. Such letter go by Richmond by the flag of truce boat. While I was at Mrs. C's, two children came in and inquiring who they were I was told that their father (H. Hyer) was also a prisoner of war in the enemy's hands. In a few minutes another little girl entered and Mrs. C. remarked that her father too was a prisoner (Cease). Matty still sick — more unwell this evening. Hetty McClung went to Waynesboro on Friday. Tomorrow is the day for drafting in the United States.

Monday night, September 5.

Going down to the office this morning, about 8 o'clock. I encountered Alick, and upon inquiring the news he informed me that Atlanta had been evacuated, and that a large Yankee force was in the Valley, this side of Early's army. The latter proved incorrect, but the former turned out to be true. Hood has been compelled to retreat; so far as we know without material loss to his army. Result of the matter that the North is encouraged to present the war with renewed vigor, and in all probability many months are added to the terrible conflict. How many more lives must be offered up: what a vast sum is to be thrown into the heap of misery already accumulated! But God reigns. Matty has been so sick to-day as to excite my apprehensions.


A correspondent of the Danville (Virginia) Appeal in a sprightly letter to that paper, gives the following description of life on picket and in the trenches of General Lee's army:

Some time ago an order was issued by our commanding general prohibiting deserters from the enemy entering out lines, and the pickets were instructed to waive them back, and if they did not go, to fire upon them. For a week after the promulgation of that order, many attempts were made by deserters to enter our lines, and it was amusing to see their signals and signs, that they were "all right," while our boys would not understand them. The consequences was, that in a little while the stream of deserters ceased to flow, and we thought ourselves rid of such troublesome customers forever.

We held a line in close proximity to the enemy, the rifle-pits occupied by the pickets being in some places only fifty yards apart; but an arrangement existed preventing firing by either party upon the other. During this "armistice, " frequent attempts were made by the Yanks to exchange papers and swap coffee for tobacco; but orders were strict, and officers alert, so that no opportunity was allowed, had the inclination prevailed, to trade with the enemy. Among the tricks resorted to by the enemy to hold communication was this: They would write anything they desired to communication upon a small piece of paper and roll it around a Minie or a grapeshot and throw it across the line. One of these missiles brought over the following:

"Johnny Reb.—Is The Fifty-third Virginia still on this line? I have two friends in that regiment—got acquainted with them while exchanging papers, and think they are nice fellows, from appearances. Toss your reply over as I do this."

No notice was paid to these communications, and after the deserted were stopped for some time, our general became desirous to learn something of the enemy's motions, and issued an order offering a fifteen days' furlough for a captured Yankee. Now, as soon as this order was made known along our picket lines, everybody wanted the furlough, and all sorts of tricks were practices to entrap a Yankee.

Our boys commenced shaking papers and beckoning, but blue bel—beast "smelt a mice" at so much fondness expressed in a moment, and failed to come out of his hole.

Some good stories are told upon some of the boys, two of which I remember just here.

A reb starts out with a paper, and a pistol concealed, to meet a Yankee who showed himself in the woods fifty years from our pits. getting within five steps of Yank, he presents his pistol and cries out, "Surrender;" but just then another Yank, close at hand, pokes his gun around a tree and says "Swap papers, damn you, and get you gone." Which reb did in fast time.

A good one is told on two young officers who wanted a furlough. One goes out unarmed with a paper, and waived it for some time to entice Yank to come over, while the other stood ready to rush to his assistance.

After a while a burly Irishman came up, and the captain at once grappled him and endeavored to lead him in. But Irishman "caved in" and was brought over a prisoner; but General Pickett said he couldn't give a furlough upon any such capture as that, and sent the Irishman back, as he wasn't taken with arms in his hand.

The Yanks tolled off one of our men, and Butler sent him back by flag of truce; but the outlaw was not recognized, and he carried the man back. However, he afterwards turned the man loose, and he came walking in with papers, stating how he had been "gobbled up" and snatched off.

Then came General Order No. 65, and we tossed them over the lines. In a day or two the order worked like a charm, and they came rolling in by the dozen. We sometimes get fifteen deserters in one night; all claiming protection under General Order No. 65.

Thursday night, Sept. 6th. —

News this evening that Gen. John H. Morgan had been killed and his staff captured, in Tennessee — They were surprised by the enemy. What became of his troops we know not. Our papers are trying to make out that we have sustained no disaster in the loss of Atlanta. — A rainy day.

Friday night, September 9th

Matty is very sick. We feel much solicitude about her. Yet to-night we had a room full of visitors — J. L. Wills and his daughter Emma (who arrived last evening and return home to-morrow). John H. McCue and Jim CcClung to Supper; afterwards Mary J. Baldwin + Augusta Stuart, escorted by Tate, came in, and subsequently John Gordon. All the crowd, with Va, Kate, Kitty and Nanny, went to the Seminary to cut willows brought over by Mills. Matty was there asleep and required no attention. I remained behind, having been unwell for the last two days — did not go to the office this afternoon. We have had no special war news for several days past. It turns out that the Yankees bring one (not two) of our soldiers at Middletown or Newtown (not Kernstown). — In Aug. 24th. He was from North Carolina, a mere boy, and rather half-witted. He was waiting on a sick or wounded comrade, who got well and left him lingering in the village. The citizens gave him some clothing, so that when a Yankee force came to the place he was not recognized as a soldier. But by some means the Yankees learned that he belonged to the army, which he however denied, and they hung him as a spy, having first made him dig his own grave! I heard these facts from a soldier last week, who said that Early had not then retaliated upon the enemy. It was stated to-night, however, that he had hung four Yankees. — It is reported that some disagreement has occurred between Early and Anderson in regard to rank. Legh told me to-day that John Hill came to his house this morning bringing the broken lock of his stable door, and stating that his valuable stud was gone. The children began to cry and there was great lamentation. He tracked the horse down the lane and up the public road, and finally was rejoiced to find him in the meadow above the house. The animal had the halter still on, and had evidently broken loose from the thief and leaped the fence into the meadow. Good locks cannot be procured now, and it is almost impossible to fasten any out buildings securely. Stealing horses and all kinds of movable property, is a common occurrence. People are very cautious about buying horses from soldiers and strangers. Oh, for the good old days of security and peace!

Monday night, September 12.

Sherman has ordered all the white population of Atlanta to leave the place. Those who take the oath of allegiance to the United States, to go North and the others South. He proposed to Hood an armistice of ten days that this order might be executed, and the proposition was accepted, with a protest as to the barbarity of the proceeding. Matty still very sick.

Tuesday night, Sept. 13.

We thought this evening, at Supper time, that a very unfavorable change had taken place in Matty. Va filled us and had to leave the room to tell us about it, and I, [deleted: greatly agitated], hastened to bring Alick. He assured us Matty was not worse, and we have since felt more hopeful. The papers of to-night contain McClelland's letter accepting the Chicago nomination. He avows his purpose never to abandon the Union, which is as much as to say he will prosecute the war, if elected President. There is then no prospect for us but devastation and slaughter. — He saw no hope of permanent peace but in a restoration of the Union — He may, if God wills, establish a union by conquest over a wasteland — no other. I heard yesterday that Dick Sherrer, of the 42nd Regiment, had been killed in Maryland. We found his acquaintance early in the war, and he has been at our house. — Thus one after another falls — who will survive?

Wednesday night, Sept. 14.

A rather somber feeling in the community all day — nothing to be hoped for from any peace party at the North. The papers received to-night bring no news. Grant writes to his northern friends that nothing is wanting to finish up the war in a short time but unanimity among the Yankees — that the "rebels" are in great extremity — that they have old men and boys guarding prisoners and bridges, having robbed alike the cradle and the grave — that they have utterly exhausted their [deleted: supply] stock of men, and cannot supply the place of our lost — that the casualties of war are reducing the army at the rate of a regiment a day — — all very near the truth.

Thursday night, Sept. 15.

The peace men in the United States are dissatisfied with McClelland's letter of acceptance. "The World," newspaper, "Freeman's Journal" and "Metropolitan Record," all of New York city, repudiate him, and Vallandigham being on his way to canvass the State of Pennsylvania where the letter fell into his hands, returned home. Matty has seemed to be rather better for two days past.

Friday night, Sept. 16.

The United States government is bringing troops up the Mississippi in large numbers, even withdrawing a part of their force at Mobile. Everything indicates that they are concentrating against Richmond. Sheridan will be reinforced, which will enable him to drive Early up the Valley, or a column will be found at Washington or Fredericksburg, to advance upon Richmond from that quarter. Being almost ready to yield to despondency this evening, I quite made up my mind that the Yankees would occupy Staunton again before many weeks have passed, and perhaps winter here. Our authorities have ordered the immediate enrolment of all exempted and detailed men from sixteen to fifty years of age. Already the whole male population between those ages is in the military service, except the comparatively few who are exempt by law as civil officers, preachers, physicians +c., and those pronounced unfit for service on account of physical disability. Oh for rest! rest! Oh for faith to say and feel, "the [deleted: God] Lord of hosts is with us; the God of Jacob is our refuge." "God is our refuse and strength, a very present help in trouble. Therefore will not we fear, though the earth be removed and though the mountains be carried into the midst of the sea." "He maketh wars to cease —" I have felt depressed all day — not well "in body and cast down in spirits. Have been thinking of how Mr. Stuart's family is to get along. — Am often troubled about it. Va + I went down to see them after supper — When we came home found some cake and custard (of the decidedly Confederate sort) which had been sent in from the kitchen. Wright was to deliver another address to the Colored Ladies' Temperance Society, and as usual they had sent him a bountiful supper before hand, by way of preparation. From Kate's account of the meal he was making I fear he was "too full for utterance." It is apparent now, that the peace party at the North is in a woeful minority. Bright moon-light and cool night — an owl in the neighborhood Keeps up a great hooting, which is rather a pleasant sound to me. Matty does not improve as we could wish. This evening I succeeded for the first time in getting all our chickens lodged under the porch — Something about home by way of a pasture is essential.

Saturday night, Sept. 17.

There is a general conviction that the Yankees are concentrating all this available troops for a desperate attempt to take Richmond. The movements of Yankee troops, as well as the obvious policy of Lincoln at this time, indicate such a course, and our authorities are evidently endeavoring to prepare for it. We hear rumors of fighting down the Valley, but can get no definite information. Reports that the remainder of the Stonewall Brigade has been captured while on picket. This morning over a hundred Yankee prisoners arrived from the lower Valley — a mean-looking set.

Tuesday, Sept. 20.

Our army defeated yesterday below Winchester, Gen. Rhodes killed, and Fitz-hugh probably mortally wounded — the enemy in possession of Winchester. Anderson's corps had left Early to join Gen. Lee at Petersburg. [deleted: To all appearance there is no help for us but in God.]

I went to Moscow yesterday, in pursuance of my business, — was very much fatigued — sick last night, and sicker to- day.

Night. — Early's official dispatch has passed along the vines. He says the enemy attacked him unexpectedly, led by Grant; that he repelled several assaults, but was finally compelled by overwhelming numbers, to retire; that our loss was heavy, but the enemy's greater [of course — we always hear that.]; that the Yankee General Averell was killed. A deep feeling of gloom seems to pervade the community. Life has no charm at present, and there is little to hope for in the future. It is like walking through the Valley of the Shadow of Death.

Arthur Spitzer was here to-day, at dinner and supper. Poor fellow! he is heartily tired of the war. Who is not?

Wednesday night, Sept. 21.

The feeling of despondency still continues in the community. Still very few particulars to-night, report that our loss was three thousand, killed and wounded — few, comparatively, killed; and that the enemy's loss was almost unprecedentedly large. They say that the enemy was repulsed twice, and driven back two miles, but continued to bring up fresh troops, and finally one of our brigades (Vaughan's) gave way. Early brought off his wagons and four hundred (400) prisoners were taken during the battle. Our army was at Fisher's Hill, and there is a rumor of skirmishing there this morning. The enemy's force is reported as very large, + a considerable portion of their infantry is mounted. We heard Monday night that a body of Yankees — 500 to 700 — had burnt the bridge over the Rapid, on the Orange + Alexandria Railroad. — To-day we learn that a portion of Anderson's corps in route from Early to Lee, encountered the raiders before they had entirely destroyed the bridges, and put them to flight, capturing a number of them. The truce at Atlanta terminated this evening. We may look for hot work in that quarter. James Calhoun in town to-night, going again to see after his son; who is, or was, in Early's army. Alas! the amount of anxiety and wretchedness caused by this war! This morning there was a general expectation that the enemy would be in Staunton before many days. Until the fall of Atlanta we were all hopeful of a speedy termination of the war. Now, we see no prospect of peace for months to years to come — unless we are overwhelmed and subjugated. I have been sick — sick. Matty, we hope, is better.

Thursday night, Sept. 22

The general gloom continued to-day, and the news of no disaster would have surprised the community much. The people were prepared for anything. The wounded are beginning to come in. Edward Waddell arrived this evening, badly wounded in the right hand. I hear that young Jenkin, of Christiansburg, wounded in the leg, has stopped at Sister's to spend the night. Rumored that Kershaw's Division of Anderson's (or Longstreet's Corps, lately with Early, has been ordered back to the Valley.

Friday evening, Sept. 23.

A report got out about 2 o'clock that Early had been driven from Fisher's Hill, with the loss of twelve pieces of cannon. It was said to have come from the Telegraph office, but the operator denied it. For an hour or more, opinion wavered as to the truth of the report, but finally settled down into the belief that it was substantially correct. Various circumstances tended to corroborate it. I thought we had reached the lowest stage of despondency on yesterday, but there was a "lower deep" still. Anxiety and gloom was depicted in every countenance. For myself, I confess, I feel staggered and overcome. Some persons report that the enemy are (70,000) seventy thousand strong, while Early has only seventy-five hundred (7,500) infantry. I cannot believe that their figures are correct. Early is, however, undoubtedly retreating up the Valley before a large force. Our cause seems to be desperate. I have a tendency to look on the dark side of things — but this is the general feeling.

Night. — The public anxiety has rather increased than abated since night. I went to the Post Office after dark, and met A. B. Arthur and his wife on the street. She called to me after I had passed them, and on going back, I found her greatly agitated. She said a letter had been received from a Quartermaster in the army, stating that our troops were completely routed — in a state of panic and that every man was taking care of himself. On the street, near the Post Office, squads of people were standing and sitting, talking over the state of affairs while waiting the opening of the mail. I have learned that a man had arrived by stage, having left the army after the abandonment of Fisher's Hill, and reported that our cavalry, on the left wing, had come dashing in in a state of the utmost confusion — Could not learn that there had been any fighting at Fisher's Hill. It is said that thousands of our soldiers are without arms, having thrown their guns away. Arms have been sent from Staunton, since the battle at Winchester. We heard this evening that Roper's cavalry would be at Gordonsville to-night, on their way to the Valley, but on the street, I heard another report that two brigades of the enemy were in Culpeper. If this is so, Roper will have enough to do East of the mountain. I called in to see Sister, who has been suffering intensely from nervous apprehensions, dreading lest she and her children would be slaughtered, or at least starved to death. I endeavored to suppress my feelings of anxiety that I might encourage her. But it is not improbable that by to-morrow night I shall again be a fugitive. not know how those dear to me are to subsist, or whether they will not be driven from home And there are Christian people in the Northern States who are rejoicing over this alarm and suffering amongst us! God reigns. May He be our refuge and defense!

Saturday, September 24.

Two o'clock P.M. — A dispatch from Gen. Early this morning appeared the people of Staunton they were in no danger, that his army was safe + receiving re-inforcements. He, however, ordered the detailed men to be called out, which is indicative of danger. Gen. Breckinridge, who passed through town, to take command in S. W. Va., stated last night that the whole Federal force was 25,000. This county is now rich in all that is needed to sustain an army. Legh tells me he has his wheat, oats and hay on hand, his corn is ready to be gathered, while his sheep, hogs, and even milch cows are fat enough for slaughter. So it is on every farm, and the mills are full of wheat. If the Yankees come, the loss to our army will be inseparable. Gen. Early's dispatch has not quieted apprehension.

October 1864

Saturday, October 8, 1864.

Two eventful weeks have passed since my last entry in this journal. On Saturday afternoon, Sept. 24th, an order came from Richmond for all the wheat to be ground immediately, and the flour sent there as soon as possible. I was employed till nearly dark in attending to the business, + when I got home found a young soldier there from Alabama, who had been wounded at Fisher's Hill. He gave a gloomy account of the condition of Gen. Early's army. After supper I came down to Mr. Stuart's — Sister was wonderfully hopeful as was Alick, who came in — I told the latter that the Yankees would certainly be in Staunton. Went home feeling greatly depressed. Young Sherrer, who staid with us in 1862, was there + spent the night, the Alabama soldier having returned to the Military Hospital. After 10 o'clock I was in the act of going to bed, when I heard some one call to me. Capt. Smith was in the street on horseback — said Gen. Early had just sent an order to evacuate the town, that he was about to retire to Brown's Gap, in the Blue Ridge. Tate + I came down street and remained till one o'clock, except that I went home once to have my clothes put up and make some necessary arrangements. Finally we all left the office, and went to bed. I was disturbed by hammering at the armory near our house, and felt like a man who was listening to the making of his own coffin. At last I dropped sleep. Was aroused by Tate's getting up to go to his farm, and long before day there came a thundering knocking at our front door. Moses had come up to tell us the Federal army was this side of Harrisonburg. Upon coming down street, most persons were stirring. Sent Wright to notify Legh. After Some hours of anxiety I finally started on the Wagons — borough road, riding Alick's young mare, and followed by the government wagon train belonging to our department. The separation from Va and others dear to me was most painful. I believed fully that the Federal force would occupy the town permanently, and that I was an exile perhaps for ever. D. A. Kayser with his servant Jordan first overtook me, then Jno. K. Woods, and then Capt. Smith. The country I was leaving never appeared more lowly. Trains of cars were still coming up to Staunton to my surprise, as it was reported when I left that the army was only a few miles off. At Waynesboro, I found a much bustle and anxiety among the citizens. We paused there several hours. A train arrived there, with prisoners captured at Winchester. Every soldier and fugitive from the army gave a gloomy report of our affairs. Many army wagons at Waynesboro and on the road. We crossed the Blue Ridge, stopped at Brooksville till our wagons came up. Rev. B. J. Lacy arrived from the army — gave me a more discouraging account of Early's condition than I had received. We moved on, and spent part of the night in the road a mile from Brooksville. W. H. Heiskell had previously joined us. Before day light we started again. — Arrived early in the day at North Gordon Depot, on the Charlottesville + Lynchburg Railroad. — There H. H. Peck joined our party. Waited at North Gordon many hours for the train from Charlottesville. About 11 o'clock we began to hear cannonading in the direction of Brown's Gap. — Dept up till after dark. Capt. Smith took the RR train for Lynchburg. As the train was late in arriving, I started beforehand to catch up with the wagons — feeling sick + tired. Overtook the wagons at their camp, after dark, and lay down in one of them immediately. During the night I suffered greatly. Smith was to join us at Warren, and in the mean time, I had command of the train +c. We moved on the next day (Tuesday), and after several hours arrived at Warren. Rumors followed us, people in Albemarle were sending their property across James River, and I concluded to cross to the Buckingham side. I wrote to Smith, advising him of our arrival. Three or four hours were occupied in crossing the ferry. Two mules became refractory and getting into the river one of them was drowned. We found a wagon camp within a few yards of the river, in Buckingham. The ferryman, Tapscote, was very accommodating, allowing us to occupy a vacant house and affording to us other comminas We remained at this place a week. During all of which time I heard nothing of Capt. Smith. Almost every day soldiers came across the ferry, and we had a great variety of reports. One wounded man came with news of the fight at Waynesboro on Wednesday evening. 28thSept. We heard that Federal cavalry had entered Staunton, but went off after two days, doing no injury to the citizens. My spirits revived after the first two days of absence from home, and we all sought entertainment by going after chinquapins82, grapes +c. I came on to Warren on Thursday to inquire the news — met a man just from the army, and returned discouraged. I could not stop at night. The weather very inclement from Friday evening till Tuesday. — much rain. Went to church, three miles from the Ferry, on Sunday, but the preacher did not come. Was quite unwell all day, suffering for want of proper food + rest. Sunday I sent Peaco to Scottsville for intelligence, and he returned with such a report as determined me to start back next day. Sunday night, however, we heard that the enemy was between Charlottesville and Scottsville. +c. +c. On Monday Kayser and I crossed to Warren and got an excellent dinner, which revived me much. About dark we arrived at the river bank, on our return, and met Peaco coming to tell us that news had been received from Howardsville, of a very cheering character. I immediately determined to start back the next day (Tuesday, Oct. 4th). Mr. Heiskell + I moved slowly with the wagons — Peck, Woods + Kayser moved on ahead of us. Everything went on well [deleted: with us], until we arrived near Batesville, when Kayser met me with discouraging reports and wished me to turn back. I determined, however, to come on. When the wagons came up, I learned from one of the news that Capt Smith had passed there at North Garden, coming on the RR to Charlottesville. At Afton, on the Blue Ridge, I found Ch. Price, Wren + Jewell occupying a freight car, having Quartermaster's stores in charge. I concluded to spend the night with them, as they had some good beds +c. of which I was much in need. Capt. Smith arrived on the RR train, and finding me there got off. He rode my horse back to the wagon stand and slept there. Kayser + Woods had gone on to Waynesboro; and Peck had already crossed the Mt. Thursday morning Smith came up to us, bringing my horse, and we came on to Waynesboro. Everything seemed so insecure in Staunton, the enemy being then nearer than when we left, that Smith proposed to wait in Waynesboro for a day or two. On Friday, however, we learned that the Federal army had retired beyond Harrisonburg, and that Early was pursuing down the Valley, and we came on to Staunton. Our wagons had gone up South River, three miles from Waynesboro. I was gratifying to find all at home undisturbed and I hope grateful to God — [deleted: All were well and] Matty much better than I left her. The Federal cavalry — some 3000 — entered the town Monday evening (Sept 26th) and passing through camped on the Waynesboro road. A portion of them went to Waynesboro on Tuesday, during which day Staunton also was occupied by them. They entered very few private houses and committed no depredations of any consequence. On Wednesday, the 28th, the whole body moved to Waynesboro; and late that evening they were attacked by a small party of our troops who had come up from Brown's Gap, on the Eastern Side of the Blue Ridge. It was certainly a gallant affair for our cavalry. The enemy was driven off, leaving about 40 (forty) dead, + more than 80 men captured. I heard many particulars of the affair while I tarried in Waynesboro. Twelve or thirteen houses in the village were struck by shells, and bullets flew thick through the streets. One of the Federal soldiers was killed within a few yards of Dr. L. Waddell's door, and he was stripped by our men of his clothing as soon as he fell, one taking his boots, another his pants +c. Driven off from Waynesboro; the enemy returned through Staunton late Wednesday night, in great haste and some disorder. They were heard to say, "Hurry up, the Rebels are after us!" they returned as they came by the Iron Works or Spring Hill road on Thursday (29th) our cavalry entered the town. Early afterwards moved his infantry from Waynesboro, towards Mt Sidney, and for several days the North River from Bridgewater to Port Republic, was the line between the two armies. We heard rumors on Wednesday + Thursday last that the Federalists were moving off, but other rumors that they were stationary, and did not ascertain till Friday morning (yesterday) that they had really gone. At last accounts Early was beyond Harrisonburg. There is a rumor to- day that the enemy has crossed the Mountain + is moving upon Gordonsville. Some miles and many barns were burnt in this county, the Northern portion. We hear of great destruction and much suffering in Rockingham and all the lower Valley. Women were wringing their hands and crying while the men were carried off as prisoners and the barns and hay stacks were burning. Gen. Lee is sorely pressed at Richmond and all details have been recalled. Perhaps before many days I will land in the trenches before Richmond. Capt. Smith goes down to- morrow to see what he is to do. Every man recommended for detail by Medical Boards, for physical disability for field service (of whom I am one) are ordered to report on the 18th next to go to Richmond. While the Yankees were here an officer named Martindale offered for a sale a Confederate $1000 bond, but could find no purchaser. He finally proposed to give it to Mr. Andrew Hunter, of Jefferson county, as partial compensation for the burning of his house, telling him it had been captured from a Quartermaster near Lynchburg last Summer. Hunter took it with the understanding that he was to return it to the owner, if he could find him. The bond proved to be one of Mr. Stuart's having his name written on it by me!

On the Tuesday the Yankees were in town, they impressed all the negro men into their service and took them down the Railroad to destroy the track and bridges. They had Moses and Stephen, but Wright got wind of it in time, and sat all day in the spare room up stairs, reading Bancroft's History of the United States. The impressed negroes were very indignant, and did much less damage to the Railroad than they could have done. A considerable number of negroes went off from the town and vicinity with the Yankees. None of ours. When our soldiers came in they were very hungry, and were fed as far as possible by the citizens. Selena, our cook, gave them her breakfast and dinner one day. The Railroad has been repaired already. Important intelligence from Georgia is looked for. Va wrote to me on the 30th Sept. "All day yesterday [Thursday] they (the Yankees) were encamped near Middle River, and judging from the lights must have spent the [deleted: night] day and night in burning barns. The whole heavens were illuminated until late bed time — how much longer I cannot tell. + + + Our scouts brought in twelve (12) prisoners last night." Thursday morning some straggling Yankees passed through town from Waynesboro, very much jaded, and one of them voluntarily surrendered to the citizens. The general impression is that Early drinks too much liquor, and that many of our recent disasters are attributable to that cause.

Monday night, October 10, 1864.

Yesterday evening there was intelligence of some success to our arms below Richmond. Also that Roper had encountered the enemy successfully in the Valley, and that Mosby had done some damage to their wagon trains in the rear of their army. This evening we hear that our cavalry was defeated somewhere near New Market on Saturday or Sunday. The Richmond Dispatch of this morning says the New York Herald of the 5th publishes a letter from Grant to Sheridan ordering him to burn every house in the Valley; to destroy every mill, kill every horse, cow, sheep and hog; that he is determined to make the Valley a howling wilderness!! When Sheridan was in the full tide of his success, the Philadelphia "Inquirer" said the Valley was then "under the feet of its lawful owners." This morning John Hendren came to me to say that he had accepted the appointment of Treasurer of the Confederate States, and to inquire if I would take a place in the Department at Richmond. I agreed to go, and he is to write to me. Afterwards, Capt Smith informed me that he had some prospect of getting a position on a Military Court Martial and in the event of his success, proposed to urge me as his successor as Post Quartermaster for the collection of the Tax-in-Kind in the 11th Congressional District. I prefer this to the other, as it will allow me to remain at home, at least till the Yankees come again; but I [deleted: do not] have little expectation that Smith will succeed either for himself or me. The Assistant Quartermaster General, however, told J. B. Baldwin some time ago that he had my name down for a commission. It is said that a Yankee officer made an address to the negroes after they got through tearing up the Railroad track. He was anxious for the young men to go off with them, but would not advise the old men to leave their houses; if, however, the latter chose to go, they would be taken to Washington city where arrangements would be made of which they could work for a living. — "Humph!" said an old negro, "[deleted: we can get]plenty [deleted: of] work here." Heavy frost this morning — the first of the season.

Tuesday night, Oct. 11th

The first rumor of the day was that Roper had rallied his cavalry and finally defeated the enemy below New Market; the next, that he had met no reverse at all; and the third, which I suppose is correct, states that he planned an attack upon the enemy's cavalry, leaving his wagons and artillery some miles in the rear — that Yankees massed their cavalry to meet him, and at the same time sent a force of infantry to cut off the trains, — that a severe fight ensued, in which Roper was getting the advantage when he heard of the movement in his rear — that he fell back to protect the trains, but too late to save his artillery — and that both parties suffered heavily. The Yankee army is said to be still moving down the Valley. Reported that a part of the town of Woodstock has been burnt.

Wednesday night, Oct. 12.

No news to-day, except a report that Gen. Early has gone into the Page Valley. I rode up to Legh's this afternoon, or rather to my strip of land, to see how much wood Jim had cut — very little. Had a peculiar feeling of desolation. The country is wasted by war; and the land mourns. Now, at this usually abundant season of the year, people heretofore accustomed to live in ease and luxury, are scuffling for the meanings of life. How different it was from years ago! I found a copy of the "Staunton Spectator" published by Lyt + me in December 1858 (1858) and read it to- night with a sort of pleasant — gloomy feeling. The advertisements, everything in [deleted: and about] the paper, indicate the peace and plenty which then prevailed. Alas, how changed! Since dark we have been hearing the noise made by a mill grinding sugar cane (sorghum), there it is still — after 10 o'clock — probably half a mile off — Something sweet — molasses — is eagerly sought after. At Waynesboro the other day, I drank, at supper and breakfast, "rye coffee" without sugar — While out with wagons we had it without sugar or cream. The Yankees left a number of horses here on their recent visit. One gave out near Alick's house, and the rider abandoned him. Alick took the animal in charge — the Yankee saying he might have him. Our cavalry entered town on Thursday after the fight at Waynesboro, and remained in line of battle on the hills several hours.

Saturday night, October 15.

Nothing talked of except the recent orders calling into service all detailed men. One order has followed another in rapid succession, from Adjutant General's Office in Richmond. They indicate that almost every male person from 17 to 50 years of age is to be taken to Richmond. Capt. Smith went to Richmond on Tuesday to see if he could retain the detailed men in his Department, especially those of us assigned by Medical Boards to "light duty," on account of physical disability; returned last night without accomplishing anything. He represents the Departments in Richmond, as in utter confusion, nearly every body, except commissioned officers, being taken out and sent into the intrenchments. - - Society here bids fair to be broken up. — The recent orders take millions from their grinding, but men sent from the army undertake, in some cases, to run the machinery. Farmers are sent from their houses, and soldiers are detailed to thresh the wheat. All men engaged in making horseshoes are ordered off, so that our cavalry will have to go bare-footed. The officials at Richmond are in a state of panic, apparently. They are evidently making no provisions for the future, and are staking everything upon a single throw. The army itself cannot be sustained two months. Another and another young man of this place is cut down by the casualties of war. Oh, the horrors amidst which we dwell! I am often ready to exclaim: "Hath God forgotten to be gracious? hath he in anger shut up his tender mercies?" But no, God is still merciful as well as just. We deserve all we have suffered, and therefore have no right to complain — God grant that we may be humble, submissive, and trustful, even though He slay us!

Chestnuts are very abundant this Fall. Va + Kate took Wright and Jinny out of the woods day before yesterday, and gathered more than half a bushel. Kitty and Nanny went with Adeline to-day, and brought back about 1/2 a peck between them. We are ordered to report to the Enrolling Officer on Tuesday next and on Wednesday we go to Richmond.

Sunday night, Oct. 16.

News to-day that Early was falling back, and a report to-night that a battle was about to take place at Fisher's hill. Two young soldiers, killed recently down the Valley, were buried this afternoon.

Wednesday night, Oct. 19.

While we were at supper to-night John Alexander arrived, most unexpectedly. He has been a prisoner since July, 1863, most of the time at Point Lookout, and was at last paroled. From his account our soldiers and citizens held by the Federalists as prisoners, have a miserable time of it. Legh goes to Richmond to-morrow to report — about 150 men went down this morning. My going has been delayed till next week. I have never asked for any indulgence, but when a respite is tendered I am not unwilling to accept it. Some days ago I received a letter from John Hendren, stating that he had not entered upon his duties and expressing an earnest desire to have me in the Treasury Department. I have pretty well made up my mind to go, and all my friends, including Va., urge me to it; but it will take all my pay, I fear, to support me in Richmond, so that I shall have nothing to send to Va. In the mean time my status in the military service has to be settled. Gen. Lee is preparing for a desperate assault from Grant or upon him. John Alexander says large numbers of men, called out by the recent orders, are arriving in Richmond. We have heard nothing more about Early's falling back — the Richmond papers of yesterday had accounts of his achieving some success lately. It is reported, and I believe truly, that the greater part of Sheridan's infantry has gone to join Grant. Hood, having moved round to Sherman's rear, seems to be getting along very successfully in Georgia. West of the Mississippi, the Confederates appear to have things their own way. Price is again on or near the Missouri river. Mosby has been committing a good deal of havoc in Sheridan's rear, down the Valley. Altogether things look a little brighter for us — May God continue to help us! A considerable number of men from the town and county have run off to avoid military duty.

Thursday night, Oct. 20.

This afternoon, it was announced that Early had attacked the enemy near Strasburg and captured 1500 — that the prisoners were brought through New Market this morning. — Before the first glow of satisfaction at this good news had subsided, I heard that Early had "lost his cannon," and was retreating before the enemy. There was a dreadful sinking of the spirits. Next it was said that Early had captured prisoners and cannon, and was sending the former up this way; but the enemy being reinforced he was compelled to retire with the loss of "some men and artillery." This was rather better. Since dark it is said he really did capture 1500 men, and had them safe now, having defeated the enemy; but having no forage for his horses, and, moreover, learning that the 6th Corps of the Federal army was returning to re-inforce Sheridan, he thought it advisable, or found it necessary, to return up the Valley, which he was doing without loss of any kind. Legh went to Richmond this morning, to report at the Camp of Instruction — I shall go in two or three days. The 62nd Reg. has been sent on an expedition towards Beverly. There are said to be many deserters in North Mountain. A company has been sent after them.

Friday night, Oct. 21

A number of officers and men who were engaged in the recent affair down the Valley, — and many ambulances with wounded, have arrived. They say that the enemy was attacked early in the morning and completely routed, being driven a long distance, with the loss of cannon, wagons, about 4000 prisoners — in fact almost everything. Early ordered a halt and immediately his men scattered to plunder. The enemy rallied, + another corps coming up, attacked Early's men, while they were dispersed; at the same time the Federal cavalry attacked our wagons in the rear. The result was that we were routed and lost more than gained at first, except in prisoners. It is said we lost 1000 men, and succeeded in bringing off 1300 prisoners. There are different versions of the affair, and the truth will not be known for some time.

Saturday night, Oct. 22.

A large body of prisoners were brought in this morning and sent off as soon as possible by Railroad. The number was stated to be 1340, but my impression was that it was much greater — at least 2000. — So nearly every body thought. They were very indifferent looking, dirty, faces unwashed and unintelligent. I am sorry to say that the guard did not scruple to take their clothing from them — Such articles as overcoats. They had an idea that they were to be robbed of everything, and sold oil cloths, +c. It was stated this afternoon that 1100 more prisoners were coming, but there are so many false reports, we do not readily believe anything we hear. The recent affair in the Valley is a curious episode in the war — Our army routes the enemy, and is immediately routed in turn, but brings off a large number of prisoners. It is still a doubtful question on which side is the balance of artillery. Report says that our total loss of men was 1000, while the Federal loss was 10,000. — We had few killed, they a great many. How the affair occurred, exactly, is not ascertained yet, so far as I am advised. The last report is, that Early was moving down the Valley again. John Alexander's account of his imprisonment has greatly increased my dread of ever falling into the hands of the enemy. How such systematic cruelty can be practiced in this age and country is marvelous. Henry C. Alexander arrived to- night from Lexington. The Rev. Dr. Armstrong, late of Norfolk, was in L. at Synod. Butler had been sweeping stables at one time while he was a prisoner. He denies the truth of Butler's report of his examination, as published in the papers. Says Butler's conduct on the occasions was worthy of Judge Jeffreys — walking about and heaping upon all sorts of abuse.

Monday night, October 31.

On Tuesday, the 25th, I went to Richmond under orders to report at the Camp of Instructions. A J. Gilkeson started with me, and Brig. Stewart + T. H. Antrim joined us at Waynesboro. J. E. King was to follow. Besides W. B. Hyde, who was in Bath, we formed the corps of "light duty" men in the Tax-in-Kind department of this Congressional District. The cars were crowded with detailed farmers and others, also going to Camp Lee. Most of them were very merry. — I felt far otherwise. About dark we arrived in Richmond, and the crowd generally went to the Powhatan House and took lodgings. The evening + night, I suffered greatly from head-ache. The next morning I called to see Col. Larkin Smith, Asst. Q. M. Gen, in charge of the Tax-in-Kind business. He was very friendly, and said he would try to get a detail for me without a re- examination by a Medical Board. The assessors, he said, were to be released, by order of Mr. Secretary of War. Antrim, Stuart + Hyde were the assessors on my list. Col. S. endorsed the paper [what paper?] and sent an officer with me to the Commiss. Dept. or Bureau. This officer had a talk with a Capt. Riddick, who first proposed to give us a "protection" for twenty days — then said it was unnecessary to multiply papers, and if he (the officer) would get the Q. M. Gen. to endorse the paper, he would grant a detail. The officer requested to me to take the paper back to Col. Smith and ask him to procure the endorsement while he was after the assessors. I hurried to Col. S. and he got the Q. M. Gen.s endorsement. Capt. Riddick then wrote something on the paper, saying to me that it was unnecessary to order details for the three assessors, as they were in the general list for the State. After finishing the paper he handed it to a clerk, who made an entry in a large book; he handed it to another clerk who enveloped and sealed it, + delivered it to me. I discovered that it was addressed to Col. Shields, and the second clerk went with me to Adjt. Binford's office where I was to leave it. — The last named informed me that the paper would be sent to the Camp, where details were made out. He also informed me that "the men" must report + register there. Late in the day we marched off to Camp. When we arrived, found several hundred men in line, preparing to leave for Early's command in the Valley — many of them from August. Legh came to meet me — I had heard that a Medical Board had assigned him to artillery, pronouncing him unfit for infantry or cavalry. We had a private talk, and my affections yearned towards him. As soon as possible I inquired of Col. Shields if the paper had come from Adjt. Binford; he took me into the Detail office — no paper there — must call again next morning. About dark we got back to the hotel. Legh went with me to spend the night. He had not been absent from Camp before since his arrival. Augusta county was still well represented at the Powhatan, and there was a good deal of merryment among the party - - whistling to keep their courage up. On Thursday morning we went back to camp quite early — Still no paper had arrived. Got an order from Col. Shields to bring it up from the city. — Hurried down — found it had gone up — was in the office at Camp when I got back. Clerk began to make off the details — I stuck by so as not to lose sight of the papers. Had much difficulty in getting myself and party registered — finally the clerk, who knew me, put other matters aside and hurried my business through. — Then I hastened back to the Detail Office. The papers when made out were delivered to a Lieut. Richardson — he asked me to hand them to Lt. Potters, in another room. This Lt. signed them, and directed me to return them to Lt. Richardson. He put them with a large pile of similar papers, and delivered them to a Sergeant, directing him to place mine on the top so that I should get them first. The Sergeant told me to follow him into the office, and away we went over the grounds for several hundred yards to Lt. Doyle's Office — crowds of men, who had probably been waiting for days or weeks, running up and calling, "Sergeant, got my papers?" "My papers, Sergeant?" At Lt. Doyle's my papers were dispatched in quick time, and Gilkeson, King + I were ready to return home. Legh went back with me to the Hotel. I felt very sad to leave him. He did not know what his fate would be. Officials at Camp Lee told him no more artillery men were wanted, while the Med. Board pronounced him unfit for any other branch. All day Thursday we heard the roar of battle below Richmond — at night there were many reports as to the result, and rumors that no one would be permitted to leave the city next day. So it turned out Friday morning, when we arrived at the Depot. No one was allowed to enter the cars unless his passport was dated that day. I hurried back to the Passport office — told there that no one between 15 and 55 years of age would be allowed to leave the city. So we were caught. The expectation that the enemy would renew the assault had led to the order. At such times there is a sigh of terror in Richmond — Armed guards parade the streets and sometimes search the hotels, and order all males between the prescribed ages to the "Soldiers Home," preparatory to sending them to the front. The guards are generally rude men, and take pleasure in executing their orders as rigidly as possible. No matter who the person is, or what papers he may carry, or what indispensable business, public or private, he may be on, he will probably find himself in the trenches before he finds a hearing. Under these circumstances on Friday morning, I went from the Depot to Mr. Cook's in a retired part of the city, and lay there during the day — in fact till Saturday morning. — The order for a general arrest was countermanded on Friday, as the battle was not resumed, + I had no difficulty in getting off Saturday morning. Reached home that evening about dark. John Henderson came up with me — he goes in as Treasurer about the 1st of January — still urges me to take a place, and I almost promised to do so. Since my return have been trying to do something for Legh. Tate has applied through May. Noland to have him detailed. The recruits recently sent to Early — many of them wealthy and highly respectable citizens of this county — have been sent through town under guard, to the great disgust of the citizens. — And Alexander came up with me from Richmond, and staid with us till this morning. B. J. Lacy here now.

November 1864

Thursday night, Nov. 3.

Our neighbor Slanker, called at the door since dark to say that Legh had arrived on the RR train. A few days ago a "protection" for him for 30 days was secured, with a promise of a detail. I sent him the paper by Hawk Young. No military movements this week, so far as we have heard. Some of the Northern papers intimate that Grant had a grand enterprise to accomplish on Thursday last and was completely disappointed, and that operations before Richmond will be suspended till May. B. J. Lacy left this morning.

Saturday night, Nov. 5.

Several detailed farmers called into the army by recent orders brought their cases before Judge Thomson by writ of habeas corpus, and he rendered a decision to-day in their favor, on the ground that the Government had entered into contract to release them from military service for twelve months in consideration of their selling their surplus produces to the army at schedule prices. Most of the detailed farmers of the county are now in the army, and unless Congress, which meets on Monday, authorizes the suspension of the unit, habeas corpus will probably be extensively patronized. Many detailed men — some of them respectable and wealthy — have run off — probably hiding in the mountains. I saw Legh yesterday. He gives an interesting narrative of this two weeks' experience at Camp Lee. The authorities at Camp were utterly at a loss what to do with the men (only 8 or 10) recommended by Medical Boards for artillery service, as no more were wanted. He had no duties to perform, and being subject to no restraint, after I left him, he visited the fortifications below Richmond. The day I lay at Mr. Cook's, the denizens of Camp Lee were formed into companies to march to the front, in case of emergency. Some of them, however, took to the bushes! Early is said to have established very rigid discipline in his army — four or five role calls a day and innumerable drills. Quiet reigns all around the horizons. The Presidential election in the United States, next Tuesday, the 8th.

Monday night, Nov. 7th.

Great difficulty in procuring sustenance for Early's army. The Chief Commissary telegraphed to Tate on Saturday, to borrow flour, that he had only a half day's rations. Nothing can be obtained from Rockingham, and Augusta is relied upon almost exclusively. It is impossible, however, for this county to feed the army, the military Hospitals here, the other public institutions, about one half of Richmond city, and our own population to boot. — Yet all this seems to be expected of her. There was a rumor this morning that the Yankees were advancing up the Valley against Early. I presume it was untrue. To-morrow will decide who shall be President of the United States — Lincoln or McClelland. The election of the latter would surprise me. 1st because I have no reason to suppose the people are tired of Lincoln and his policy, and 2nd, if they were, the party in power can carry the day by force and brand. With Lincoln re-elected I see no prospect of peace, but of long years of slaughter and bloodshed and anguish; with McClelland, we may have a change for the better. God reigns, and may He order the event in mercy. I brought Sandy Waddell home yesterday from church — he is in town with a detachment of artillery from Early's command, procuring guns +c.

Thursday night, Nov. 10.

Past 11 o'clock — Every body in the house, except me, gone to bed. Jinny came in just now to say that two soldiers were in the kitchen asking for something to eat. Considering the lateness of the hour, I thought it very strange, and went down to see the men. One had his back towards me and I could not see his face, the other seemed to have a good countenance — both were sitting by the stove. The latter apologized for calling so late, wished me not to put myself to trouble, he expected to get something from the old man (Wright) as he had been here before — they were away from the army on "horse details," (that they belonged to the cavalry, and were furloughed to go home for fresh horses). I found in the storeroom some bread + meat, which I gave to Jinny for them, with some apples. No news for several days — a rumor that Sheridan is moving off — supposed to join Grant below Richmond. From the efforts making to provision Early's army, it must be in great straits for subsistence. Commissioners and Quartermasters with details of men are traversing the county in search of supplies. The mills are watched and every barrel of flour taken up as soon as it is turned out. A great fight near Richmond is anticipated soon. A detail for Legh has been sent up from Richmond, till the 1st of May next. The salt purchased for the town has arrived. Every housekeeper is allowed to purchase 25 pounds for each member of his family, at 30 cents a pound. I purchased 275 pounds and paid $82.50. Hope to trade the greater part of it to some farmer for sorghum molasses. Mr. Stuart married a couple last night, and received a fee of $200 Confederate currency. His old man Bristoe died last Friday night.

Saturday night, Nov. 12.

Yesterday afternoon I took Va to Mr. Walters' on a visit. We went in Alick's spring wagon drawn by an indifferent mule borrowed from the Government stable. The animal required a great deal of whipping, but we accomplished the trip of six miles in about two hours. I was reluctant to go, but was amply repaid for my trouble by the relaxation and good cheer which the visit afforded. We had for supper and breakfast, first of all, genuine coffee, as well as tea, and buckwheat cakes, with plenty of butter, chicken, eggs, honey +c. But better still, the associations and feelings of the last four years were interrupted. I almost forgot the war and all its travails, and awoke this morning strangely refreshed and cheerful. I came back with a load of pumpkins for the cow. Va will return to- morrow, by church time. Early is certainly moving down the Valley after the Yankees. Intelligence from the Presidential election in the United States indicates the success of Lincoln. If this is the result, by a decided popular majority, at least four years more of war are ahead of us. How can we endure it! Our soldiers must become discouraged by the prospect, after all they have endured. I should say that Lincoln's election by a small and doubtful majority would be the most favorable result for us, as likely to give rise to popular or party discontent and tumult in the North.

Monday night, Nov. 14.

We heard yesterday that a cavalry fight had taken place down the Valley, and the enemy driven through Winchester. At night it was said our army was at Winchester. This morning it was reported that a corps of Sheridan's army had gone into Pennsylvania to quell popular outbreaks. This afternoon we heard that Early was back again at New Market, the want of subsistence, it is presumed, having brought him back. I understand that the Richmond papers of this morning, received to-night, say again, as they have been saying for nearly a week past that Lyncoln was undoubtedly elected; but so far there has been no definite or reliable information as to the votes of the different States. Northern papers have not been permitted to come through the lines as heretofore. A letter from the Valley says that a Northern paper arrived in our army admits the election of McClelland — the Richmond papers of to-day say that the N. Y. Herald claims the election of Lincoln. Reported that riots have occurred in various places North — "the wish is father to the thought" probably.

Tuesday night, Nov. 15.

No longer a doubt as to the election of Lincoln. — Thus the Northern people have declared in favor of prosecuting the war, even to our extermination. — Lincoln has called for a million of men! — probably for "Buncombe." Seward announced in a public speech the night before the election, that the re-election of Lincoln would discourage the South and cause us to give up; the call for a million of men is doubtless intended to strike additional terror into our hearts. A rumor that Sherman has burnt Atlanta and is marching upon Charleston. Forrest has been destroying a large number of Yankee transports, gunboats +c on the Tennessee river — but cui bono? This evening I rode up to my wood land to see how much wood Jim had cut — Mr. Tate's Thornton is hauling for me. The Artillery company camped on my land have destroyed a considerable amount of timber, and I fear will leave very little for me. I hoped to get a little corn from the patch I had cultivated, but from my examination of the shucks, neither corn nor fodder is worth sending for. Va bought a pound of brown sugar to- day, for $12 — cheaper than some time ago. Just about four years ago I began this journal — when I get through this book, I shall have no more paper — and no heart to enter upon another campaign of four years.

Wednesday night, Nov. 16.

This day was observed as a day of prayer, by recommendation of President Davis. The service this morning in our church was informal, and a prayer-meeting, remarkably well attended, was held in the afternoon. I feel revived and encouraged — If God has given us a spirit of prayer, will He not answer our prayers? We read in the Bible again and again of His interfering in bhalf of those who sought His assistance and He is the same God, still mighty in power and full of mercy. We are utterly undeserving of His favor, it is true; but they were sinful men who prevailed with Him of old — "Elias was a man subject to like passions as we are" — And we have a great High Priest who has made our atonement and intercedes for us. God may not answer as exactly as we now desire, but if he bless us we shall be satisfied. Notwithstanding all we have suffered, and all we apprehend in the future, we have great cause for thankfulness — We thank Him for turning so many of our people to Himself, and giving us so many God- fearing rulers and soldiers. He said to the children of Israel: "I bare you on eagles' wings, and brought you unto myself." May this be the end of His dealings with us! Show us wherefore Thou contendest with us! — If for any special sin, reveal it to us, and cause us to repent of it and forsake it! Alas! alas! how much of my time do I spend in practical infidelity — as if there were no God governing the minutest affairs, but accident or men or Satan ruled the universe.

Capt Smith has been quite ill for several days — Va went with me to see him to-night.

Friday night, Nov. 18.

Capt. Smith is still very sick. I have not seen him to-day, as I have been unwell myself this afternoon, and company is injurious to him. Kershaw's Division has left the Valley, having marched from New Market to Waynesboro; where the men took the Railroad cars. We have had no mail since night before last, in consequence of the movement of troops. We are not advised as to their destination. Some anxiety is felt in regard to affairs in the South. The Federal army under Thomas has been largely reinforced from Missouri, and Hood may now be held in check by Thomas while Sherman does as he pleases. Our troops under Price and others West of the Mississippi, have no enemy to detain them there, but cannot cross the river to our assistance. A rumor to-day of another reverse to our cavalry in Page Valley. — It is said the Federal government has annexed Jefferson county to their State of "West Virginia," + changed its name to Washington. Frederick, it is thought, will be added on also, and called Lincoln!

Saturday night, Nov. 19

The Railroad train came in to-night. The only news is that Sherman has really cut loose from Atlanta, and is moving South. No intelligence from Hood.

Thursday night, Nov. 24.

Very cold weather for several days. Have been trying to get in some wood, but expect to let Mr. Stuart have a load to- morrow, as Legh's wagon has broken down. So far as intelligence can be gotten Sherman is moving down into Georgia, burning towns +c, as he goes. — We have some forces in that quarter, and they have had some encounter with the enemy; but we can get no particulars. A cavalry fight occurred near New Market several days ago, + the enemy was repulsed. A large portion of Early's army is in this county.

Tuesday night, Nov. 29

The newspapers give us no intelligence from Georgia, because, I presume, the enemy would get information in regard to Sherman in that manner. Rumors are encouraging for our side, but vague and uncertain. Among the crowd of soldiers — a hundred or more — who went down the Valley to the army, on yesterday, several were barefooted — A few mornings ago I met some eight or ten men on their way down — nearly all were lame and several were on crutches! They said the object in sending them to the army was to "retire" them, but to require such men to walk forty-five miles for any purpose is an outrage and shows very bad management [illeg.]. I have been quite unwell since yesterday morn.

December 1864

Saturday night, December 3.

Roper has been to New Creek, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and captured the places. It was an important post for the Federalists, and has never before been occupied by our forces. He took between 600 and 700 prisoners, many horses and wagons, +c +c. Destroyed a quantity of ammunition. He did not attempt to hold the place.

Sherman seems to be at a stand-still in Georgia. We have no force there adequate to meet him in battle, but he seems to be surrounded by small bodies which embarrass his movements. Hood has arrived near Nashville, when last heard from. A deputation has arrived in Washington from England, bearing a petition or memorial to the President of the Untied States, signed by more than 300,000 persons, asking for a suspension of hostilities. Seward refused to receive them officially, and they were waiting to present the paper to Congress.

Tuesday night, Dec. 6 1864,

The Richmond papers say some important movements are going on below the city by Grant's troops. At last accounts, Hood was near Nashville, Thomas being drawn up in line of battle to oppose him. Nothing definite from Ga. The prisoners captured by Roper arrived yesterday — nearly six hundred. Judge Thompson has discharged upon habeas corpus a number of "detailed farmers."

Wednesday night, Dec. 7.

Two divisions of Early's corps are on their way to Richmond, having reached Waynesboro this evening where they take the cars. Seven trains came up to-day. A great fight is expected at Richmond in a day or two. Miss Caroline Hall is to be married to-morrow morning. We are invited, a good deal of excitement about it — that is flurry and interest.

Friday night, Dec. 9.

Very cold weather — A snow storm began this evening and still continues. No train from Richmond for several days. As far as we can learn the anticipated great battle has not commenced yet. The snow storm will arrest all movements. Capt. Smith has not been at the office for more than four weeks, and the care of the business has devolved upon me.

Wednesday night, December 14.

No news of interest for several days past. Longstreet made a movement towards the enemy, blow Richmond, last week, which, however, had no important results. Sherman has reached the vicinity of Savannah, and a battle is expected. Nothy from Hood, who is near Nashville. — Early's artillery is to winter about Fishersville. A young soldier from Wetumpka, Ala, was here yesterday. He says when our army was in Pennsylvania, the children ran after them begging for "rebel buttons." Ose Kyle is still a prisoner at Johnson's Island — very anxious to be released — poor fellow! Capt Smith has not been at the office for five weeks. I have charge of the business, pretty much.

The four pigs I put up last year did so badly from want of food during the summer, that I sent three of them to Mr. Tate's, to try country air and country fare. Wright killed the smallest to-day, and though more than a year old it was ridiculously small. After supper, I brought into the dining room for Va to see, and hung it up to the mantelpiece — Wright went to get it to put it in the meat house and was greatly perplexed when he found it was gone. He felt sure some one had stolen it, and was no doubt greatly relieved when he looked and saw it hanging up in the room.

Thursday night, Dec. 15.

Rodes Division is passing through town, to Richmond — A Brigade is now passing. The Railroad trains will take them off during the night as rapidly as possible. Another Brigade passes just at dusk. I felt unusually anxious to do something for them, and as we had nothing else in the house, I took them some apples. The weather is bleak, and altogether my sympathies for the soldiers have been greatly excited. The men, however, shout as if they were in good spirits. — All of Early's Artillery is coming to muster near Fishersville — a portion passed through town to-day. I met Judge Thompson this evening, and had a talk with him. He was greatly cast down. Said that Sherman had probably taken Savannah by this time, that Hardie had only 8000 men to oppose him, and there was danger of his being captured. The Judge had had a conversation with Gen. Fauntleroy, who said we had not seen the worst yet, and our only alternative was subjugation or death. Most of the Yankee infantry have left the Valley. Judge T. thinks Sherman will now move upon Richmond, which must soon fall. After Supper to-night Capt. Jimmy Smith (whose father once lived in this house) and Lt. Jimmy Smith, of Wetumpka, Ala., both of Brig. Gen. Battle's staff, called up. — Va, Kitty and Matty were at the Seminary, I am very sorry that I had nothy but some apples to give them. The latter took dinner here. — Weather very cold and cloudy to-day — streets icy. I was very busy from breakfast till near dark.

25 mins past 11 o'clock. — Hearing military musick, I went to the door — Another Brigade was passing down the street to the Railroad. The moon shining on the snow. The men noisy as usual - - poor fellows! Early is leaving the Valley with all his infantry.

Friday night, December 16. —

Two more young soldiers from Wetumpka, Ala., came up this morning, to breakfast. I felt glad to see them. — One of them, the young man who was here the evening of 24th Sept. I was very busy again to day, from breakfast time till half past 4 P.M. continuously. When I came home near dark, found Miss Matty Gilkeson, here — by the way, I brought Maria Cook and Mary Stuart up with me: Maria is teaching in the Wesleyan Institute. Afterwards Miss M. J. Baldwin and the two Miss Howards came, and finally Augusta Stuart. I expected the Miss Howards and Maria, but not the others. Tate came in also. Martha (of Waynesboro) arrived to-day from Westview. We had quite a merry evening.

An officer lately released from Point Lookout, says the prisoners were allowed to walk about, or at least go to talk on the beach. On one occasion, two men going out for that purpose, were hailed by a negro sentinel: — "Where you going?" "We are going to take a walk," said one, while the other replied: "We are only going to promenade." "Dar now," said the negro, "you done told me two stories about it arrady!"

Saturday night, December 17. —

Wharton's Division passed through town this evening, going towards Fishersville, where they will be located for the winter — perhaps. Roper's cavalry also passed through, going towards Buffalo Gap. Reported to-day that the enemy has captured the Salt Works, in S. W. Va. Cliff Gordon and Mae McClung here to- day — the former here now. "Betsy Bell" is the signal station next to town, and Legh has been there for many months past, with nothing to do. At last, however, he has had dispatches from Highland. A party of the enemy is at Hightown.

Monday night, December 19,

Reported yesterday that Sherman had reached the coast of Georgia, and had taken Fort McAllister by storm. Savannah must go next. Gen. Hood's official report of the battle of Franklin, Tennessee, shows a long list of General officers killed. Uncertain whether the enemy had destroyed the Salt Works or not. — I heard to-night that President Davis was very ill. Had been very much worried to- day, trying to set the Gas Works going once more. Two Irishmen demanded $500 each a month as laborers. We have very little rosin secured, and my judgment is adverse to attempting to make gas under existing circumstances, but I was ordered by the other Directors.

Tuesday night, Dec. 20.

I suffered a good deal all day with my head. Was very busy, however, till I left the office about 3 o'clock. Capt. Smith being still confined to his house, the business is devolved upon me. Quartermasters and Commissaries passing upon me, one after another, and every now and then a call in reference to the Gas Works. I finally had to write a note to the other Directors declining any further attention to the business. About eleven o'clock the troops began to pass through town again, and I then learned that the enemy was advancing up the Valley. The infantry passed through from Fishersville, and the cavalry from the West. — The girls (Kitty + Nanny) are greatly disappointed, as they expected beaux from both quarters for their school entertainment, which will come off to-morrow night. Another battle in Tennessee — near Nashville. Northern accounts say that Hood was routed. We fear it is so — things look very dark for us.

Thursday night, Dec. 22.

Various reports yesterday in regard to the Yankees who were coming up the Valley. They came within a few miles of Harrisonburg, and all accounts concurred that they advanced no further. One report stated that they had gone back, another, that they had crossed the Blue Ridge; and a third that the advance towards Harrisonburg was to cover the movement of a larger party across the mountain. Refugees from Harrisonburg, however, were preparing yesterday evening to return home. — This morning, I learned that Roper had a little fight yesterday below Harrisonburg, and captured forty of the enemy. This evening the cavalry returned. — They said the Yankees had gone off. We have no recent intelligence from Tennessee and Savannah. Every body feels that our affairs are in a very poor way. An attack on Wilmington threatened.

Friday night December, 23.

I heard last night that a Brigade of the enemy was surprised early Wednesday morning, in their camp, below Harrisonburg, and wagons captured; but afterwards retaken. — We brought off a Colonel and thirty-two men. Early this morning the cavalry entered town again, having been aroused at 3 o'clock, in consequence of movements of the enemy East of the Ridge. The men were chilled and hungry — four came to our house before I was up, to warm and get breakfast. Others called during the morning. Poor fellows! The weather is bitter cold, the ground covered with snow, and the roads slippery. How can men stand such hardships! No wonder that they are disheartened, as it is reported they are. There is a rumor that the 5th Regiment Infantry is under arrest, having refused to go to Georgia. Northern papers continue to give glowing accounts of their victory over Hood — they say that Forrest was killed. No advices from our side, but our people are prepared to believe anything. The feeling of depression is deep and general — It seems to me impossible for us to stand out much longer. Our servants have a party to- night — Va + Kate have their catalles set out in the dining room. It is a long while since I saw such an array of cakes. Kitty, Nanny and Matty have gone to a party at Mr. A. H. H. Stuart's. It is a melancholy time except for children + servants.

Sunday night, December 25.

A sad, dreary day — The train due from Richmond last night, did not arrive till this morning. — Savannah has been evacuated by our troops. The Salt Works, in S. W. Va., it is rumored, have fallen into the hands of the enemy. Northern papers continue to give glowing accounts of Thomas' victory over Hood, at Nashville. They say we lost 60 cannon and 15,000 men captured by Thomas, and that Hood's army is completely scattered. No reports yet from our side, or at least our authorities have divulged no dispatches received by them. Our affairs to look rather desperate. Some persons are hoping again that the U. S. will get into trouble with England — I do not expect it. Nothing but darkness all around the horizon — Light comes only from above. God reigns! Oh, "Show us wherefore thou contendest with us." Four soldiers called to-day and got dinner, while their horses were at the blacksmith's shop. Mr. Stuart has returned from Prince Edward. He says troops were going South by the Danville Railroad, and that one night, eight or nine men froze to death on the top of the cars. Gold has been up to 50 in Richmond — that is $50 Confederate Treasury notes brings only $1 of gold.

Monday night, Dec. 26.

Never, during the war, have I seen so deep a feeling of despondency as to-day. Most persons whom I met during the day, seemed to consider our affairs in a hopeless condition. The fate of the Salt Works is still unknown — one report that the works were certainly destroyed, another that they were partially destroyed, and a third that they were not destroyed at all.

We have certainly fought too many battles — It is absurd for us to attempt to whip the North by main force. We should never fight except when there is a certainty of success — Let the enemy take the towns — they cannot hold them all; and so long as we maintain our armies, frequent opportunities will be afforded of striking effective blows. The army and the people would be far less discouraged by the policy of retreating before superior forces, than by the insane course which has been pursued of fighting at every point at great disadvantage, and having our armies routed and destroyed. Frederick the Great and Napoleon concentrated their forces, and always brought superior numbers to bear upon the enemy when they fought — Gen. Hood sends off a part of his army, + retained the other part to be assailed by Thomas.

Wednesday night, December 28.

In 1774, when, by an act of the British Parliament, the people of Boston were thrown out of employment on account of their devotion to the cause of liberty; and the whole country was contributory to their relief, Augusta county sent them one hundred and thirty-seven barrels of flour (See Bancroft vol 7 - p 74) How does Boston repay us now? — This evening I called at Sister's on my return home — Lelia came in and threw herself on the floor, cast off her shoes, one of them falling almost in the fire. Observing that the shoe was wet and muddy, I asked her what she had been doing. She replied — "Doing my night's work." Dear child! She brings in wood and water, and does all sorts of drudgery. She then turned her face up to me and said — "Uncle Addy, could you get me a piece of black paper?" I told her that I could not, and asked her what she wanted with it. To put her paper lady in black, she said. "Why," said one of the family, "is her husband dead already?" "No," said Lelia, "but she has lost about a hundred children." "But Lee," said Net, "She has only married to-day." "Oh!" replied Lee, "She has been married four times."

Saturday night, Dec. 31.

The last night of a dreary year, full of wretchedness! An attack was made upon Wilmington a few days ago, but the enemy were driven off, or went off. No other war news. How our army is to subsist during the Winter, I do not know. Forage is very scarce, and horses are dying in large numbers. The Richmond Enquirer and the Sentinel, which we believed to take their cue from the "powers that be," advocate emancipation with a view to securing the aid of England and France. I should rejoice if there were no slaves on the continent — I have ever abhorred the institution — but what is to become of the poor negro? Weather very inclement — has been for more than a month. No hope for the year about to begin.


January 1865

Sunday night, January 1. —

A report that advises (official) have at last been received in Richmond from Gen. Hood, and that affairs are not near so bad with him as represented by the Northern papers. The weather has been bracing to-day, but not as intensively cold as we have had lately. About two o'clock I took a book and went to the church, where I sat by a stove reading till the afternoon service began, at half past three. Altogether the day was passed more cheerfully than usual.

Monday night, January 2. —

A rumor to-day that Hood had defeated Thomas, killing three thousand and capturing six thousand of the enemy. Most person concluded that it was too good to be true. Then a report came that Hood had been defeated again. This was considered probable. The Richmond Whig, of Saturday evening, it is said, mentioned the former rumor.

The Yankee fleet lately engaged in the assault upon Wilmington, is said to have suffered heavily from one or more storms at sea.

Saturday night, January 7.

Nothing new and interesting for some days past. We hear no more of Gen. Hood's recently reported successes in North Alabama. The Yankees are making the most of their occupation of Savannah. They are the people who understand how to get up sensations. A dinner provided by the citizens, was issued to- day to the troop, quartered in the county. Very little was contributed by the people in the neighborhood of the infantry encampment. The soldiers have been trimming their fence rails +c +c +c. Last summer a soldier belonging to Roper's command, sold a horse in town, and afterwards deserted. The Rev. Mr. Campbell finally purchased the horse, and has held him for some months. Recently another of Roper's men claimed the horse, and as Mr. C. declined to give him up, the General sent in and had the stable broken open and the horse carried off. There will be no punishment for such a lawless act.

Sunday night, January 8.

Lelia Stuart is somewhat unwell and Kate found her this morning lying up with one of her mother's night-caps on, trying to play sick and looking very quizzically. I went down to see her after dark. When I returned home, before I entered the sitting room, I discovered a man on a chair before the fire. Kate met me at the door and I asked who it was; she replied "a soldier." It was Jimmy Tate, who had come home on a furlough of fifteen days. Of course there was great rejoicing. Jimmy Frazier is here also, having come in last night.

Thursday night, January 12.

For some weeks past we have been eating only two meals a day, the second one at 4 or 5 o'clock in the afternoon. Wednesdays and Fridays we have it at 5 because the weekly lecture and prayer meeting are not over before that hour. It is a convenient arrangement on several accounts. Having no sugar, coffee and tea as formerly, we cannot afford supper, and do not need it after a late dinner. Secondly, it suits me and the school girls. I remain at the office till 4 o'clock, and then stop work for the day. The shifts we are driven to these times to get along are sometimes amusing. The State sells salt to citizens at less price than the market affords, and I have secured all I am entitled to as the best investment for Confederate money. Some time ago the article was distributed to the people of the town at the rate of 25 pounds to each person, and I have obtained 275 lbs, our family consisting of eleven members. Another distribution has been made, and to-day I secured 220 lbs more. We had some on hand previously, and after salting our beef and pork, have now about 400 lbs which we propose trading hereafter for other necessaries of life. Farmers and graziers cannot obtain a sufficient quantity from county and town authorities to meet their wants. I have paid 30 cts per pound — the market price is 75 to 80 cts. During the last two years, Va has purchased only one dress. It has distressed me much that she has not been able to procure more. Perhaps the salt may be available for this purpose. A dress which formerly cost $10 to $15, now costs $400 to $500 — that is, my pay for four or five months. I have engaged six barrels of flour, for which I am to execute my bond, amounting to $66, payable "after the war" — Two of these will go to repay two borrowed by us last Summer, one of them I expect to let Aunt Sally have. __________ After dinner this evening I went down to Sister's — She and Mr. Stuart were at Mr. Baker's. Mary and the younger children were at home. The latter had just returned from a juvenile party. Net, and perhaps Lelia, had been invited to another to-morrow night, and Jinny seemed to think it a hard case that she had been passed over. Lelia was full of life, as usual, She has no musical talent, but nevertheless sought to entertain me by singing. She attempted the Sunday School hymn, "Oh! I would be an angel," without being able to hit the tune; and then, not in the least discouraged, proposed to try "The frog he thought he'd take a ride," in which she had no better success. I called at Alick's, and had Addy's account of the party also — Mary had gone to bed. _____ Jimmy Tate complains of home as very dull. Alas! alas! There is nothing cheering in this world for us to look forward to. Everybody depressed. I hardly ever look into a newspaper. Cant afford to subscribe for one, and they are filled with everything that is depressing — Their attempts to encourage the people only prove that a feeling of discouragement prevails. Parents whose boys are approaching military age (17) are generally suffering great anxiety. Jimmy Frazier expects to start home to-morrow.

Monday night, January 16.

Roper, with a portion of his command made an expedition to Beverly recently and captured the place, with six or seven hundred Yankee soldiers. The prisoners were expected at Swoope's Depot this evening. There is much talk about peace negotiations. F. P. Blair, Sr., has come from Washington to Richmond and had one or more interviews with President Davis. He left Richmond on Saturday, and by that time a General Singleton, of Illinois, had arrived. There are various speculations on the subject of these visits, but the public are not advised as to the object. Northern papers also have much to say in regard to peace projects both at Washington and Richmond. They say that our Congress has appointed a committee to proceed to Washington to negotiate and intimate that we are ready to give up. For some time past it has been rumored that many "original secessionists" were in favor of "re-construction" — that is going back into the Union with the view of saving the institution of slavery. I greatly prefer independence without slavery, to submission with it, and would be glad enough to get rid of it if I could see any way of disposing of the negroes, without giving them up to barbarism or annihilation. It is rumored, on what authority I know not, that France and England have notified Lincoln of their intention to interfere in bhalf of the Confederacy, upon our agreeing to [deleted: gradual] emancipation + to take effect sixty years hence — agreed! Gen. Foote the obstreporous member of Congress from Tennessee, was arrested a few days ago, near Fredericksburg, while trying to make his way to the North. He said he was going to try and make peace! The President referred the matter to the House of Representatives. In the mean while another assault on Wilmington is in progress. The infamous Butler, it is reported, has been sent home by his employers at Washington.

Wednesday night, January 18.

The first thing I heard this morning, while I was getting out of bed, was that Fort Fisher had been captured by the enemy. Thus Wilmington is at last closed to foreign commerce, even if it should not be captured. "Bad news," was on the lips of everybody. Some say that gold is over a hundred in Richmond (that is that one dollar in gold brings more than a hundred in Confederate Treasury notes), while others say it has fallen to thirty or forty, in consequence of the closing of our last port — no need for gold now to send abroad. The prices of all imported articles has gone up. Pins sell in town at $12 a paper, and needles at $10 — Flour in Richmond at $1000 a barrel!! Confederate currency is almost gone. Jimmy Tate has to return to the army on Monday next — Poor fellow! he bears up bravely. Many persons since ready to go back into the Union. I would rather lose slavery and everything and become a serf to Russia. Weather very cold. There are rumors of perilous dissensions in Congress, in recent session.

Later. — We heard a vehicle dash by with fearful speed, and all of us rushed to the front porch. It was so dark we could not see, but we heard voices on the McAdamized, or Augusta, Street, Jimmy + I hurried down. James Skinner was starting to a wedding in a one horse wagon, driven by an old negro man, and the horse ran off and pitched them out against a plank fence. The old man was lying on the ground, while Jim was groping about. Neither of them as it turned out, was seriously injured

Friday night, January 20.

Many persons were encouraging themselves to- day, with reports about foreign intervention. Northern papers have published versions of the sort, and this morning it was stated that letters had been received from Richmond saying that England had acknowledged our independence, +c +c. There was no foundation for the reports, but still quite a hopeful feeling prevailed. The philosophy of Don Quixote is the only source of consolation or hope, so far as I can see. After he had suffered a series of disasters on one occasion, he thus discoursed to Sancho: "All these storms that fall upon us, are signs that the weather will clear up, and things will go smoothly; for it is impossible that either evil or good should be durable: and hence it follows, that the evil having lasted long, the good cannot be far off."

The prisoners captured by Roper at Beverly, went sent off by Railroad to-day. They have suffered greatly from cold and hunger. Several of them died on the way to Staunton, and others will probably not survive long. After the train started, I saw one of the prisoners lying on the pavement at the corner of the Court- house yard. A crowd was around him, some of whom said the man was dying. He was taken to the Hospital. All of the prisoners [deleted: were] are from Ohio. It is said that one of them boasted that he had been in many of the houses about here, and that his rule was to take whatever he found.

Sunday night, January 22.

Jimmy Tate left this morning for the army blow Richmond. He did not seem cast down, as I should have been. Yesterday was a day of sleet and rain, and this morning the trees had a thicker coating of ice than I ever saw before. Some trees were bowed down to the ground, and many branches were broken. Thawing all day, and the branches, relieved of their burden, are standing up nearly as before. Notwithstanding the inclement weather, there was quite a dining party at Alick's yesterday — Mr. + Mrs. Baker, Mr. + Mrs. J. H. Woods, Mr. Stuart + sister, Va, Kate + myself, another Wm. Gallaher. The dinner was remarkably good — considering. — Poor Jimmy! I cant forget him long. I have had a correspondence with John Hendren, who still wishes me to go into the Treasury Department in Richmond. I have declined for the present.

Monday night, January 23.

F. P. Blair has returned to Richmond. Northern papers lately reported him as in close conference with Lincoln. Of course, every body surmises that some peace negotiation is on foot. All of the Virginia delegation in Congress, with one exception, have requested the resignation of the Cabinet, excepting [illeg.] of Treasury Department. Seddon, Sec. of War, has already resigned. Both houses of Congress have requested the restoration of Gen. J. E. Johnston to command of the army of Tennessee. They have also passed a bill for the appointment of a "General-in-Chief."

Thursday night, January 26.

Gen. Smith, of the Military Institute, came up from Richmond last night, full of reports. A gentleman on the train yesterday, was telling that Blair had dinner with him, and expressed the belief that the war would be over by April. Blair said he reported to Lincoln after his first visit to Richmond, that he must either acknowledge the independence of the Confederacy, or exterminate the people — that there was no hope of peace — with the South on any other terms. — It was presumed that Lincoln was anxious to bring this war to an end, on account of the threatened interference of foreign powers, England. Gen. Smith said, had now thirty-odd vessels of [illeg.] on the coast of California, and had ordered every man in her military and naval service to report for duty. It was reported in Richmond, on Tuesday, that an armistice had been concluded. Gold was falling rapidly notwithstanding these rumors, it is evident that many of our people are ready to give up — especially the original secessionists. Weather extremely cold.

Saturday night, January 28,

Nothing new in regard to the peace rumors. The weather still intensely cold.

Monday night, January 30.

Yesterday morning, at church, I heard that a dispatch was received the night before, stating that Vice President Stephens, Senator Hunter and Judge Campbell had gone to Washington as peace commissioners. The report was confirmed by passengers from Richmond, last night. Most persons to-day gave way to the most delightful anticipations of peace. I felt afraid to hope for such a result, but nevertheless could not but think that we had gained a great point, as Lincoln had at last agreed to receive Commissioners from our government. The papers received to-night state, however, that the gentlemen named (who started yesterday) have not gone as formal commissioners but as private citizens. I therefore see no use in their going. A part of Thomas' army has passed Harper's Ferry; it is said, going towards Washington. Estill Waddell is here to-night. He came home on furlough. Weather less cold. Yesterday and to-day comparatively very pleasant.

Tuesday night, January 31.

Our "peace Commissioners" were detained at Petersburg yesterday, owing to some difficulty in getting through Grant's lines. Whether they are permitted to go on or not, I am persuaded that Lincoln has no idea of making peace with us, except upon condition of our returning to the Union, and that this whole matter is a Yankee trick. President Davis is probably not deceived by it, but has some object to accomplish by giving in to it. The Washington Congress has passed resolutions for sending a minister to "the Republic of Mexico," whereupon, it is reported, the French minister demanded his passport. Hope it's so. Sherman is marching upon Charleston and Augusta. Gen. Early has had his head-quarters in town for some time past, and Fitzhugh Lee moved up from Waynesboro a few days ago. The latter, with his staff, occupies the old Cease house in our part of the town, the former has his flag planted at the gate leading to my office, which his adjutant occupies. The many army wagons about town have been assisting the citizens to fill their ice houses.

February 1865

Thursday night, February 2.

John Graham called to-night. He is going home on a brief furlough. The peace commissioners have at last passed through Grant's lines, on their way to Washington. The whole business seems to me a mere pretence. Gen. Lee has been made Commander-in-Chief. It is said he is looking for an attack in a few days. A large part of Thomas' army has come round from Tennessee and joined Grant. The Senate has passed a bill abolishing the offices of all past Quartermasters and Commissioners who are under 45 years of age and not disabled or unfit for field service, and prohibiting the detail of persons in those departments who do not come within the exceptions. Last night I called to see Daniel Wilson, an old College acquaintance, who is a member of the Military Court now sitting here. Met Gen. Early for the first time. Did not like him.

Friday night, February 3.

The Richmond papers received to-night bring no extracts from late Northern papers. Seward said, in an address recently delivered in Washington city, that he was waiting for the submission of the rebels, which was bound to follow their military reverses. No sign of peace at the North. Yet three of our first citizens have gone to Washington to talk about it. I am more and more satisfied that it is a farce. President Davis and the three gentlemen (not Commissioners) have doubtless some object in view — I cannot think that they anticipate peace. But if it should come, how would every heart thrill with joy! Alick and I bought twelve pounds of sugar to-day, thinking we had a great bargain — it was only $16 a pound. When we came to divide it, there was a little over ten pounds. The seller or servant who brought it home cheated us out of two. So we might as well as have bought it from a store. My five pounds cost me $96.

Saturday night, February 4

We had quite a dining to-day. I invited Col (or Judge) Wilson, his colleague, Col. Lee, and Capt. Smith, and Tate brought Capt. Bayly. While we were at dinner Gen. Lilly and a young Lt. Meade, of somebody's staff, called. I have heard no war news to-day. Sherman, I fear, is having his own way in Georgia and South Carolina.

Monday night, February 6,

It was reported to-day that our Commissioners had returned to Richmond after an interview with Seward at Fortress Monroe. One passenger by the train last night brought this report; others had not heard it in Richmond. I have doubted the truth of it, especially as I think Seward will be smart enough to detain the Commissioners, Committee, or whatever the three gentlemen are. Va and I walked out to Wm. P. Tate's to-night, + sat about two hours.

Tuesday night, February 7.

It is true that our Commissioners have returned to Richmond. The newspapers say that they were not permitted to land at Fortress Monroe, but Lincoln and Seward met them on the boat. The "rebels" were informed that they could have peace by laying down their arms and coming back into the Union as it is. These terms were not but talk, and the conference terminated. Lincoln, it is said, asserted that Blair had gone to Richmond without his authority, which might be false. It is inevitable that he would or could have come to Richmond, and after interviews with President Davis, gone back to Washington, and had long private conferences with Lincoln (as Northern papers say he did) and then returned to Richmond to hold further communication with our authorities, unless Lincoln had, at least, authorized his movements. Rumored that foreign powers have notified Lincoln that after the 4th March they will recognise him as President only so far as his jurisdiction extends, and that to the same extent they will recognise the Confederate States. An attack from Grant is expected.

Wednesday night, February 8.

We learned this morning by telegraph that some fighting had occurred near Petersburg. The enemy advanced and Pegram's and Evans' Divisions were driven before them, but Mahone's Division came up, and drove the Yankees back to their fortifications. Our loss was small. Gen Pegram was killed. He was married two weeks ago. A snow storm all day yesterday and no RR train last night. A train come in to-night, however, but I have not heard the news brought by it.

Thursday night, February 9.

Two [deleted: men] soldiers, convicted by Court Martial of desertion and robbery, were shot to-day, at 2 o'clock, near town. Their sentence was not read to them till this morning. Early refused to give them any more time. He said in my presence last week that it deprived the punishment of most of its terrors to give men time to repent! The sentiment was devilish, but I had no idea he would act upon it. How horrible is war! Two more men are to be shot in the camp near Fishersville. Charleston is to be evacuated — so it is said.

Tuesday night, February 14.

Another very cold spell. The mercury below zero last night. Much milder now, but a prospect of snow. There was great rejoicing to-day over a report that Beauregard had gained a victory over Sherman, but alas! no such dispatch has been received in Richmond. So far as we know Sherman is carrying everything before him in South Carolina. Gen. Lee urges putting negroes in the army, with the promise of freedom to those who serve. The measure seems to me a concession of despair. — It has been under consideration in Congress and the Legislature. The negroes have heard of it, and are greatly troubled. They will doubtless stampede in large numbers on the first opportunity.

Saturday night, February 18.

News to night that Columbia and probably Charleston have been evacuated by our troops. — It has been supposed that Beauregard had a sufficient force to arrest Sherman's progress. The exchange of prisoners is again in progress. — Last night Kitty had a party at her father's — a very large company. Early and his staff were there — He is a very [illeg.] man, and behaves in company like a great awkward boy. Snowing all day [illeg.] till after dark.

Monday night, February 20.

The report of the occupation of Columbia by Sherman is confirmed. The evaculation of Charleston is a matter of course. We seem to have lost a large amount of valuable property at the former place. We have no power to withstand the great multitude which has come against us. Our cause seems nearly hopeless. Gen. Lee not only urges that negroes shall be employed as soldiers, but that a general system of emancipation be inaugurated. The Yankees, he says, are doing both, and we must make a virtue of necessity. As these pages attest I have always believed that the war would bring about the overthrow of slavery. [deleted: as our institutions.] I never regarded the institution as a desirable one, and would have been glad to see it abolished everywhere, but for humane considerations, having reference more to the black than the white race. If emancipation could not be effected safely in peaceful terms, how can it be accomplished in times like these! I shudder at the prospect. We have fallen upon awful times. But God reigns, "Neither know we what to do, but our eyes are upon thee."83

Thursday night, February 23,

Nothing new in the situation of military affairs. Rev. R. H. Phillips, a L. M., who was captured by the enemy on the 11th of June last, in Nelson Co. got home last night, having been exchanged. He has been confined at Camp Chase, Ohio. When I parted from him at Hubbard's, on the 8th of June, I promised to call and see Mrs. Phillips and give her the news about him. I reached home Sunday evening, the 12th, and heard next morning, before I was out of bed, that the party left at Hubbard's had been captured. Lou Campbell came up yesterday afternoon to make a visit, and has been detained there since the rain. A man just from Winchester reports that the Yankees at that place are in half rations and much discouraged. He expected to find the people on this side of the line, cheerful and was surprised to find us discouraged and depressed.

Friday night, February 24.

Gen. Cook entered Staunton this afternoon under very different circumstances from his visit of June last. A party of McNeil's went into Cumberland, Md., a few nights ago disguised as Yankee soldiers, telling the pickets they had important business with Gen. Crook. — They inquired for his lodgings and a servant showed them to his room in the Hotel; where they captured Gens. Crook and Kelley, an adjutant, and his private soldiers. Notwithstanding this there were two regiments in town, the affair was conducted so recently that the party had left the town far behind them, on their return, before pursuit was begun. Then it was too late to overtake them, and all the prisoners were brought off. It is rumored that Early will be ordered to Richmond in a few days. Sheridan, according to report, is operating against Richmond; by way of Fredericksburg.

Monday night, February 27.

The Richmond papers have been requested to say nothing about military affairs in Carolina, and are consequently silent. There was a rumor yesterday of a battle in which Beauregard was mortally wounded, but it is disbelieved. We have no intelligence. A battle, however, is expected and may take place any day. Some public stores have been removed from Richmond to Lynchburg. Rumors of a large force assembling at Winchester, to move this way. Every body feels that we are in the crisis of our fate. Much speechifying in the Courthouse to-day and in answer to an appeal from Richmond. A large amount of flour and bacon was contributed for the sustenance of the army; In addition many persons contributed Confederate States Bonds, several as much as $10,000 cash. J. R. Tucker spoke, and several of our citizens. The Government is now paying $400 per barrel for flour — I have no idea what individuals have to pay for it, if it can be bought for currency. Kate gave ($800) eight hundred dollars a few days ago for an alpaca84 dress!

Tuesday 2 o'clock P.M. February 28.

We were startled this morning by an order from Gen. Early to pack up. The enemy in large force were coming up the Valley, and had arrived at Mt. Jackson. Immediately all was bustle. Later in the day it was said the enemy had reached New Market, and that communication with Harrisonburg, by telegraph, had ceased. We have no further orders. I presume that Early is mustering the troops he has in this region. A man suspected as a spy was arrested this morning. This is a beautiful Spring-like day, the first of the kind we have had for many months. Oh God help and deliver us!

Eleven o'clock at night — It turned out that the enemy had not advanced as far as reported this morning. - - Everything is in doubt. Capt. Smith wrote to me to-night proposing that we go to Lynchburg by R.R. to-morrow with the papers. I felt strongly opposed to starting till it proved necessary for us to go, and dont like that destination — so wrote to him. Have felt uncomfortable since. Later — A note from Capt. S. saying the enemy was at or near Harrisonburg. I promise to meet him at the Depot in the morning.

See long Blank Book page 15

March 1863

Tuesday March 14.

I returned from my Fourth Hegira yesterday. On Wednesday morning, the 1st inst., I took leave of Virginia, having very little expectation that I should actually have to go from home, but all hands were at the office prepared to start, and we went off on the first Railroad train. The town was unusually quiet for such a time, and I was entirely free from the anxiety and depression which I had always felt before. The train was, of course, much crowded. Our immediate party consisted of Smith (Capt O) A. J. Gilkeson, myself and a servant- man. J. H. Blackley and J. J. Points, who were going to Lynchburg with official papers, joined us, and afterwards formed a mess with us. [deleted: We were detained] Many other persons from Staunton — Bank officers and others — were also in the train. We were detained the usual time at Charlottesville, and then proceeded to Lynchburg on a train loaded to suffocation. We arrived at Lynchburg after dark, and after storing our boxes at the Quartermaster's office. Obtained lodgings at the Norbel House, where we also got a very good breakfast next morning — price of lodgings $10 and of breakfast $10 each. Thursday the 2nd, was a miserable rainy day, but we sallied out, and obtained two decent rooms from the Quartermaster to which we removed our boxes, and obtaining some fire wood and cooking utensils set up housekeeping. Every body believed that the enemy were arriving for Lynchburg but we had no regular troops there, and very inadequate means of defense. Thursday night we learned by telegraph from Charlottesville that Gen. Early had made a stand near Waynesboro and been utterly routed — nearly his whole force captured and he himself killed or a prisoner. On Friday the local forces were called out to man the fortifications, and the Commandant of the Post notified officers having papers or public property to have them ready to move to a place of safety. Where was there a safe place if Lynchburg should fall! For the first time my spirits gave way. I felt that our cause was hopeless. On Friday we heard that the whole force of the enemy had crossed the mountain at Rockfish Gap, and were sneaking for the James River at Hardwicksville Bridge. I urged Capt Smith to leave Lynchburg and go to some point on the Tennessee RR., but he imagined there was some obligation of honor upon him to keep ahead of the enemy. The Post Officers at Lynchburg were preparing to remove, but where they were to go no one could tell. Smith wished to go to Petersburg or Danville, which I strongly objected to, wishing to step aside that the torrent might pass us and have the way home open. The telegraph line from Charlottesville ceased to work, but there were frequent reports, all telling of disaster. Wagon trains captured near Waynesboro, RR trains destroyed and Greenwood Depot, all or nearly all the Post Officers from Staunton supposed to be captured. Being so averse to a trip down the South Side RR Capt. Smith proposed to procure the necessary papers for us to leave the city by any route I pleased. The papers were obtained and I prepared to leave for Salem. This was Saturday. That night several men arrived at the hotel, one of whom had been only an hour or two ahead of the Yankees all the way from New Market, Shenandoah. He estimated the force of the enemy at from 5,000 to 10,000 — all mounted. All, he said, had left the Valley. Sunday morning before daylight, I left our quarters for the Tennessee R.R. Depot, and got aboard the train. When I left Lynchburg a few troops had arrived from the S.W. and a small force of Reserves by the Southside Railroad. Many parolled prisoners just from the North, were on board. I was informed that a stage ran from Bousack's Depot to Buchanan, and therefore left the cars at the former point. When the train had passed on I found there was no stage from Bousack's to any point, but that one passed along the McAdamized road, four or five miles distant, from Salem to Buchanan. There was no alternative for me but to walk across carrying my baggage. The road was very muddy, and I found the walk extremely fatiguing. Every hundred yards or so I was compelled to rest. My spirits did not flag; however, except once when a flock of crows started up in a field and circled above my head, keeping up a furious crowing. The idea of the sinister crows quite haunted me for a few minutes! As I approached the turnpike, I met two of our wobegone cavalrymen, and asked if they had any news from towards Lexington. They replied that twenty thousand Yankees were at Staunton and ten thousand at Greenville. [deleted: I asked if it was an infantry force and] The further information that the whole force was mounted satisfied me that the statement was certainly false. I knew there was no public house on the turnpike, and felt some solicitude about a shelter till next day, as begging for lodgings was a new and disagreeable business to me. I came upon the turnpike at Cloverdale Mills, Botetourt County, and applied at the first house — the miller's. The old lady said that he, meaning her husband, was away, and she had but one room. I perceived the want of accommodation, and went to the next house, a Mr. Langhorn's. This gentleman was a little gruff, but finally said he could keep me. He could not tell when the stage would pass, but knew that a train of government wagons would come by next morning, going from Salem to Buchanan. I met him in a house formerly used as a store. He ordered a servant to show me to "the office" and kindle a fire for me. I was conducted to a small log house in the yard; where there was a bed, chairs +c. The arrangement suited me exactly; and I felt relieved and thankful at finding such quarters. Early in the afternoon, I lay down and fell asleep, being overcome with weariness. After dark, I was aroused by a servant, bringing in some supper to me. I was not hungry, but eat a little. Soon afterwards I fell asleep again and did not wake till the servant came in the morning to kindle my fire. Shortly afterwards my host came in and invited me to remain as long as suited me, assuring me repeatedly that I was welcome to anything he had. What produced the change in his manner I did not know, nor did I see him afterwards. At breakfast time I was invited into the house and asked to take a seat with Mrs. L. and her daughter. When the meal was over, the daughter followed me into the porch, and from her talk I discovered that we were descended from a common ancestor, Robert McClanahan. I was then invited into the sitting room, and the mother was called in. We struck up quite an acquaintance, but had not proceeded far when the government wagons came up; and I hurried away. I rode in a wagon eighteen miles to Buchanan, where I arrived about two o'clock. I left my baggage at the Commissary's Office, weighing it first and surprised to find it only thirty-five pounds. I then went to the home of Mr. + Mrs. John S. Wilson, where I was received most cordially and invited to remain till the stage would start to Lexington. At Buchanan I received the first news of the conduct of the Yankees in Staunton, although one or two men connected with the army had told me, while on the road, that no enemy was here now. I heard of the injury done to Judge Thompson's house and furniture (his family being from home), the indignities offered to Mrs. Skinner and her deaf- mute sister and daughter, the burning of Mayse's tan yard +c.85 As none of my name were mentioned, I was hopeful that my family and relations had sustained no special injury. The running of the stage had suspended on account of the movements of the enemy, and also, perhaps, because of the very bad roads. Consequently I could not leave Buchanan for Lexington till Wednesday morning, the 8th inst. The time passed away pleasantly except when I was oppressed with the dread lest the enemy should return through Staunton and complete the work of destruction. I heard that Roper had collected a small cavalry force, and was endeavoring to rescue the prisoners taken up at Waynesboro — that there had been no fight and only three or four persons killed — that Early instead of retiring to Rockfish Gap, had formed a line of battle in the open country and that his men finding themselves surrounded by a vastly superior force, had laid down their arms that Early, Long +c had escaped, but that nearly all the command, with artillery, wagons, +c had been captured. Early Wednesday morning the stage started for Lexington. A lady and myself were the only passengers. The road was almost impassable. The distance by way of the Natural Bridge, is 26 miles, and the stage fare was $39, or one and a half dollars per mile, Confederate currency. We paused at the Bridge an hour or two, and arrived at Lexington before dark, in a hard rain. As it was the first stage that had arrived for some time, a crowd assembled at the hotel as we drove up, to inquire the news. Among other persons was John L. Campbell, who invited me to go to his house. Davis Kayser from the same Department as myself in Staunton, was there, and from him I obtained further intelligence in regard to affairs at home. One or two names were added to the list of those who had suffered from the enemy, but still not a word about any of my family. The main body of the enemy had crossed the Blue Ridge at Rockfish Gap, and was then so far as known, prowling about the Orange Railroad in Amherst, threatening Lynchburg. We heard that the Lunatic Asylum and D. + D. + B Institution at Staunton had been robbed of provisions, and that the Ministry of Va at Charlottesville had been destroyed. The latter report proved untrue. After at Waynesboro, a body of the enemy returned to Staunton with the prisoners (1000 to 1200), and proceeded down the Valley on Saturday, the 4th. Roper, with a few cavalry was pursuing them. Then we heard that Roper had returned to Staunton, unsuccessful, but that many prisoners had escaped. Much apprehension was felt at Lexington lest the enemy should return into the Valley, I heard there of the burning of Swoope's Depot, Swoope's Mill, barns and other property in that neighborhood. Col. R. H. Lee, who was captured by the enemy, but escaped, was in Lexington. Having many friends in L. and feeling comparatively easy about friends at home, I spent a pleasant time there. Staid two night's at A. Alexander's, and visited at Dr. McClung's, Mrs. N. Graham's, Miss Reid's, Col. Preston's, Mrs. Alexander's, besides Mr. Campbell's. No vehicle was running to Staunton, and I had no means of getting on home. The roads were said to be almost impassable. Lomax and Jackson had passed through Lexington going to Lynchburg, and their men were straggling along in the same direction. They were in Bath, Highland, Pendleton +c where the enemy advanced up the Valley. On Saturday morning the ground was frozen, and I proposed to Kayser that we should start home. He had a horse and we rode and walked alternately. We started at eleven o'clock, A.M., (11th) — met soldiers on the road straggling up the Valley, one or more of whom had escaped from the Yankees near Woodstock. We reached the Providence Church before night, and were hospitably entertained at Mr. John Withrow's. Sunday morning we started on the road in dreadful condition, making walking or riding very laborious. We heard that Roper had gone to Lye River Gap. At Middlebrook we heard that the enemy were about to recross the mountain at the Gap. Dr. Wm McChesney invited us to spend the night with him and wait further intelligence. There was a good deal of excitement in the country, but before dark we became satisfied that the enemy was not then coming back. — McChesney loaned me a horse, and Monday morning, the 18th, I came home. I saw Legh, while passing his place, and got full particulars in regard to our friends. He had refugeed across North Mountain, and the Yankees had not injured him. Alick's Nathan had gone off with them, and one of his stables was burnt, when the Tanyard was destroyed. I felt grateful to find Va and all friends safe. — and gratified at the hearty welcome I received. Was quite unwell, however, and quite broken down. — The Yankees had not been in Mr. Stuart's house at all. At our house their conduct had been insolent and threatening, but no personal violence was suffered from them. They took some pork, flour and butter from Va. This occurred on Thursday, the 2nd. The same day, in the evening, they burnt Swoope's Depot +c. By night Thursday, they had all left town. Friday the prisoners were brought in from Waynesboro and the Asylum was robbed. On Saturday they proceeded down the Valley, without further injury to the citizens. The usual testimony is that these Yankees are the rudest and most lawless we have ever had.

Wednesday, March 15

Roper crossed the Mountain at Tye Run Gap in pursuit of the enemy, who were said to be on the James River Canal below Columbia. Pickett's Division of infantry and Lomax's Cavalry were said to be near them. Since I left Lynchburg I have heard a report that Sherman had been defeated in South Carolina. — It was ripe in Buchanan, Lexington and Staunton — I was hopeful at first, but do not believe it now. This morning we heard that Sheridan had crossed the Central Railroad and escaped towards Fredericksburg. Later Legh came in with a report that Sheridan had been reinforced by a column from Fredericksburg and was within nine miles of Richmond. We of course have no cars and no mails from the East. The Railroad near Staunton was not injured, but the bridges near Charlottesville were destroyed. A mail was sent yesterday on a hand car to Charlottesville. Sheridan is said to have done immense injury to the people East of the Blue Ridge. He had no train and subsisted off the country, destroying and plundering as he went. Tate, Bayly, Price and others got home several days ago. They escaped from Greenwood Depot just before the enemy arrived there. Early had several trains of cars unloaded then, and the stores fell into the hands of the enemy. Early's whole management of affairs has been miserable. Tate met Capt. Smith, A. J. Gilkeson, J. H. Blackley + others at Farmsville. — They left Lynchburg on Wednesday, the 8th, and were going to Danville. Our wagons could not get further from Staunton than Midway. I found Mr. Heiskell at home, and we have been attending to business.

Wednesday night. This evening the stage arrived from Harrisonburg and passengers brought a report that a Yankee force was at Woodstock. The report occasioned some anxiety which was allayed however, by the arrival of some scouts from Harrisonburg, who stated that we had scouts below that place who had given no information and the rumor could be traced to no source. Capt. Baylor with a company is here, acting as Provost Marshal. Eight or ten men passed, by Davis Bell's this evening going towards the McAdamized road, and a party was sent out to intercept them and ascertain who they were. Mr. Stuart says the number of our men captured at Waynesboro did not exceed 500 or 600. While the Yankees were here little Lelia was so wrought up that she exclaimed "I feel like cursing!" The Yankees did not return to Staunton with their prisoners till Saturday (not Friday, as stated heretofore), and remained several hours only. Their officers notified the people that they might contribute food for the prisoners, and nearly the whole people, especially the females, turned out with their baskets. One Yankee is said to have remarked that he had no idea there were so many women in Staunton. An officer affected great contempt at the meagre supply of food offered — it was a mean lunch, he said; he expected something more liberal, and they would obtain supplies. The prisoners were halted on the Railroad near the Lunatic Asylum, and the citizens were not permitted to communicate with nor approach them. They were then marched through town, and the guard allowed them to speak to their friends and receive supplies. The Asylums were robbed of flour and bacon on Saturday.

Thursday night, March 16, 1865.

We hear nothing more about the enemy coming up the Valley. — A man just from Martinsburg reports that the Yankees in that region are greatly discouraged. Wherefore? Persons from Richmond say that Gen. Lee has announced a signal victory of Hampton over the enemy's cavalry commanded by Kitpatrick, in North or South Carolina. No intelligence of Sheridan. I hauled several loads of manure this afternoon for my garden. Weather mild and rainy — Grass begins to come out and the fields look green. Seven or eight ladies of Winchester, exiled by order of Sheridan, have arrived in Staunton, and are entertained by several citizens. They were sent out before Sheridan started on his expedition up the Valley, and arrived here on Monday night last. Yankees occupied the lower rooms of their houses, and the locks were taken off their chamber doors. At any hour of the day or night they were liable to the intrusion of soldiers, and they could not write a note without having a guard to look over their shoulders.

Friday night, March 17.

This morning I got a Government wagon and went after wood. I sent a load home, and waited till the team returned when we loaded up the wagons again for Mrs. Smith. I dined at Legh's. Kitty followed us to the woods, bare-footed. The day was bright sun shiney, and would have been delightful but for the high wind. I came home feeling excessively fatigued. Uncle Lyttelton, Aunt Sally, and Miss Sarah Warden had taken dinner at our house. There is a report to-day that a French Minister is in Richmond. President Davis requested Congress not to adjourn, as he had an important communication to make to them. Sheridan, at last report, was in Goochland county.

Saturday night, March 18.\

The first report of to-day was that Early had been captured between Richmond and Gordonsville at which no tears were shed. This evening came a rumor that fifteen hundred of Sheridan's raiders had been captured. No more of the French Minister. As we have no sexton several of us attend to the church [deleted: take it] a week about. After dinner to- day, Va., Nanny, Matty and I went down + swept out the house. Feel very tired. We have still no mails from Richmond — only reports and occasionally a paper brought in different ways.

Monday night, March 20.

The reports of to-day contradicted all the pleasant rumors of last week, and left us nothing to hang a hope upon. Instead of President Davis having any-thing to communicate to Congress in regard to French intervention, he merely wished to ask for more men and money. Sherman has not been defeated nor even checked; but was at Fayettesville, while Johnston was at Hillsboro. Sheridan has joined Grant, after devastating the country and destroying the Canal and Railroads. Candler and others captured last Summer in Nelson got home yesterday from Camp Chase. They say that many of our men in Northern prisons refused to be exchanged and that Lincoln has large bodies of troops at different points. It is now said that Early was not captured. Still no mail from Richmond. Many persons are gardening a little, farmers generally plowing, but in town there is little business or work going on. All day knots of men stand or sit at the street corners, engaged in idle talk. The town looks like a pestilence had swept over it, leaving the people who survive, deprived of energy and spirits. A general feeling of depression [deleted: to-day]. It is reported that negro women determined to go off with the Yankees threw their young children in the James River Canal. We planted onions to- day thinking all the time that the Yankees would probably get the benefit of them. I have been out of sorts since my return. Have a feeling of uneasiness almost constantly.

Tuesday night, March 21.

A violent thunder storm on hand — the wind has been blowing furiously — now comparatively calm — Lightning vivid and thunder shakes the window glass. eleven o'clock. The very last report is that fifteen hundred of Sheridan's raiders have been captured near Richmond — probably the old report revised. J. M. McCue arrived this morning from Richmond, via Lynchburg and Lexington. He says Bragg was falling back before — (I forget whom) Scofield and Johnston before Sherman, towards Raleigh. Much anxiety felt about affairs in North Carolina. Ose Kyle has at last got back from his long imprisonment. He started from Richmond to go home, two weeks ago. I got a horse and cart this morning to haul manure from Legh's stable. Wright was busy preparing ground for potatoes, and I loaded the cart + at first drove the horse myself, which attracted much notice in the streets. Not liking the business, I hired a boy to drive for me.

Thursday night, March 23.

Gen. Lee reported to the Secretary of War on the 20th that Gen. Johnston had the day before, attacked Sherman at Bentonville, N. C., at 5 o'clock P.M. and driven him a mile. Sherman was then reinforced, but Johnston continued the assault. At 6 o'clock both armies rested. The battle is supposed to have begun at 5 A.M. as an hour is short time for to much to have occurred in. A. J. Gilkeson returned Tuesday, having left our boxes in Danville. Smith got back last night. I was quite sick — unable to write.

Friday night, March 24.

Another report this morning about a Yankee force at Winchester, hopefully coming this way. A Lynchburg paper of the 22nd had been received, which stated, as rumor, that Gen. Johnston revived the attack on Sherman on the 20th and defeated him, and was still pursuing and fighting him on the 21st. It states that we had taken 2700 prisoners. It is now said that 650 of Sheridan's raiders were captured and taken into Richmond. Many of them must have been captured as they passed through the Country. Four were caught at one house in Nelson county, where they ventured to put up for the night. I called at Mr. Campbell's to-day. Like every other family, they had their narrative of adventures with the Yankees. Mrs. C. acknowledges that she had told them a falsehood. [deleted: when] They demanded butter, and she brought out less than a pound, telling them, in reply to a question, that it was all she had, although it was not. She said she was greatly alarmed, and hardly knew what she answered. The question [deleted: how] whether the truth should always be spoken to the enemy under such circumstances, is much discussed in the community. The miserable creatures were prowling about our house all day Thursday, the 2nd inst., riding into the yard, and acting as though the premises belonged to them. They plundered Wright of his clothing, and as fast as Selena cooked food for dinner they took it off. The family had nothing to eat during the day except some potatoes which Wright managed to smuggle into the house, and which were roasted in the dining room. None of the Yankees entered the house. Several of them came upon the back porch at one time, and ordered the storeroom door to be opened. Va refused to open it till she found they were about to break the door. Then they took butter +c found there. They next demanded flour in a pillow case. Va refused to furnish the pillow case and they declared their intention to enter the house and help themselves. Kate stood against the house door, on the outside, and they threatened to pull her away and come in, their looks and gestures being in the mean while most insolent. Jinny brought the controversy to a close by a raking up from the dust an old bag made of bed ticking, into which Va put some flour. When the people waked up Thursday morning, they found the town full of Yankees. By night they had all passed through, and none returned till Saturday.

Saturday night, March 25.

The first thing I heard this morning was that the Yankees were in Harrisonburg. The report did not move me, as I did not believe it, and it proved untrue. Reported this afternoon that Johnston had driven Sherman seven miles and captured 4500 of his men. Rumored also that Gen. Early will be in Staunton a few days hence with a considerable force. Much regret expressed at his coming. Yesterday and to-day Wright planted potatoes.

Tuesday night, March 28.

Yesterday the rumors of Johnston's operations against Sherman continued to be favorable. It was said also that Gen. Lee had attacked Grant's left wing, and driven him from his position, capturing 500 men. This attack was made, said the rumor, to prevent reinforcements going to Sherman. Some one in Richmond telegraphed these reports to a person in Waynesboro, as reports current in the former. (No telegraph battery at Staunton yet.) This morning, upon going down street, I was told, as a Richmond rumor, that Johnston had captured 18,000 men and seventy-five pieces of cannon. I went after a load of wood, taking two mules and a wagon belonging to the Tax-in-Kind Dept. and on my return heard another [deleted: report] version that Johnston had captured 8000 [illeg.]86

I felt discouraged [deleted: and] as it was not likely we would find either the men or horses, or that the latter would be given up. Having started, however, we went up. Some time after dark, we arrived at Lange's, 18 miles from Staunton, where we got lodgings, eating our provisions. We started early next morning. Left one bag of corn at Rhyan's, for feeding when we returned. Nothing of interest occurred till we approached McDowell. After crossing the bridge over the Bull Pasture, we met John Alexander (not Jno. McD. A. of Rockbridge) and two other men, who told us the horses were at Pullings' — that two men supposed to be deserters came along on them, and were pursued by a man named Shafer and another named Gladwell — that the thieves, or deserters, escaped after their capture, but the horses were secured — that we were just in time, as Shafer was about to start to the army with the more valuable of the horses, a fine stud. He (John) agreed to go with us to Pullings', and went to get his dinner and a horse. Legh and I went on to Robert Sittington's, a mile blow McDowell, to borrow another horse, and wait till John A. arrived. The road to Pullings' was impassable for a buggy. Mr. Sittington had not returned from preaching, but Mrs. S. gave us a most hospitable and Kind reception. Legh saddled his horse and went on with J. A. while I followed on a little stud colt, and lady's saddle. It soon began to rain, and by the time we reached Pullings' I was quite wet. We found there several of Jackson's cavalry, but neither Shafer nor Gladwell. The stolen mare had been taken by the latter, and was at pasture five miles off, while Shafer had traded the horse to Andrew McClintic, who lived near [illeg.]87 The horses and equipments, moreover, were utterly unsuitable for such a trip. So we returned to Mr. Sittington's intending to start early next morning, calling at [deleted: at] a Mr. Stuart's and leaving word for Gladwell to bring up the mare. Between Sittington's and Pullings', three miles, we crossed the Bull Pasture run four times. Mr. S. was at home when we got back, and advised Legh to see McClintic as soon as possible, as he was not likely to Keep the horse more than a day or two, so it was arranged that Legh should go back forthwith and spend the night at Wm. McClung's, which was on the way to Williamsville, which he could thus reach early Monday morning, while I remained at Sittington's to go to Wilson's, on Cow Pasture, the next day, it being understood that Byrd's company were to meet at that place and set out for the army. [deleted: Legh was off in a] to one of whom, it was thought possible, McClintic might trade the horse. Legh was off in a few minutes, and I made myself comfortable by the fire. The mountain upon which the battle of McDowell was fought, was in view of the house, and Mr and Mrs. S. had a great deal to tell about the fight. The next morning, Mr. S. furnished me a horse, bridle and saddle, and I came over to Wilson's, a heavy rain falling during part of the way. I knew Wilson, and met several persons at his house, among them a man named Chew, who formerly subscribed to the Spectator, and Knew me as editor. They [deleted: did] had heard that Marshall's, on Shaw's Fork, was the place appointed for the meeting, and advised me to go there. Accordingly, after waiting an hour or two, I rode on. I left my horse at Reynolds and walked up to Marshall's. There I met the Rev. Mr. Price and others, all of whom told me that Williamsville was the rendezvous. As Legh had gone there, I felt that the matter was working well. Two soldiers from Gen. Lee's army had passed along, spreading reports of great disaster, and while I was at Marshall's two more, who had left the army on Thursday, the 6th, passed by. They did not tell of so much disaster but there was reason to fear the worst. I returned to Sittington's, and upon approaching the house was surprised to see Legh coming to meet me. From his quick return and apparent down cast look, I inferred we had been unsuccessful. He informed me, however, that he reached McClintic's just as he was riding off on the horse, the animal was given up without opposition, and Legh had him then at Sittington's. In the evening, Shafer brought up the mare, and Legh gave him $600, Confederate currency, for his trouble in capturing the horses. They had been pursued for about 20 miles. At dark Mr. Jos. Mann, of Augusta, arrived having brought our young cattle and colts to graze. While we sat before the fire after night there was much talk about the lawlessness and robberies in Highland, of late. Neither property nor life was safe. Many citizens had been killed during the war, and horse stealing and robbery were frequent occurrences. On Tuesday morning, the 11th, Mr. Mann accompanied us a part of the way on our return. Legh having brought a saddle and bridle, rode his horse. It rained a good deal during the day. We repeatedly met soldiers, generally three together, but none of them had any news. I inferred much that was bad from encountering so many fugitives. On this side of North Mountain, I met one soldier walking who informed me it was reported in Staunton that Gen. Lee had surrendered his whole army, while another report stated that Longstreet only had surrendered his corps. We next encountered a number of the signal corps, who said that Lee had surrendered, according to information received in Staunton. I heard the same report, with some variations, at Westview. Legh turned off the turnpike to go home, and I came to town in the buggy. Night overtook me, and was so dark that I could not see to drive. My mind was in a state of confusion, and I finally got home in poor plight, as I have stated. To-day, the town is full of stragglers from the army. Lynchburg is in the hands of Federal troops, from Grant's army, and it is undoubtedly true that rumor of Gen. Lee's army have been captured, scattered or killed. It is still doubtful whether Lee is a prisoner, or effected his escape to Johnston. The latter can make no effective opposition. There have been many wild rumors — one that Kirby Smith crossed the Mississippi with 50,000 Southern troops — another to-day that the French had taken New Orleans. Our people generally are remarkably quiet, awaiting the will of the conqueror. Every body feels that the "Confederate States" is a thing of the past.

Later. Va has come in says that only Longstreet with 8000 men surrendered — that the men fought with desperation, and finally sank down from exhaustion — that France has recognized the "Confederacy" — too late — too late if true.

April 1865

Friday, April 14, 1865.

We heard last night from an authentic source that Gen. Lee has certainly surrendered himself with his army. His address to his men states that the surrender was made in consequence of the immense superiority of force against him and the consequent uselessness of shedding more blood. He returned to Richmond, having been paroled with all of his officers and men. We do not know of the fate of President Davis. — When last heard of he was between Burksville Junction and Lynchburg. Soldiers from the army have continued to arrive only one who was paroled. A call has been made by Gen. Lilly for soldiers to meet at Lexington and Staunton to proceed South. I presume that very few will respond as the cause is generally considered useless. Arthur Spitzer has got back — He marched three days and two nights, on the retreat from Petersburg, with nothing to eat but a can of corn. — Says he saw men on the road side dying from hunger. We hear that no one in the Rockbridge Artillery was killed and hope that Jimmy Tate will get home soon. Reported that James H. Waddell was slighting wounded and taken to Richmond or Lynchburg. Reported yesterday that Mosby had been in Richmond and held the place for several hours driving the Federal soldiers out. O'Farrel is still operating in the lower Valley. The Yankees sent him word he was violating the parole given by Gen. Lee, and he (O'F) has sent him to ascertain the terms of Lee's surrender — whether the whole army of Northern Va was included. Capt. Smith returned home yesterday from Lexington, to my great surprise, as I had heard he was going to North Carolina to fall in with Gen. Johnston. Grant is supposed to be pressing after Johnston, and there is no probability of his withstanding. For several days past the people of this town and county have been appropriating all the public property they could find — wagons, old iron picks, +c +c — distributing the assets of the Confederate States. What a termination! I am surprised by the general composure — even very complacency. But while I felt an intense indignation against the North, the Confederacy never enlisted my affections or compliance. I never ceased to deplore the disruption, and never could have loved my country and government as I loved the old United States. Yet our cause seemed to be the cause of state rights and involved the question whether or no the people should choose a government for themselves, or have one imposed upon them. With our fall every vestige of State rights has disappeared, and we are at the mercy of a consolidated despotism. What the conqueror will do with us we know not. Pierpont, the "Governor of Virginia," recognized by the Washington authorities, who was elected by a few votes in Alexandria, Norfolk, +c, has been in Richmond, and, it is said, passed a Proclamation advising the people to remain at home, and assuring them that they would not be disturbed. Another State called West Virginia is presided over by Governor Boreman. Nothing remains for us but submission, notwithstanding my strong local attachments, I feel that it would be a relief to get to some new and foreign country. Here everything is associated with the visions we have experienced during the last four years. I do not know what has become of John Hendren, the C. S. Treasurer. He left Richmond in charge of a large amount of specie. I am thankful that I did not go to Richmond with him. There is much religious interest in our Church. Meetings every afternoon for more than a week. Aunt Sally is very ill not expected to live long. It is sad to see our kindred passing away, although I hope it will be a happy release to her. Kate was married last night. Arthur Spitzer has called to ask my advice as to what he should do; some persons insisting that soldiers should, if possible, join Gen. Johnston. I told him that under the same circumstances, I would go home and stay there, and he determined to do so. The weather is delightful.

Saturday, April 15, 1865.

Jimmy Tate has arrived. He was present at the surrender and was paroled with others. This morning, I removed an ambulance from a late Government stable but wish now that I had not touched it. I do not like to be mixed up with the scramble for spoils. The whole affair disgusted me. Aunt Sally is very low. Her disease is pneumonia. Jimmy has a piece of his flag, which the battalion cut up and divided amongst themselves. In the conference between Gen. Lee and Grant in regard to the surrender, or after it was accomplished, a Federal officer asked Lee if he had any objection to tell the number of men in his army before Richmond. Lee replied that it was about 35,000. The officer expressed astonishment, and Lee called for his rolls which showed the number to be 32,000. He then inquired the number of men in Grant's army and was told that it was 125,000 — So "it is said." Jimmy says the Yankees claimed to have an army of 200,000 under Grant. He says they professed to expect a war with France and England, and reported that a fight had already occurred in the Gulf of Mexico between the U. S. and French squadrons. Some of them asked our men if they would not join them against the French, and the reply was, "No we prefer the other side." Several of our Generals made speeches exhorting their men to be ready for another struggle.

Sunday night, April 16.

Easter Sunday. — Authentic intelligence to- day that two persons have arrived in Charlottesville from Richmond, sent by Lyncoln in search of Governor Smith, to write him to return. Reported that the Governor while escaping from Richmond on a mule up the tow-path of the canal, was thrown into the canal (or the mule fell in) and escaped by clinging to the mule's tail. Reported that Roper is coming to Staunton to collect a force. A man from the lower Valley reports that a N. Y. paper says France has concluded a treaty, [illeg.] [illeg.], with the Confederate States. Aunt Sally still very ill.

Monday night, April 17, 1865.

Four years ago to-day the two military companies started from Staunton to Harper's Ferry, and Virginia seceded. Now the war is virtually over, and we are —— What shall I say? A few minutes ago it made me inexpressibly sad to see Jimmy's canteen hanging up in the passage. It reminded me of the war, and our utter failure. Coming by the old market house to- night, I forgot that no sentinel was posted there now, to guard ordnance stores, and lowered my voice so that our conversation should not be heard. Rumors to-day of recognition by England, France + Spain. — President Davis, it is said, announced in Danville that active assistance would be afforded some by foreign points. If so he was guilty of a great blunder in not proclaiming the fact sooner. The army and the people were hopeless of success — there seemed to be no end to the war — but foreign assistance, however slight, or even recognition, would have inspired new life into the Confederacy, and every man would have rushed to do what he could. The people seem exhausted and hopeless; and therefore the soldiers deserted. Now almost every body looks forward to peace and reunion on any tolerable terms Lincoln may offer — To talk about re-union and contemplate it as an event about to occur, after all we have suffered, is almost intolerable, notwithstanding I never anticipated much good from the Confederacy. — Echols disbanded his command at Christiansburg. Johnston must fall before long, if his army is not already scattered. The Va Legislature is invited by Lincoln to meet in Richmond and safe conduct has been sent to many citizens. A meeting for consultation at Charlottesville is proposed. Judge Campbell, of Ala., late As. Sec of War, C. S., who remained in Richmond, published in a slip, an account of an interview he had with Lincoln. The conqueror appears to be quite amiable.

Wednesday night, April 19.

No rumors to-day of any consequence. Yesterday there were many afloat. One that Lincoln had been assassinated in Washington city. Another that a French fleet was on the coast of North Carolina. A third that a Yankee force was coming up the Valley, paroling our soldiers as they were met on the road. Have felt very dull and listless all day — Could not work in the garden, + begin to despair of making a living by bodily labor. — Don't know how we are to subsist — I have not a cent of money, and no prospect of getting any. Cant buy anything to eat or to wear. Confederate notes are of course, entirely worthless, so far as relates to purchases. Some persons have been giving as much as $1 specie for $300 C. S. treasury notes, getting the latter to square off their accounts. Much talk about the distribution of public property — persons who got none are denouncing those who obtained a share. Soldiers have been taking off horses and cattle. Tate has been trying to hold the latter till he could make some satisfactory or judicious disposition of them. Thirty were driven off from a pasture a few evenings ago, but recovered. As a drove was coming down the Lexington road to-day, some soldiers waylaid them and the man having them in charge gave up a part by way of compromise. Last night a party of men drove off M. G. Harman's sheep, probably supposing them to be Confederate States property. He raised a posse and made pursuit. The party was over taken and captured, (four in number), but three miles from town five men sprang out to rescue them. Shots were fired on both sides and a horse killed. All of the marauders escaped, except one, who was brought to jail. Such is the state of society amongst us at present. We shall be ready soon to entrust the Yankees to come in and restore order. From all accounts I Johnston had a very small force before Lee's surrender. Probably none at all now.

Thursday night, April 20.

The report of Lincoln's assassination was renewed this evening. It is said that he was shot from the stage of the theatre in Washington, by one of the actors, a foreigner. — There is a general regret in our community, as Vice President Johnson is a much worse man than Lincoln. — Reported to night that Gen. Johnston has defeated Sherman, and that Forrest has taken Knoxville. All very ridiculous, as several weeks ago Johnston had but 13,000 infantry, to 9oppose Sherman's large force, and it would be marvelous if his men did not drop off as soon as they heard of Lee's Surrender. Roper is expected here to organize his men, and then it may be said he has taken Staunton. If his men rally to him, and the horses, in the county will be taken off. I anticipate nothing but evil from his attempt. With our armies captured or scattered and all munitions of war lost, it is impossible for us to accomplish anything against the overwhelming odds of the North; and a guerrilla warfare will only result in general ruin. We are now in a condition of anarchy. Bands of soldiers are prowling about taking off all cattle, sheep, horses +c. they suspect of being public property. I hear that they took from the Tax-in-kind Depot at Deerfield all the wool collected there. The agent at Greenville has refused to deliver up several hundred pounds of bacon received by him as Tax-in-Kind, because he says, the Government owes him. We proposed turning it over to indigent soldiers' families. It is reported that the people of Harrisonburg sent for the Yankees to quiet a soldiers' riot in that place — The people of Lynchburg, it is said, did the same. Don't know whether this is true. The Yankees went off from Lynchburg last Sunday. About 9 o'clock to- night we were startled by a report somewhat like the explosion of cannon. The house shook and the windows rattled. Upon going to the door we found persons out inquiring what it could be. It was more like a sudden clap of thunder than any other sound, yet the sky was generally clear. Perhaps some building fell over. For the last two weeks there have been prayer meetings every afternoon, at 4 o'clock, in the Section Room of our church. The room has been filled at every meeting. The Rev. Mr. Gilmer preached this afternoon. I swept out my office this morning and took my table back — getting ready to go to work as Commissioner in Chancery, as soon as the times permit. Aunt Sally still very ill. Jimmy Tate says that on the day of the surrender he saw Gen. Lee as he returned from Grant's headquarters, and that when his men cheered him as usual the fears flowed from his face. I met to-day; at the blacksmith's shop a youth who has been in the army for three years, C. L. 5th Va Reg., and participated in sixteen battles, besides skirmishes. He said that a Yankee rode up, after the surrender, and demanded the flag of the Stonewall Brigade. He was shot down, and the colour sergeant wraped the flag around his body, under his clothing, and brought it off. I am paind to learn that the residence of our relation, Mr. John N. Gordon, in Richmond, where I have visited so often, was burnt with a large portion of the city, upon the [illeg.].

Friday night, April 21.

I hear that a lady arrived this evening from Washington, via Winchester, with papers giving an account of Lincoln's assassination. Seward was assailed and wounded at the same time, being in his chamber. Some mischievous person fired a cannon last night at the Market House, which was the report we heard.

Saturday, April 22.

Lincoln was certainly killed in the theatre, as reported. The assassin was an actor named Booth, an Englishman. He and 20 or thirty others, associated with him, escaped down the Potomac, on the Maryland side. They routed a party of cavalry, and another party was sent after them but at last accounts they had not been captured. An attempt to kill Seward was also made. Booth was not regarded as a Southern

(see page 60)88

sympathizer, having left Richmond early in the war, to go North. Rumor says that some persons at the North attribute the murder to the "Knights of the Golden Circle"; while others attribute it to the ultra Abolitionists who are disaffected on account of Lincoln's supposed leniency to the South. Vice President Andrew Johnson has sworn in as President of the United States, and has made several speeches in which he announced a vengeance against "traitors." He has withdrawn the invitation or permission for our Legislature to meet at Richmond. It is reported this morning that several persons in town have sent a recent message inviting the Yankees to occupy Staunton and restore law and order. Bands of soldiers are still traversing the county demanding public property, and running off cattle and horses. In several instances they have taken off private property, but I presume it was by mistake.

Night. — Aunt Sally died to-day, about half past one o'clock. As I was going down to her house to-night, I met Blackley, who told me it was reported that Gen. Elzy, one of our paroled officers, had been assassinated in Baltimore. Alick had heard that Gen. Ewell and four other Confederate Generals had been hung by a mob in Baltimore. The report is revived also of a battle in the Gulf of Mexico between the French and U. S. squadrons, in which thirty ships and two iron clads of the latter were sunk. Reported that the Episcopal churches in Richmond have been closed by the Yankee authorities, until the clergy will pray for the President of the United States. The invitation for the Virginia Legislature to meet in Richmond, is supposed to have been withdrawn by Lincoln, as it is said to have been published in a Richmond paper of the 15th, and Johnson did not become President till that day. Four armed men went to Tate's farm to-day, and drove off 40 Government cattle. We have no law; but every man does as he pleases.

Monday night, April 24.

Aunt Sally's funeral took place yesterday afternoon. Mr. Baker delivered an address in the church, at 3 o'clock, to quite a large congregation, after which we proceeded to the house, and conveyed the corpse, to the cemetery. There were five vehicles, besides the horse, but many persons walked, as the weather was pleasant. Aunt S. owed me about $900, principal and interest, money paid for building her home, and I see no prospect of getting it back. The war has made havoc with her property.

Our public affairs looked gloomy to us to- day. The Pierpoint government is established at Richmond, and we will doubtless be required to recognize it as the legitimate authority. Gen. Johnston was at Greensboro, N. C., at last accounts, and Mr. Davis also. They were about surrounded by Federal armies; although it was reported that Johnston had 30,000 men and abundant supplies. — This report cannot be true, as before the evacuation of Richmond Gen. Lee told Andrew Hunter that Johnston had only 13,000 infantry, which he said was less than had been sent to him from the Army of Northern Virginia. — So rapidly were the Confederate armies wasting away by desertions. It is reported that the Federal authorities in Richmond are requiring citizens to take a stringent oath of allegiance. The county court was busy to- day, trying to devise means for preserving law and order in the community.

Tuesday night, April 25.

Rumors of momentous events came in rounds to- day. First we heard that Gen. Johnston had surrendered. Next that a Federal force of 1200 was coming from Beverly to establish a garrison at Staunton. Then a gentleman arriving from Charlottesville with a report that Andrew Johnson, Lincoln's successor, had been killed, and that Washington, Philadelphia and New York were in flames. Finally, it was reported by some one who came up the Valley, that Grant had been killed, that fighting was going on in Washington city, and that all the troops had been removed from Winchester. We know not what to think of all this. It is not more strange than the intelligence of Lincoln's death, which we did not believe, but can it be that society is broken up, and the whole country in a state of chaos! that assassination, heretofore unknown amongst us, has become a common event! I cannot think so. The man who killed Lincoln must have been a lunatic, and surely a similar act has not be perpetrated since. There has been no confirmation of the report that a mob in Baltimore hung Gen. Ewell and others. We have no mails, no newspapers, and no regular communication with the world. Occasionally some one arrives with a Baltimore or Richmond paper. The Richmond Whig is issued by new hands as a Union paper.

"The Lord also will be a refuge for the oppressed; a refuge in times of trouble." Trouble, suspense, anxiety, a time when we have no government, and know not what will be on the morrow. Our neighbor, Mrs. Points, died last night. The lights we have seen at her house since dark, make it look more cheerful than it ever did before. Poor woman! She had much trouble.

Thursday night, April 27

We dined to-day at Wm. P. Tate's, and returned to town late in the afternoon. It was then rumored on the streets that Andrew Johnson had not been poisoned, as previously reported, but was under arrest as an accomplice in the assassination of Lincoln! Some body had arrived up the Valley (I forget whom), who said that Col. Mosby, had been to see the Federal General Hancock, and told him he had read this statement in a Baltimore paper. Nothing further about rioting in Washington and other cities, nor in regard to the removal of troops from Winchester. On the contrary, there was a report that a Federal force was coming up the Valley. Another report this evening that the French have taken New Orleans. [illeg.] has arrived in town, to collect men to go South. This movement will only lead to the advance of a Federal force to Staunton — it can do no good, + and is generally disapproved in this community. The last report about Gen. Johnston stated that he had not surrendered, but we have no intelligence that is reliable.

Saturday, April 29.

Morning. — Yesterday I hauled two loads of wood, borrowing a pair of horses from Legh, and enjoyed the exercise very much. I kept the horses in town last night that Wright might bring in two more loads to-day, but early this morning he sent in to tell me that the Yankees were coming. I directed him to go on, nevertheless. He said the Yankees had sent word to the Mayor of Staunton that they would be here to-day.

Past 2 o'clock, P.M.. — For the first time I have seen a force of armed Yankees. Just as we finished the appraisement of Aunt Sally's property, it was announced that they were coming near town. As I came home to dinner I observed men in pairs upon several of the hills, and presumed they were scouts. While we were at dinner, Jenny came in and said "The Yankees are coming." We all went on the front porch, and I finally went to Moses' shop; and saw the whole force pass. There were six companies of the 22nd N. Y. cavalry, decidedly mean looking men — generally. Gen. Roper left town this morning, and there was, of course, no opposition. Two negroes, who ran off with the Yankees formerly, returned with this party — one a son of Moses, and the other a boy who was with us in the Tax-in-Kind Department. The former said the Regiment would remain here four days — I have no other information in regard to their movements. Northern papers contain an account of Gen. Johnston's surrender, and the terms which seem to embrace a settlement of the whole matter. But Andrew Johnson, Pres. after Lincoln, disapproved of the terms, it is said.

Night. — It was a curious spectacle this afternoon to see Federals and Confederates mingling on the streets. Every body seemed to be at ease. The Yankee force is composed of two regiments, both making 400 or 500 men. A Col Reid commands. He is said to be very affable. I have not spoken to one of them. How can we ever get along with a people who have waged such warfare against us, and at last conquered us! I felt greatly cast down this afternoon. The Federals are camped near the Cemetery, but on the opposite side of the turnpike. We could see some of their camp fires to-night. Jimmy Tate says the men are not allowed to cut down trees, but are made to divide up for branches here + there. Col. Reid says he will remain on, for possibly two days. His object appears to be to afford an opportunity to our men to be paroled. Jesse scouts were in town considerably in advance of the main body. Alick met four of them as he was going to visit a patient in the country. They were dressed like Confederate soldiers. When he met the first two, one of the said

see page 69

"The Yankees are coming." Alick replied, "Well, they are not hurting anybody, I suppose." "Oh no," said the man. The next two asked him what was going on in town, and he said there was nothing! One of them then inquired if he intended to return soon, and he replied, Yes, he was only going to visit a patient. The man repeated the answer to his comrade, and they rode on. The town patrol is out to-night as usual.

Sunday night, April 30.

The day passed off quietly. Many Yankees were riding and walking about, unarmed. Four officers and two other soldiers attended the Presbyterian Church in the forenoon — none in the evening. The Episcopal Church was not open because Mr. Latene was apprehensive of trouble if we omitted to pray for the President of the United States as prescribed in the ritual. Surely these are pleasant times, when churches are required by military authority to pray for certain officials. The Yankees say they were fired upon as they came up the Valley and several of their men Killed or wounded. The office for paroling our soldiers was crowded all day. Our town patrol arrested a drunken Yankee soldier last night, and put him in jail. It is understood that the report of Andrew Johnson's arrest is untrue.

May 1865

Monday night, May 1.

I went down street early this morning, and found the Yankees moving about quite freely. Negroes were flocking to the camp. Some of them having come from home on horseback. A negro woman belonging to Mrs. Sidney Crawford had gone off with her children. Some five or six — Uncle Lyttelton's Eliza was there too, dancing, it was said, for the entertainment of her Yankee friends. — Legh came in and said all of his negro boys (3) had left home. The Yankees gave up stolen horses to their owners, when called for. Jimmy Tate went out to recover a horse of his father's which a negro of F. Bell's had ridden in, and was treated with great politeness. The horse was delivered to him promptly, and he was asked if he would take the negro too. The latter is a fellow of bad character, and his owner is glad to get rid of him. The Yankees seem to be afraid of guerillas, and invited Jimmy to take part against them, which he declined. The officers have told everybody that they did not wish the negroes to go with them, and would furnish to them neither transportation nor rations; but they were not at liberty to send them home. This afternoon, however, they began a system of treatment which must have been discouraging to "American citizens of African descent" (Lincoln). A number of tents had been taken from the Military Hospital to the Yankee camp, and some of them were spread upon the ground and used as blankets for tossing up the colored friends. Men, women and children were thrown up into the air, at the risk of breaking skulls or breaking necks. Eliza was tossed up several times, and finally fell on her head. At last accounts she was lying insensible. — I felt indignant to-day to see the Yankees moving about on horseback and on foot with so much assurance, although they were perfectly polite. It was provoking, ludicrous, and pitiful, all together, to see the poor negroes crowding the streets, some of them, especially the women, dressed in all their finery, rejoicing in their freedom. The poor creatures seem to imagine that to be "free" cures all the ills of life, and many of them leave kind masters and good homes to suffer and die among people who have no sympathy for them, and only wish to spite us. "Freedom" to them means respite from toil, care and trouble. About dark large numbers returned to town from the Yankee camp. I could not learn whether they had become disgusted with their treatment, or were merely returning home to prepare for the march down the Valley. The Yankees start back to- morrow, it is said. Everybody who owns a horse has him under guard to-night, to prevent a negro from riding him off. I wrote to Janetta Alexander to- day, and asked Mrs. Hirsh to send it by one of her Yankee friends. She has no delicacy about ingratiating herself with them, and uses her influence for the protection of her friends as well as herself. The town patrol had some trouble last night with several squads of Yankee soldiers. This evening a Confederate and Yankee had a fist fight in the street — The former got the better of his opponent, but both were lodged in jail. I think it likely the Yankees are disappointed at the inhospitality of Staunton. They are obtuse enough to expect our people to open their houses to them. Gen. Jackson ("Mudwall," as the Yankees call him, in contradistinction to "Stonewall") is said to be in the county with fifteen men.

James Calhoun arrived to-night from Richmond, having walked all the way. He went as far as Petersburg, but could hear nothing of his son Tom, who was wounded in the battle of March 17th. He says the Yankees permitted him to pass everywhere unmolested. They talk about a war with the French, and say their negro troops are to be put in the front ranks. It was generally regarded as a fixed fact that France was in for a difficulty with the U.S. Many of our people thought our difficulties with the Yankees were not over yet. He says Mosby is in Albemarle with his men. It will be a crime against humanity for him to prosecute hostilities under existing circumstances. Ex-President Davis was reported to be making for the Mississippi with all the gold, and an escort of two thousand cavalry.

Tuesday, May 2.

Jenny aroused me this morning with the announcement that the Yankees were passing out of town, and I hurried up to see the negro exodus. There were negroes of all ages, and some who, I thought, had too much family pride or attachment to go off with the Yankees. A. A. H. Stuart's Peyton was among them, who was identified with the family, and was really as free as his master, and who leaves a comfortable home and the kindest treatment for the uncertainties of freedom among Northern friends — freedom to starve and die, but hardly freedom to labor. Poor wretches, they seem possessed with mania. Legh's Jim went off. — I have not heard of the other boys. Since his marriage, Legh has been impoverished by having to maintain a troop of young negroes, and now the one most able to labor goes off, leaving his younger sisters to be maintained by others. One woman left her infant child in the street. This will perhaps be quoted by our Yankee masters, as proof of the slave's longing for freedom. Many of the Yankees denounced the negroes for going off with them. At different points while passing through town, they urged them to reconsider the matter and return, telling them they would starve — that there was no work for them at the North +c. Sometimes they indulged in oaths and curses. When they got out of town, however, the women and children were helped into their wagons. The negroes say the Yankees talk one way to them, and another way to the white folks. The officers profess to be opposed to taking the

see page 80

negroes, but say it is the policy of their Government to take them, and they cannot drive them home. Miserable creatures! miserable Government! The former are lending themselves to a worthless cruelty. They must know that the poor negroes are rushing to destruction. Eliza went off with her Yankee lovers. — The Yankee Government is encouraging the most debasing prostitution. One old negro man started with the Yankees, but soon returned, saying it was too far!

Wednesday night, May 3.

I rode up to Legh's this morning to help him to plant corn, but found he did not need me. Jim had left with the Yankees, but none of the other servants. Soon after dinner, I returned home. Several negroes who went off yesterday, have come back, and they say many others are returning. By some sort of Federal military power, the State of Virginia has been divided along the Blue Ridge into East + West Va. which are called "insurgent territories." We are under the jurisdiction of "Governor Boorman." I do not know how they are to manage us — With a rod of iron, doubtless. It is intolerable — I feel ready to burst. It is said that Booth, the assassin of Lincoln, has been shot. Yankee officers have no doubt provided transportation for all the negro wenches they took from here yesterday. Wm. Garber says his yard was used as a general brothel — on Monday night.

Thursday night, May 4.

Early this morning, I found a movement on foot for a public meeting on Monday next. A. H. Stuart had received a letter from a gentleman in Albemarle, urging him to go to Richmond with the others and use their influence in favor of a reorganization of the State Government, in opposition to the Pierpont and Boreman establishments, or a military government. He preferred to go as the delegate of a meeting of citizens. A call for a meeting to take steps "for the organization of the State government," was signed by a number of persons, and printed in handbill form. I signed the call, wishing to leave the Yankee authorities no pretext for imposing a different government upon us; but at the same time I would be willing to suffer much more if it would embarrass them. The rebellion has been crushed out, however, and we can only make the best terms possible — Some of the returned negroes say the Yankee soldiers robbed them of money, watches, and all valuables.

Saturday night, May 6.

I was laid up at home sick all day till six o'clock in the evening. Feeling better then. I walked down street. It was reported during the day that a Federal force was coming up the Valley, but not believed till the stage arrived, when we learned that the Yankees would be at Harrisonburg to-night. It is said that the force consists of infantry, artillery and cavalry. The object is supposed to be to garrison Staunton. With the exception of farmers our people generally are idle with no means of making a living. I can find nothing to do. I have not physical strength to labor for a support, and the war has destroyed at least half of the little wealth I had. Oh, to live nearer to God!

Sunday night, May 7.

This morning we hoped that the report of a Federal force coming was untrue, as it was vouched for by no authority; but in the afternoon A. D. Trotter arrived from Winchester, and put the matter at rest. He says a brigade of infantry and cavalry are on the way, and will be here to-morrow, or next day. Their wagon train is three miles long. They are said to have thirty days rations. No one can tell the object of the movement. It is doubtless to let us feel the force of Federal power. William Smith, our fugitive Governor, is in town to-night, and has sent round notice that he would deliver an address at the American Hotel — Don't know what he is after. Reported that Roper has been captured in Hanover. Mr. Baker came to me to-day — said he understood the Yankees would allow no one to preach unless he took the oath of allegiance; that he did not preach for his own benefit, and, if conscience should not be involved in it, he would take the oath or not, as the congregation might decide for him. Jacob having gone off with the Yankees, I acted as Sexton to-day — Poor fool! he is nearly blind, and cannot support himself.

Monday night, May 8.

The County Meeting came off to-day, in pursuance of the notice, and was largely attended. Several persons came down from Lexington to see about matters, but did not remain to the meeting. Gov. Smith approved of the meeting. He had previously sent a committee to Washington to inquire if overtures would be received from the State authorities. I understand he returned to Lexington this morning. He goes armed with a brace of pistols, and his servant carries a gun or two. The meeting adopted resolutions declaring that the contest is ended, that a State Convention should be held, +c. +c. A committee was appointed to proceed to Richmond to ascertain whether the Federal military authorities will permit a Convention to be elected and to assemble. I doubt if the military will do anything more than snub our Committee. The Yankees had passed Harrisonburg this morning, and I presume they are near Staunton now. The Washington Executive has offered a reward of $100,000 for the arrest of President Davis, and $25,000 cash for Geo. Saunders, Beverly Tucker, and others, all of whom they charge as being implicated in the assassination of Lincoln. It is reported that the notorious Brownlow charges in his paper that President Andrew Johnson was accessory to the murder.

Tuesday night, May 9.

The Yankees entered town this morning. First came three or four scouts, next the cavalry — three regiments — and then the infantry, three regiments. Gen. Duval commands. Their principal camp is on the Parkensburg road near town. Most of their wagons are in the meadow, near the Gas Works. Their ambulances and a few wagons are in the meadow, blow the stone wall, near the RR Depot. — The Quartermasters and Commissaries use the buildings formerly occupied by the confederate Officials. Head Quarters are at the Virginia Hotel. As the first infantry regiment marched in, the band played "Hail Columbia" — showing that the wretches have not the instincts of gentlemen. I went down street after dinner, and walked round to see what was going on, with less feeling than I anticipated. The private soldiers seem good- natured enough, but they are a low order of men, much inferior to our men, who have always whipped them when not outnumbered more than three to one. The officers are a sp[illeg.], dapper-looking set. They have about one hundred and fifty (150) wagons, and supplies for 30 days. We have not learned what they came for. Some of them say, we are to vote whether we will belong to East or West Virginia. Roper is in town, having been paroled in Richmond. He was drinking with Yankees to-day, and giving them his autograph. I felt sad and humiliated to hear of his walking through the streets drunk this evening. John Hendren arrived this evening. Tom Calhoun has been heard from — He is at City Point, and is doing well.

Wednesday night, May 10.

The Committee appointed by the County meeting on Monday, called upon Gen. Duval this morning. He was extremely civil, said the only orders he had were to restore order by suppressing guerilla parties, and to parole our soldiers. He had no instructions in regard to civil government. The Yankee gentlemen no doubt think it strange they are not invited to partake of our hospitalities. They have not sensibility enough to understand our feelings. Many of these creatures were in Staunton with Hunter last June. They have infested the streets like the plague of Egypt, but are generally well behaved, and, to all appearances, totally unconscious of any difference between us and them. It is reported that Col. Reid said he had come to Staunton on a peaceful mission, and the only persons who offered him hospitality, were a stage driver and the family of a German Jew. I have been sick, sick all day.

Friday night, May 12.

We are tasting the bitterness of a conquered people. The Yankees are evidently trying to worry us, because they are not taken into society. No disrespect is showed to them, but the most cold politeness. They have so little sense and breeding as to expect to be treated as friends. — The officers ride and walk about decked off in shining coats, and evidently desire to attract the attention of the ladies. Gen. Duval is not satisfied with the temper of the people — "they are still defiant." For this reason no doubt, he has resorted to various petty annoyances. A few invitations to dine would probably put matters to right. Yesterday he alleged that several persons had murdered within four miles of Staunton — "Union people" who had recently come back. No body else had heard of it, and I believe the statement utterly false. This morning an officer with a squad of men was going round notifying merchants that they must take the oath of allegiance or shut up shop. It is said there is to be a general search for public property. Some search has already been made. We all expect to take the oath sooner or later, as there seems to be no alternative. A few persons have taken it. I understand that the Provost Marshall is giving slaves certificates that they are free and at liberty to make contracts with their "late owners" or others for employment. I see nothing before the poor negroes, but distress and ruin. Many of them, deluded with the idea of freedom, will give up comfortable homes and go out to suffer and die. Our servants have so far been faithful and contented. Yesterday and to-day the private soldiers have not been in town so much as before, but were Kept in camp. Mary Stuart and several other girls were here to-night, and Mr. Stuart came up a little before ten o'clock to say it was time to go home, as no one is allowed to be on the street after that hour. Jimmy Tate started to walk home with Agnes Atkinson, and one of the sentinels on the street warned them to hurry up, as it was nearly ten. At the urgent request of Mr. S. and the girls he returned immediately. It is hard to hear this. This morning a Yankee soldier was found dead near town, but strange to say the "rebels" are not charged with killing him. Yesterday a body of four of five hundred cavalry came in from Charlottesville, to open an office for parolling, not knowing that any troops were here. They returned this morning. We hear that the Yankees at Winchester have the negro men who lately went off from this place, working on the streets, guarded by soldiers, and that the women are begging from door to door.

Sunday night, May 14.

The greater part of the day passed off quietly and without anything disagreeable occurring. This morning, I gave Philip, Selena's husband, a long talk about the condition of the negroes, that he might repeat it to Selena and Jenny. Contrary to expectation there was not a Yankee at Church, either at morning or afternoon preaching. In the afternoon a Yankee Chaplain preached to the negroes in the Methodist Church, proclaiming to them that they were free, but taking good care to advise them to remain where they are. With all their pretended love for the negroes, they do not want them amongst themselves. It is inhuman and infamous to make such proclamations to a set of creatures who are like children in some respects, and barbarians in others. As well throw around firebrands among tinder. The whole social fabrick will be destroyed, and the negroes be the chief sufferers. That a great change has taken place and will ultimately be consummated in the institutions of slavery; no one doubts; but laws must be enacted to regulate the new state of affairs, and the negroes, in the mean while, kept under some control, or universal ruin will result. This, however, is probably what the Yankee nation desires to accomplish — destroy us and the negroes together. — [deleted: I never liked slavery, as these pages attest, and would gladly have given it up at any moment, if I had seen any humane mode of providing for the negro population. May God, in his mercy, order for us. — All we can do is look to him.] Having occasion to go down street late this evening, the throngs of blue coats everywhere, depressed my spirits no little. We are a conquered people, in the hands of a powerful and imbittered majority, who have never exhibited a spark of magnanimity towards us. I heard on the street that President Johnson had issued a proclamation declaring the property of all aiders and abettors of the "rebellion" confiscated, (this sweeps nearly all the property in the Southern States), declaring all public offices vacant, and setting aside all sales made since 1860. Pierpoint is recognized as Governor of Virginia, of course. Yet all this is not very different from my anticipations — See diary during the Winter of 1860 + 61. Many servants have left their homes, to set up as free people. Some have behaved very insolently. Tate starts to Richmond to-morrow with the county committee to see if anything can be done to settle our affairs. We hear that a great many persons have been arrested on account of Lincoln's assassination. The Yankees are managing it as if it were a monkey show. Everything is done for effect. There is but one man in the whole country who had any motive for killing Lincoln. — Certainly the Southern people have derived no advantage from his death. I never regarded him as our greatest enemy, and we, above all others, have cause to lament his taking off. (A Yankee chaplain was at Church this morning. He declined an invitation to go forward to a pew, but sat on a cushion, on the floor, near the door. His name is Little, who was about here some years ago as a singing master.)

Monday night, May 15.

Not having been at Sister's or Alick's for several days, I went down this morning, although I felt like staying where I would not have to meet or see the hated Yankee soldiers. Being down street I found some business which took me to the Quartermaster's (Yankee) office, and I was brought in contact with a half dozen or more officers and soldiers. They behaved so much like other people — all of them polite, and most even friendly — that my antipathy was overcome for the time. It is difficult to realize that some of these men were here last Summer, plundering and insulting our people. A sentinel has been promenading before Trout's house to-day, because the Yankees allege that the girls made mouths or hissed at the band as they entered town a week ago! The girls deny the charge, but what if they did, could that hurt the United States? Such petty doings are characteristic of the Yankee.

Tuesday night, May 16.

This morning John Hill came in with a horse to take Va and me to Legh's. I borrowed Alick's buggy. We learned at Legh's that Polly, John Hill's wife, had taken it into her head to come off to town yesterday and set up as free. She went home, however, at night, and was there to-day, attending to her work. John seemed really troubled about her behaving so. All the negroes who leave their homes went to set up housekeeping in town. John said as he was passing the Yankee pickets on his way home this morning, they asked him who has master was. — He replied, "Mr. Legh Waddell." One soldier said, "No you have no master." "Yes," said John, "I have till he gives me a paper stating that I am free." "Oh," said one, "You are free," and had better go to the office and get free papers." "Free!" said John, "to do what? To stand on the streets in town and do nothing?" "Well, old man," the Yankee replied, "I believe you are right." Many persons in town have been making what money than can out of the Yankee soldiers. Adeline thought she would try her hand. She had some pies made and sent Betty, the negro girl to sell them. In due time, Betty returned, greatly elated with her success — she had a handful of notes. Upon examination it turned out that the papers for which she had exchanged her pies, were bottle labels, advertising cards +c, without a cent of money among them. During the day some Yankees, riding by the house, stopped and inquired if they had any pies for sale! It is not impossible that Betty had told very freely where she lived. The affair is so ludicrous that we have to laugh at it, but it is hard to be cheated as well as subjugated by the Yankees. Citizens were notified to-day that they must not assemble in crowds on the streets. While in the country, I longed to stay where I should not see a blue coat, nor hear the music of Yankee bands. It's a ding-dong and a screech all day. The County Committee did not go to Richmond on Monday, but expect to start to- morrow. (Adeline says the pies were Betty's)

Thursday, May 18.

Wright started this morning to take the cow to pasture, but came back saying that the pickets would let no one go out of town, as Gen. Duval had been shot at last night. Jimmy Tate went down street after breakfast, but soon returned, the guards allowing no one to walk about. He said Duval was spending the evening with Mrs. Hirsh, and they said some one fired into the room. I did not believe a word of it, + feeling satisfied that it was either the gun of a Yankee soldier that had gone off accidentally, or that the affair was a Yankee trick resorted to as a pretext for some arbitrary measure. I went into the garden to weed the onions, and Va came out where I was. While we were there Kitty called to say that the guard was searching houses in our neighborhood. Va went in the house, and I proceeded with my work. After a while I looked up, and saw a Yankee soldier passing from the kitchen to the house. Upon coming to the house, I found three or four officers and a half dozen men searching everywhere for arms. They were all over the house, but I could have secreted a hundred pistols, if I had [deleted: wished] owned them, so that they could not have been found. Jimmy had delivered up our only weapon, a little shot gun, more of a toy than anything else, which had lain in a closet for years, till it was quite rusty. Some years ago I put a little powder in it, and a cap on it, but it has never fired off since it has been in my possession. Yet this weapon too formidable to be left in rebel hands — it might shoot Gen. Duval, or hurt the United States in some way — and the soldiers of a mighty nation bore it off triumphantly. They were kind enough to label the gun with my name and leave a memorandum with us, so that I might recover the property hereafter — upon what conditions, I did not learn. I think, however, of presenting it to the United States. I hope it will be taken to Washington city, and deposited in the national museum, as a specimen of the murderous implements used by rebels for the purposes of assassination. There is not a sparrow in the fields that would not laugh to see it pointed at him. When things had quieted down, Sister and Adeline came up to make a visit. Mr. Stuart and Sister were on their front porch when the gun was fired last night, and Mary Stuart was in Capt. Smith's porch. They all say it was the gun of a Yankee soldier in the street. The subservient Mrs. Hirsh shows a little puncture in the wall of her room, where the ball struck! No body, however, has seen the ball. What a flaming report will appear in Northern papers of the audacious attempt to slay the distinguished Gen. Duval! What proof the attempt affords of the "defiant" spirit of our people! This spirit must, of course, be crushed out, if a garrison has to be maintained here till dooms day. If the object had been to provoke the people to some act of indiscretion and violence, a better course could not have been pursued. No body contemplated resistance to the authority of the United States, and nothing is necessary for the entire pacification of the country but the withdrawal of the troops. As long as they remain in a community, there will be collisions and jealousies. The soldiers couldnot allow the negroes who are contentedly attending to their business, to pass them, without seeking to lead them stray. [deleted: Witness the conversation with John Hill.] Since Satan tempted our first parents in the garden of Eden, there has been nothing equal to it. They have been tossing the negroes in blankets at their camp, and it is reported that one was killed and buried yesterday. There is a report that Ex-President Davis has been captured in Georgia.

20 mins to 11 o'clock. — Heard a gun just now — Am anxious to know what it means. The Yankees have kept the town surrounded all day, allowing no one to go out or come in. Legh no doubt wonders what is going on. Mr. Stuart and Sister took supper with us this evening. We had genuine coffee. I did not go down street during the day. Found much entertainment in weeding my onions, but the work was very fatiguing. Mr. Stuart says the Yankees have one of their negroes under arrest, charged with shooting at the Gen. last night.

Friday night, May 19.

I had a conversation this morning with the Yankee Quartermaster, a Capt. Farnsworth, about the shooting affair. He professed to believe that citizens were implicated in an attempt to kill Duval, and said it was fortunate for us it did not succeed, as the town would have been laid in ashes! His whole talk was ridiculous, and I left him with a feeling of ineffable contempt. Some of the Yankee soldiers are N. W. Virginians, and they say the shooting was done by some of their own men. I still do not believe that a ball was fired into the house. It is reported that some of the soldiers have mutinied, charging that the officers are keeping them in service in order to draw pay themselves. The Yankees have taken charge of the deaf + dumb and the blind, and have concert for them to-night, at the Institution, late Army Hospital. No one is now allowed to go to the country, unless he has taken the oath of allegiance. One or two new stores have been opened in town, by sutlers and others.

The report of President Davis' capture is repeated — I am grieved to say. Another mutiny of citizens, with a view to organizing civil government, is called, for to-morrow. It seems to be in opposition to the former meeting, and I presume the leaders aspire to be "Union men" par excellence, although some of them were secessionists long before the mass of our people. They are unprincipled cravens.

Saturday night, May 20.

The meeting was held to-day in the Court house, Gen. Duval graciously permitting the people to enter. I was attracted by curiosity, as doubtless were many others. D. Fultz was holding forth when I arrived. This speech was a puerile, miserable affair, for the benefit of the Yankee officers who were present. R. G. Bickle presided. He and F. got up the meeting for their own peculiar benefit, although the former was a zealous secessionist long before most of us gave into the movement. F. has the merit of having been a consistent Union man all the time. — While Yankee raiders were plundering him, he was abusing the secessionists. F. proposed resolutions, not materially differing from those adopted at the former meeting, which were carried after some opposition. Resolutions were also adopted thanking Duval and his command for the protection afforded by them, and denouncing the horrible, vile, wicked, wretched fiend who had attempted to assassinate the General. Fultz, Bickle and Peck were appointed a committee to go to Richmond and confer with "Governor Pierpont." All opposition to the other committee was disclaimed, but F. had not the art to conceal that he was hostile to it. Never have I seen a more disreputable affair. Some of the men who united in calling the meeting are already ashamed of it, and see that they were made tools of. F. and B. wanted to go to Richmond, and got up this sham — it was a mere sham of a county meeting. — The idea of men who could not enter the house without the permission of Yankee soldiers — we were all kept out of the yard yesterday — acting the farce of a free popular meeting, when any word uttered not entirely tasteful to our military rulers would send the speaker to the guard house! Shame on them, now and forever! Yesterday no one was allowed to leave town unless he had taken the oath of allegiance — all restriction was removed to-day. But no one is permitted to be on the streets after 8 o'clock, P. M. J. Parent called for Alick last night to see his wife who had dislocated her jaw bone — An officer accompanied P. and also escorted Alick home. The town council have offered a reward of $1000 for the apprehension of the assassin, provided he shall prove to be a citizen of the town. Ridiculous! Many of the Yankees, especially the N. W. Virginians, declare that if Duval was shot at, it was by one of his own men. — Legh told me this evening that he had seen a Methodist Yankee chaplain browbeating Albert Garber. He was applying for the Episcopal Church, to preach to the soldiers in. Garber said it was not their custom to allow their churches to other denominations. The Yankee replied, "Why, you are no better than other people — I have the power to take your church, and if you lock the doors, I can break them down."

Sunday, May 21.

I went to Sunday School this morning, and heard there that Ex- Governor Letcher was brought to town last night, a regiment of cavalry having been sent to Lexington, to arrest him. He was taken on to Washington this morning. A reward has been offered for the arrest of Ex-Gov. Smith. As Judge Thompson got home during the night, I called to see him. He looks badly. Has nothing of special interest to tell, although he was in Richmond ten days. At 11 o'clock I went down to church, Legh was standing under one of the trees, and came to meet me saying that a Chaplain to one of the Federal regiments was in the pulpit. Mr. Wayt and J. F. Patterson escorted him up. I returned home, and await a report of proceedings with anxiety. Have tried to commit this matter to God, asking Him to prevent any unpleasant occurrence, and to guide us all.

Night. Va and Kate reported, on their return from church this morning, that Mr. Baker preached, and gave notice that "the Rev. Mr. Collier," Chaplain, would preach in the Baptist Church to-night. The Chaplain sat in the pulpit, but did not officiate. I felt thankful that everything had passed off quietly. Meeting Mr. Baker after evening service, he gave me an account of the affair. The tragedy I anticipated, turned out something of a farce. I imagined this morning that the chaplains had usurped the pulpit, before Mr. Baker's arrival, and intended to preach by force of arms. — The truth was, that a notice of preaching at the MethodistChurch, by Mr. C. was handed to Mr. Baker through J. F. Patterson, and another notice of preaching by Mr. C. at the same hour, but at the Baptist church, was handed up by Mr. Wayt. Mr. Baker was considering the discrepancy, when it seems to have occurred to the Chaplain who, I presume, spoke to Wayt and Patterson about it. The latter in their embarrassment, blundered up the pulpit with the chaplain to set the matter right. Mr. Baker invited the Chaplain to take a seat, and this was the whole affair. The preacher must be an ignorant and uncouth fanatic. His talk with Garber prepared me for anything from him. I think it likely that the Yankee officers make a butt of him. It is reported that he was in a rage this afternoon. Some of the officers asked him if he had preached to- day, and he replied, No, he had been at a church where they asked him to neither preach, pray nor sing. He did sing, however, out of the same book with Mr. Baker.

The military authorities have undertaken to turn out of office the Superintendent and physicians of the Lunatic Asylum. Very likely they will attempt "to run the churches" next.

Monday night, May 22.

Many persons in town to-day, as the Yankee Quartermaster had a great sale of Confederate property collected up by him — horses, mules, wagons +c. The people were allowed to go as well as come without passes. The property sold wonderfully high, considering the scarcity of money. For some nights past — since the shooting — no one has been allowed to go out after 8 o'clock, P.M. I presume the restriction has been withdrawn, as one or more church bells ran to-night. The report that the Yankees had ousted the officers of the Lunatic Asylum and D. + D. + B. Institution is untrue. Baldwin has telegraphed to Stuart to go to Richmond, and he goes in the morning. Pierpont is recognized by the Washington authorities as the legitimate Governor of Virginia, and we are uncertain what policy he will pursue. We are apprehensive that no one will be allowed to vote or hold office unless he purges himself by oath of all sympathies with the "rebellion," and that then the government will be thrown into the hands of the lowest rabble. There will doubtless be many to swear they never did sympathize. It is enough to disgust one with human nature. History is ever repeating itself, and human nature is ever the same — See No. 629 of the Spectator. The applications for office upon the restoration of the monarchy in the person of Charles II, was not more disgusting than they are now. Many negroes in town to-day, especially women. Legh gave one of them a clap in the face yesterday for some insolence. The Yankees made a great display of flags through main street this evening, returning from an exhibition at the Institution. The whole of them are cut out for showmen. Barnum is the representative man of the race. They have caught President Davis and several "rebel" Governors, and are hunting down the rest. They no doubt anticipate a big show at Washington, to which an admiring world will be invited. This morning I went down with Capt. W. L. Clarke — and — took the oath of allegiance! Most of the citizens had already taken it, and I was advised by my friends to go through. There is no alternative for us. Gen. Lee advises it, and so does Roper. It pains me to see Judge Thompson so cowed. He looks badly and seems ready for any humiliation.

Tuesday night, May 23.

Yesterday evening it was reported that the Yankees would leave town, and this part of the country, in a few days. This morning we learned, however, that their wagons were to go to Winchester for thirty days rations, after which, the Railroad being then repaired, supplies could come by way of Richmond. New orders, it seems, were received last night. We feel almost in despair. The state of things is bad enough here, but what must it be in Eastern Virginia, where there are so many more slaves! The negroes generally have quit work, it is said.

Friday night, May 26.

A wagon train and one of the Yankee regiments started to Winchester yesterday morning. Everything quiet about town for the last two days. I worked in the garden nearly all day yesterday. The rain kept me in doors to-day. A letter from Tate yesterday, and another to-day. Nothing of special interest in Richmond, except that Judge Campbell, formerly of the Supreme Court of the U. S., and latterly Assistant Secretary of War C. S. has been arrested on the charge of being an accomplice in the assassination of Lincoln. Absurd! The Yankees do not believe it, but the charge is a part of their paltry attempt to degrade us in the eyes of the world. Pierpont was to arrive in Richmond yesterday. Stuart when down yesterday, and the Committee of meeting No. 2 went at the same time. Gov. Smith was going to Richmond, through Buckingham, at last accounts, of his own accord.

Monday night, May 29.

Things seem to be getting worse for us. Yesterday morning U. S. flags were hung at several street corners, so that persons going to the Episcopal Church should have to pass under them; and a small paper flag was suspended over the church gate. Some persons, young ladies, rendered themselves ridiculous by walking in the middle of the street. If U. S. officers are small enough to do such things, other people should have sense enough not to regard them. This morning a small flag was found posted to the portico of A. F. Kinney's house, where Gen. Long, late of the C. S. A., boards. And Kinney, who first discovered the flag, pulled it down, for which act of treason he was arrested and threatened with banishment to a Northern prison! A larger flag was then put up at Kinney's gate. Thus every effort is made to humiliate us. I learn that a string of flags was suspended to-day across Main Street, opposite from Kinney's house; but all of them were taken down this evening. The Yankee gentlemen here are indignant that they are not taken into society, and are venting their spleen in every petty way. They imagine that every lady they meet insults them. We hear that in Richmond, Charlottesville +c. the citizens are treated in a very different manner. Chaplain Collier applied for our Church to preach in, at 2 o'clock yesterday, to the soldiers, and we let him have it. Very few citizens attended. The performance of Chaplains Collier and Little, who seem to go in pairs, was from all accounts very silly. The latter was singing-teacher hereabouts, some years ago. An election was held in Frederick last week, for county officers, under the Pierpont government. The State Constitution under which Pierpont is acting, was made at Alexandria by sixteen men, and has never been submitted to the vote of any part of the people. It prescribes an oath which persons must take before voting, that the party has not given "aid and comfort" to the rebellion since January 1, 1864. Many persons in Winchester took this oath, but the Commissioners of Election had further tests to apply. — Persons were asked if they were glad or sorry when Gen. Lee surrendered, and if they said, Sorry, they were not allowed to vote. The consequence was that the right of suffrage was denied to all except eight (8) men. Stuart and Baldwin, as well as Tate, write encouragingly from Richmond, but we have not heard from them since they had an interview with Pierpont. A military force has gone to Lexington. I was very sick the greater part of the day.

Tuesday night, May 30.\

Legh's negro boy Edward has gone off to Winchester with the Yankees. From present appearances, the Pierpont Constitution, formed at Alexandria by sixteen men, and never voted for (or against, either, for that matter) by any body else, is to be thrust upon us by Federal bayonets. The Federal Constitution guarantees to every State a Republican government, and this is the Yankee interpretation of the clause. The Pierpont Constitution wipes out slavery, now and forever, if the instrument lasts so long. It makes no provision for young children, nor for aged and infirm negroes — but sets them free! — free to perish! This is philanthropy with a vengeance. Alas, for the poor negro! His truest, best friend has always been the intelligent, Christian slave-holder of the South. — Ruthlessly taken from such guardianship, tempted and deluded with the pretended boon of freedom, seduced from home and friends, the negroes go out to suffer and die. It is preposterous to imagine that the master, in a majority of cases, can maintain the aged and young slaves, when deserted by all the able-bodied. This sham Constitution does not require him to do it — no law can accomplish an impossibility — and these helpless classes, in many cases, have no relations who can be charged by law with their support. What is to become of them? And the whole negro population set free — brought into collision with free white labor — how can it bear up in the struggle! They go forth like Cain, with every man's hand against them — no friend, no protector, an inferior race, to be trampled upon and finally exterminated. The next twenty years will witness scenes at which humanity will shudder, and in fifty years the negro will disappear from the continent — Killed by the Kindness of Northern philanthropy. Never an advocate of slavery in itself, always earnestly longing for universal emancipation when it could be effected humanely or when the slave could be suitably provided for — and hoping that God would bring it about in some way, I stand appalled at this wholesale cruelty. Gen. Duval is going ahead with his flags. They are everywhere on the streets. He seems to be trying to entrap the people into some imprudence. Before the war he kept a little country store — it is doubtless a fine thing for him to be a Brig. Gen. And he wants to keep it as long as possible. — Unless he reports that this community is "defiant," he may be ordered off, and his command disbanded. I forgot to mention that Legh's woman Polly came to town several days ago and took lodgings in Irish alley. Poor fool! She is not smart, and is subject to fits. Legh bought her as an act of charity to her husband, John Hill, some years ago. Now she is all agog about being free. Since his marriage, Legh has been kept poor by raising a family of young negroes, and as they got old enough to render some service, they leave, one after another. Jim went first, and then Edward; John will probably go soon. Polly is no loss. John Hill is running about after that ignorant Yankee chaplain, Collier, and even he is in danger of being carried off by the same contagion.

Wednesday night, May 31.

The County Committee No. 1, expect Stuart, returned from Richmond last night. Tate has a great deal to tell, but it does not amount to much. Pierpont so far insists upon his Constitution with its provision restricting the right of suffrage to persons who can purge themselves of aiding and abetting the rebellion. Tate, and Baldwin also, is hopeful, however, that as one county Committees from different counties are going to Richmond all with the same tale, that the whole people nearly will be disfranchised, Pierpont will ultimately relax. Lelia Stuart saw a fig to-day for the first time. So far as she knows.

June 1865

Thursday night, June 1.

Gen. Duval's flags are spreading themselves. — Another string of them is stretched across Augusta Street, near Main. The General says the flags are not put up by his order, but being up he requires that they be treated with respect. — Sensible man, that — and highly patriotic. He sees no impropriety in his soldiers intruding upon private property, contrary to his general order — if they only go to stick up flags for the purpose of taunting rebels. Most of our people feel highly amused at the puerile exhibition. Addy ran home to-day, highly excited, saying there were a great many hankerchiefs for sale at the new store, by the pump, like little flags. He went to the store to inquire the price of the hankerchiefs. A Confederate soldier passing under the line, was asked by the Yankees at the guardhouse nearby, how he liked to walk under the flag. — He replied that he had walked over it so often it had ceased to effect him. The Provost Marshal returned to Mr. Craig a negro girl to-day that had gone off from home, notwithstanding Chaplain Collier appeared as her advocate. Yesterday and to-day the Yankees had the stray negro men at work on the streets. Legh tells me that John Hill declares he has no intention of going off with his wife. Little John, too, Legh thinks, intends to remain at home. Legh milks the cows now.

Friday night, June 2.

The last "agony" from Washington appeared this morning — President Johnson's Proclamation of Pardon to rebels on certain conditions. An oath of allegiance to the U. S. is prescribed, and also an oath to support all acts of Congress and Executive Proclamations for emancipating the slaves. There are so many Proclamations and oaths of one sort and another that it's hard to keep the run of them. For the information of posterity I beg leave to explain that there is, 1st, Lincoln's "Amnesty Oath," as it is called, viz: an oath of allegiance coupled with one to support the emancipation acts and proclamations, until the latter shall be modified, or declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. This oath has been administered everywhere by the military authorities, except for Staunton. Why it has not been administered here we are not informed. It professes to restore the swearer to all of his civil and political rights, and to wipe out all taint of treason. The oath administered at Staunton is the 2nd in order. Stript of some of its Yankeeisms, which have no special meaning, it is merely an oath of allegiance without a word of slavery. Lastly comes the Johnson oath of amnesty, which, as I have said, binds the applicant to go for everything that Lincoln and the Yankee Congress have done to abolish slavery, through thick and thin, now and hereafter, notwithstanding Congress and the President may recall every word of it, and whether Constitutional or unconstitutional! Certain persons are excluded from taking this oath, or at least from its benefits, viz: all military officers above the rank of Colonel, all Naval officers above the rank of Lieutenant, all civil officers of the "pretended" or "so called" Confederate States, all persons worth more than $20,000, +c, +c. Persons belonging to these classes must file petitions to his Excellency for pardon, and he promises to grant it liberally. In the mean while, however, they will be excluded from all participation in the government. But in Virginia, Gov. Pierpont's Constitution requires in addition that no one shall vote unless he swears that he has given no "aid and comfort" to those engaged in the rebellion for the last two years. Two questions arise: first whether those who have taken Lincoln's oath can now be deprived of its benefits, and, secondly, whether the terms of the parole granted to Gen. Lee's army, and all others which have surrendered (now the whole C. S. force) does not protect the men from civil prosecution. My opinion is not clear upon either point. But it seems to me preposterous for Pierpont to prescribe different terms from those offered by the United States when any offense committed was against the latter, and not against the State of Virginia. Northern papers say that Ex-Pres. Davis, being refractory, has been put in irons. I almost sicken at it, although Davis' course latterly was not calculated to inspire confidence and respect. His action in regard to substitutes +c, +c destroyed all confidence in the good-faith of the Government, and hastened the catastrophe. His removal of Johnston from the command in Georgia was another great blunder.

Sunday night, June 4.

A pleasant Sabbath, for which I thank God. How different in some respects from this day a year ago! Then we were anxious about the approach of Hunter's army. — We heard Saturday evening, June 4, 1864, that Hunter had moved down North River, from Mt. Crawford, and that the Confederate force under Gen. Jones, including hundreds of our county people, my brother Legh among them, was moving towards Mt. Meridian, to keep in front of the enemy. We were extremely solicitous about the result, and busy with arrangements for leaving home (that is most men in military